1864: The Army persuaded a group of Cheyenne to stop raiding farms and return to their Colorado reservation.
Then army troops attacked, killing about 150 people, and burned the camp.
Congress condemned the actions but did not punish the commander.
Battle of the Little Bighorn
The Sioux responded to government relocation by joining other tribes near the Little Bighorn River.
Led by Sitting Bull, they slaughtered General Armstrong Custer’s smaller U.S. force.
Wounded Knee Massacre
Army troops captured Sitting Bull’s followers and took them to a camp at Wounded Knee Creek.
Fighting began, and the soldiers slaughtered 300 Native American men, women, and children.
The massacre shocked Americans and broke Native American resistance.
Resistance Fades into Reservation Life
In 1877, while the Nez Percé were relocated to a smaller reservation in Idaho, some killed white settlers on the way, they fled with their leader, Chief Joseph, to Canada where they were captured.
In the Southwest, the Apache were moved to a reservation in Arizona, but their leader, Geronimo, fled the reservation and led raids on the Arizona-Mexico border for years, until they were captured in 1886.
In creating the reservations, the U.S. wanted to Americanize the Native Americans, or make them abandon their traditional culture in favor of white American culture.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs managed reservations, set up public schools often far from children’s homes, and forced them to speak English.
The Dawes Act (1887) broke up some reservations and divided the land for people, but the best land was usually sold to white settlers.
Most miners were men, but some families and single women also came.
Mining camps were usually just groups of tents and shacks.
Some camps grew into towns with stores and businesses.
As more families arrived, churches, schools, and newspapers sprang up.
Some camps grew into major cities such as Denver, Colorado.
Mining as a Business
At first individual prospectors worked mines with hand tools.
When surface deposits ran out, large companies moved in to prospect with machinery.
At that point, most miners went to work for large companies giving up on striking it rich.
It was dangerous work, and some miners tried to organize unions for better working conditions, but mining companies resisted.
After the California gold rush, each new strike inspired more settlers westward in hopes of finding the next Comstock Lode or Klondike River.
First the Spanish in the 1500s, then the Mexicans, became skilled at raising cattle in harsh conditions. They interbred Spanish and English cattle to breed Texas Longhorns, which were hearty and thrived on the Plains.
The Spanish also brought sheep ranching to the Plains, which grew after the Civil War when demand for wool expanded.
Sheep farmers cattle owners clashed over grazing land and became violent.
Demand for beef grew in the East, so ranchers hired cowboys, usually white teens, for three–months–long cattle drives to railroad towns for shipping.
The Chisholm Trail from San Antonio to Kansas was a major cattle trail.
Ranching as Big Business
The invention of barbed wire helped cattle owners manage large herds.
Between 1882 and 1886 more than 400 cattle corporations sprang up in the West, but fencing led to conflict when land owners who enclosed their land left landless cattle owners with nowhere to graze their cattle.
Farmers on the Great Plains
The Pacific Railway Act gave millions of acres to railroad companies to build tracks and telegraph lines.
The Morrill Act gave the states land to build colleges that taught agriculture and mechanics. This was the first federal government assistance for higher education.
With encouragement from the government, people started pouring onto the Great Plains to build farms.
In 1862 Congress passed three acts to encourage settlement:
The Homestead Act let any head of household over 21 to claim 160 acres of land, as long as they built a home, farmed for five years, and made improvements.
The Oklahoma Land Rush occurred when a lobbyist found 2 million acres of land not assigned to any Native American nation. Despite the government’s ban against settlers’ entry into the Indian Territory, settlers were still able to claim the land.
Farming on the Plains presented challenges because of the harsh climate—bitter cold, wind and snow in the winter, intense heat and drought in the summer.
Many families used wells powered by windmills.
Some settlers learned irrigation from Hispanic and Native American farmers.
Wood for houses was in limited supply.
Settlers used the earth itself to build by digging into the sides of hills or making homes from sod.
Farming was challenging in the hard soil of the Plains.
New machinery like new, sharper-edged plows and combine harvesters helped Plains farmers.
Large companies started giant bonanza farms that were like factories, which profited in good years but were too expensive to survive bad growing years.
Western Migration Ends
Opportunity for land and gold
Farming, ranching, and rail jobs
Native Americans end resistance
As Native Americans lose battles, they are relocated off valuable land
Government allowed settlers into Indian Territory
Traditional Native American ways of life are destroyed.
Mining communities are established.
Ranches are established, and the cattle industry booms.
Farmers settle on the Plains despite challenges.
In 1890 the U.S. Census Bureau issued a report that declared the frontier closed, because there was no new land left to settle.
In 1893 the historian Frederick Jackson Turner wrote an essay stating that the existence of the frontier gave the U.S. a unique history.
Some causes and effects of Western Migration:
The Second Industrial Revolution
The Main Idea
During the late 1800s, new technology and inventions led to the growth of industry, the rise of big business, and revolutions in transportation and communication.
