Chapter 4 & 5 Test Multiple Choice



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Chapter 4 & 5 Test
Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. Soil is a mixture of weathered rock, mineral fragments, water, air and ____.

a.

sand

c.

moss

b.

decayed organic matter

d.

clay

____ 2. The layer of soil that contains the most organic material is called the ____ horizon.



a.

A

c.

C

b.

B

d.

D

____ 3. All of the following cause mechanical weathering EXCEPT ____.



a.

ice

c.

burrowing animals

b.

tree roots

d.

carbonic acid

____ 4. Chemical weathering is more rapid in a ____ climate.



a.

warm, dry

c.

cold, dry

b.

warm, wet

d.

cold, wet

____ 5. Mechanical weathering is more rapid in a ____ climate.



a.

dry

c.

cold

b.

hot

d.

humid

____ 6. The organic matter in soil is made of ____.



a.

dead worms

c.

roots

b.

stems

d.

all of the above

____ 7. The rock and mineral fragments in soil come from rock that has been ____.



a.

blasted

c.

weathered

b.

carved

d.

chemically treated

____ 8. The difference between mechanical and chemical weathering is ____.



a.

the length of time each takes to break up a rock

b.

that only chemical weathering involves water

c.

the way they affect the makeup of a rock

d.

all of the above

____ 9. Plants cannot grow without ____.



a.

rocks

c.

moss

b.

soil

d.

pesticides

____ 10. Ice wedging is brought about by ____.



a.

carbonic acid freezing on rocks

c.

water freezing and thawing

b.

water and oxygen reacting

d.

rocks colliding with each other

____ 11. Oxidation occurs when materials containing ____ are exposed to oxygen and water.



a.

iron

c.

kaolinite

b.

carbonic acid

d.

all of the above


____ 12. ____ is a factor that affects soil development.



a.

Time

c.

Type of rock

b.

Slope

d.

all of the above

____ 13. The ____ horizon has smaller rock and mineral particles than the other layers.



a.

A

c.

C

b.

B

d.

D

____ 14. Below the C horizon is ____.



a.

topsoil

c.

clay

b.

rock

d.

humus

____ 15. Mechanical weathering ____.



a.

breaks apart rocks by physical processes

b.

occurs when chemical reactions dissolve or change the minerals in rocks

c.

occurs when iron is exposed to oxygen and water

d.

none of the above

____ 16. Chemical weathering ____.



a.

is caused by freezing and thawing

b.

breaks apart rocks by physical processes

c.

occurs when chemical reactions dissolve or change the minerals in rocks

d.

none of above

____ 17. In areas where freezing and thawing occur frequently, rocks weather rapidly because of the ____ of freezing water.



a.

evaporation

c.

leaching

b.

expansion

d.

oxidation

____ 18. What type of weathering occurs when the extreme temperature from forest fires split rocks?



a.

mechanical

c.

organic

b.

chemical

d.

other

____ 19. Which of the following is caused by weathering?



a.

Brightly painted signs fade.

b.

The climate becomes warmer.

c.

Sea levels rise, flooding coastal communities.

d.

all of the above

____ 20. How long does it take for soil to form?



a.

a few hours

c.

a few years

b.

a few days

d.

thousands of years

____ 21. Which types of particles result from mechanical weathering?



a.

quartz and clay

c.

clay and sand

b.

quartz and sand

d.

sand and iron

____ 22. Why does weathering have a greater effect on soil with more clay than on sandy soil?



a.

Clay particles are larger than sand particles, so they have more surface area.

b.

Clay particles are smaller than sand particles, so they have more surface area.

c.

Clay particles are smaller than sand particles, so they have less surface area.

d.

Clay is drier than sand.


____ 23. Which of the following causes abrasion?



a.

rock fragments tumbling in a stream

c.

wind and waves

b.

glaciers

d.

all of the above

____ 24. Which of these is NOT an example of mechanical weathering?



a.

ice wedging

c.

tree roots cracking rocks

b.

oxidation

d.

animals digging through soil

____ 25. How does the pH of a solution relate to its acidity?



a.

The lower the pH, the higher the acidity.

b.

The lower the pH, the lower the acidity.

c.

The higher the pH, the higher the acidity.

d.

The pH of a solution has nothing to do with the acidity of the solution.

____ 26. Which of the following is a positive result of oxidation?



a.

rust

b.

ores such as bauxite and hematite

c.

more oxygen in the air

d.

less carbon dioxide in the air

____ 27. Why do rocks with more surface area oxidize more quickly?



a.

Oxygen from the air causes the oxidation, so the more surface area the rock has, the more contact the oxygen makes with the material that makes up the rock.

b.

Rocks with more surface area are larger, so they oxidize more quickly.

c.

