Berlinghiero: (active by 1228, died by 1236). This painting is of exceptional beauty and importance and is one of only two that can be confidently assigned to him. Berlinghiero was always open to Byzantine influence, and this Madonna is of the Byzantine type in which the Madonna points to the Child as the way to salvation.
Toward the latter part of the Middle Ages, music consisted of two or more melodic lines that were heard simultaneously, called polyphony (music consisting of several (two or more) melodic lines, each having individual significance and independence). This appeared around the 1200s. Polyphony was more difficult to compose than the monophonic chant, because a composer had to combine multiple melodic lines in a way that would be pleasing to the listener. Most of the Medieval polyphonic music was anonymous, as the names of composers were never written down. However, there are a few exceptions, as some composers had works so important that their names were preserved along with their music.