How did industry and railroads lead to the Second Industrial Revolution?
How did entrepreneurs and public attitudes help the rise of big business in the late 1800s?
What conditions prompted workers to organize in the late 1800s?
What advances in transportation and communication were made in the late 1800s?
The Age of Oil and Steel
In the mid-1800s people began to refine oil found on coastal waters and lakes for kerosene lamps.
In 1859 Edwin L. Drake drilled for oil in Pennsylvania, starting the first commercial oil well.
Wildcatters, or oil prospectors, struck oil near Beaumont, Texas, which began the Texas oil boom.
It lasted less than 20 years, but oil remains big business in Texas to this day.
In the 1850s a new method made steel-making faster and cheaper and by 1910 the U.S. was the world’s top steel producer.
Steel helped transform the U.S. into a modern industrial economy.
It was used to make bridges, locomotives, and taller buildings.
Factories used steel machinery to make goods faster.
In the 1850s train tracks crossed the Northeast and reached into the Southeast and the Great Lakes area, but between 1865 and 1890 the number of track miles increased by five times.
The federal government helped by giving land to railroad companies, and cheap steel enabled the railroad to expand.
Congress authorized two companies to build railroads to the West Coast: the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific.
Workers raced for six and a half years to complete the first transcontinental railroad, or a track that crossed the country.
In May 1869 the two rail lines met in the Utah Territory, linking east and west. Throughout the country railroads expanded into a vast network.
The railroads promoted trade, created jobs, and helped western settlement.
Railroads also led to the adoption of standard time, because rail schedules could not accurately depend on the sun’s position, as most people did.
The Rise of Big Business
Big business grew in the late 1800s when entrepreneurs, or business risk-takers, started businesses within an economic system called capitalism, in which most businesses are privately owned.
Under laissez-faire capitalism, which is French for “leave alone,” companies operated without government interference.
There were inequalities under capitalism, but many believed that Charles Darwin’s theory of social Darwinism, or survival of the fittest, explained how business was like nature: only the strongest survived.
A new type of business organization developed called the corporation, which was owned by people who bought stock, or shares, in a company, was led by a board of directors and run by corporate officers.
Corporations raised money by selling stock and could exist after their founders left. Stockholders could lose only what they invested.
To gain dominance, some competing corporations formed trusts that led several companies to form as one corporation and dominate an industry.
Mass marketing helped retailers maximize their profits and department stores and mail-order catalogues revolutionized shopping for consumers.
In the competitive, laissez-faire climate of the 1800s, government did not care about workers. Many workers scraped by on less than $500 per year while tycoons got very, very rich.
The government grew worried about the power of corporations, and in 1890 Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, which made it illegal to form trusts that interfered with free trade, though they only enforced the law with a few companies.
Factory workers were mostly Europeans immigrants, children, and rural Americans who came to the city for work.
Workers often worked 12-to-16-hour days, six days a week, in unhealthy conditions without paid vacation, sick leave or compensation for common workplace injuries.
By the late 1800s working conditions were so bad that more workers began to organize, trying to band together to pressure employers into giving better pay and safer workplaces.
The first effective group was the Knights of Labor, which campaigned for eight-hour work days, the end of child labor, and equal pay for equal work in Philadelphia.
Strikes and Setbacks for Workers
The Haymarket Riot in Chicago was a result of a protest against police actions toward strikers. It killed 11 people and injured over 100.
At first, the union preferred boycotts to strikes, but strikes soon became a common tactic.
Some famous strikes include
The Great Railroad Strike was the first major rail strike, which stopped freight trains for almost a week, caused violence, and was put down by the army.
Employers struck back by forcing employees to sign documents saying they wouldn’t join unions and blacklisting troublemakers.
Samuel Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1886, winning wage increases and shorter workweeks.
Unions suffered setbacks when Carnegie employees seized control of a plant and 16 people were killed and when federal troops crushed the American Railway Union strike.
City Growth Spurs Transportation Advances
Horse-drawn passenger vehicles were the earliest mass transit.
By the 1830s horsecars, or streetcars, rolled along street rails.
Cable cars were built in cities with steep hills such as San Francisco.
By 1900 most cities had electric streetcars, or trolleys.
As cities grew, traffic became a serious problem, especially in urban centers such as Boston and New York.
The city of Boston opened the first U.S. subway line in 1897.
The New York subway line opened in 1904.
A German engineer invented the internal combustion engine, and soon inventors tried to use it for a new “horseless carriage.”
In 1893 Charles and Frank Duryea built the first practical American motorcar.
Human beings had dreamt of flying for centuries.
Two American brothers were the first to build a successful airplane.
Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph in 1837, which sent messages instantly over wires using electricity.
Operators tapped out patterns of long and short signals that stood for letters of the alphabet, called Morse Code.
The telegraph grew with the railroads, because train stations had telegraph offices.
Two inventors devised ways to transmit voices by using electricity.
Alexander Graham Bell patented his design first, in 1876.
By 1900 there were more than a million telephones in offices and households across the country.
Many inventors tried to create a writing machine.
Chistopher Latham Sholes, a Milwaukee printer, developed the first practical typewriter in 1867.
He later improved it by designing the keyboard that is still standard for computers today.
Businesses began to hire woman as typists.
Thomas Alva Edison was one of America’s most famous inventors.
In 1876 Edison opened his own research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey, where he hired assistants with scientific and technical expertise to think creatively and work hard.
Edison spent hours testing ideas, and his team soon invented the first phonograph and a telephone transmitter.
Edison was the first to come up with a safe electric light bulb that could light homes and street lamps.
He then undertook a venture to bring an electricity network to New York City, and in 1882 he installed a lighting system powered by his own electric power plants similar to ones that were later built all over the U.S.
Edison and his team later invented a motion picture camera and projector. In all, he held over 1,000 U.S. patents.
Life at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
The Main Idea
A new wave of immigrants came to America in the late 1800s and settled in rapidly changing cities where political corruption was common and minorities faced discrimination.
Who were the new immigrants of the late 1800s, and what challenges did they face?
What was urban life like at the turn of the twentieth century?
How did political scandals lead to reform in the late 1800s?
What types of segregation and discrimination did African Americans and other minorities encounter?
The New Immigrants
Between 1800 and 1880, more than ten million immigrants came to the U.S., mostly from northern and western Europe.
Near the turn of the twentieth century, a diverse new wave of millions of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and Asia came to the U.S. and built tight-knit communities.
Because of severe immigration laws, smaller numbers came from East Asia, but when Japan allowed laborers to go to Hawaii to work on sugar plantations, many moved to the mainland.
By 1910 nearly one out of every seven Americans was foreign-born.
Reasons and Realities
Coming to America
All came for a better life
Jews in particular fled eastern Europe to escape religious persecution.
Southern and eastern Europeans also fled from severe poverty.
In 1892 the government opened an immigration station at Ellis Island in New York Harbor.
Over the years, some 12 million people passed through Ellis Island. Doctors checked them for diseases or disabilities.
After 1910, Asians passed through Angel Island in San Francisco Bay, but many were held like prisoners for weeks.
Prejudice Against Immigrants
Immigrants faced crowding and low pay, but settled near others from their country and started communities and organizations to help themselves.
Some native-born Americans, known as nativists, saw immigrants as a threat to their jobs and safe communities.
On the West Coast, prejudice was directed against Asians; Chinese immigrants were restricted from jobs and neighborhoods, and immigration was halted by Congress through the Chinese Exclusion Act.
The Farmer’s Alliance wanted government to print more paper money, thinking they could charge more for farm goods if more money were circulating.
In 1873 paper money was placed on the gold standard, reducing the amount of money in circulation. Farmers wanted money to be backed by silver.
In the late 1800s crop prices were falling and farmers began to organize into groups to protect themselves financially.
The Order of Patrons of Husbandry, or the National Grange, wanted the state to regulate railroad rates.
The Supreme Court ruled that only the federal government could regulate.
Congress then passed the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, marking the first time federal government regulated industry.
The Farmer’s Alliance started the Populist Party, calling for bank regulation, government-owned railroads and free coinage of silver.
Their stand against powerful interests influenced later politicians.
The 1896 Election
After the election of 1892, a major railroad company failed, triggering the Panic of 1893.
Stock prices fell and millions lost their jobs. President Cleveland blamed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, which required the government to buy silver with paper money redeemable in either gold or silver.
Silver was still an issue in the 1896 election, when Republicans nominated William McKinley, who favored the gold standard and Democrats chose William Jennings Bryan, who defended silver.
Bryan made a dramatic speech saying using the gold standard was like crucifying mankind on a “cross of gold.”
This speech won Bryan Populist support, but terrified business leaders gave money to the Republicans, and McKinley won the election.
After Reconstruction, southern legislatures passed laws that restricted African Americans’ rights, but prejudice existed nationwide.
Some white southerners tried to restrict African Americans’ right to vote by requiring voters to pay a poll tax and pass a literacy test.
Southern legislatures passed the Jim Crow Laws to create and enforce segregation in public places.
One law requiring separate railway cars for African Americans and whites was tested by Homer Plessy, an African American. His case went to the Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson. They upheld segregation, saying “separate but equal” facilities didn’t violate the Fourteenth Amendment.
In addition to legalized discrimination, strict rules governed social and business interactions between black and white Americans.
The worst outcome of discrimination was lynching, or murder by a mob. Nearly 900 African Americans were murdered between 1882 and 1892 by lynch mobs.
Booker T. Washington
Born into slavery
Believed African Americans had to accept segregation for the moment
Believed they could improve their condition by learning farming and vocational skills
Founded the Tuskegee Institute to teach African Americans practical skills