Rocks with greater surface area also have greater volume. When the oxygen gets inside the rock and fills its volume, oxidation occurs.

d.

Oxygen from the air causes the oxidation, so the more surface area the rock has, the less contact the oxygen makes with the material that makes up the rock.

____ 28. Which of the following occurs more rapidly in climates that are always warm and moist?



a.

mechanical weathering

b.

chemical weathering

c.

soil formation

d.

both b and c

____ 29. Which of the following statements is NOT true?



a.

Mechanical weathering occurs fastest near the equator.

b.

The weakest weathered mineral in a rock determines how quickly the entire rock will weather.

c.

The more holes a rock has, the faster it will weather.

d.

Weathering is slower where the climate is cold year round.

____ 30. What happens during decomposition?



a.

Inorganic materials are broken down to create soil.

b.

Rocks are split into smaller pieces.

c.

Once living material is broken down into dark colored organic material.

d.

Dark colored soil absorbs sunlight.

____ 31. Soil scientists classify soil fragments according to __________.



a.

color

c.

smell

b.

size

d.

weight

____ 32. As the rain and water-filled cracks and other factors begin to break down the rock shown in the picture, it will begin to form soil. What is this rock called?





a.

source rock

c.

core material

b.

parent material

d.

organic

____ 33. What is one way biota effect soil formation?



a.

The steepness of hills effects how much rock matter is carried away in water.

b.

Bacteria aid in the decomposition of organic materials.

c.

The cycle of freezing and thawing allows water in cracks of rock to expand and break apart the rock.

d.

As time passes, weathering is constantly acting on rock and sediment.

____ 34. When you dig a deep hole, you see the color and content of the soil change. What are these layers of change called?




a.

horizons

c.

panoramas

b.

vistas

d.

conglomerations

____ 35. Which statement about soil horizons is true?



a.

The most weathered soil is found in the bottom layer.

b.

The most organic matter is found in the bottom layer

c.

Water moves clay through the B-horizon and becomes parent material.

d.

Weathered parent material can be rock or sediment.

____ 36. How do soil scientists measure soil moisture in the laboratory?



a.

They weigh the soil before and after drying the sample in an oven.

b.

They see how much dampness is picked up by a paper towel.

c.

They see how much more water the soil can hold before it begins to puddle on top of the sample.

d.

They use a thermometer.

____ 37. Soil that is acidic and contains fine ash particles can be found near ____________.



a.

earthquakes

c.

volcanoes

b.

tornadoes

d.

large lakes


____ 38. What percentage of soil is solid material? What is the rest?



a.

About 70% of soil is solid, the rest is water.

b.

About 50% of soil is solid, the rest is water.

c.

About 70% of soil is solid, the rest is liquids and gases.

d.

About 50% of soil is solid, the rest is liquids and gases.

____ 39. The top, organic layer of soil is the ________.



a.

A-horizon

c.

O-horizon

b.

B-horizon

d.

R-horizon

____ 40. Which of these soil properties would you have to measure in place rather than in a laboratory?



a.

color

c.

pH

b.

texture

d.

temperature

____ 41. The variable that changes in an experiment is called the ____.



a.

dependent variable

c.

control

b.

independent variable

d.

constant

____ 42. The variable being measured is the ____.



a.

dependent variable

c.

control

b.

independent variable

d.

constant

____ 43. Scientists use the ____ to measure wind speed.



a.

anemometer

c.

hygrometer

b.

barometer

d.

thermometer

____ 44. When a scientist has tested her hypothesis, the next step in scientific inquiry is to _____.



a.

communicate results

c.

analyze results

b.

hypothesize and predict

d.

draw conclusions

____ 45. Chris wants to study the difference between lava that cools on land and lava that cools in the water. What branch of science is Chris studying?



a.

Earth science

c.

physical science

b.

life science

d.

rock science

____ 46. Which statement is true?



a.

Science is only important to scientists.

b.

People use science in their everyday lives.

c.

Science is very interesting, but not very useful.

d.

Scientists always agree on everything.

____ 47. A scientific theory is _____.



a.

the same as a fact

b.

a rule describing a pattern in nature

c.

accepted as fact until it is proved wrong

d.

an untested idea

____ 48. Which of the following is a scientific law?



a.

Plate tectonics explains the movement of Earth’s crust.

b.

If you drop an object, it will fall to Earth.

c.

Earth is the center of the solar system.

d.

The Sun is the center of the solar system.


____ 49. Which of the following questions can be studied through scientific inquiry?



a.

Is it fair to have more than one best friend?

b.

If someone plays violent video games are they more likely to display violent behavior?

c.

What type of crust makes the best pizza?

d.

Do the colors purple and orange look good together?

____ 50. There is a pond behind Terry’s house. He decides to see how the water temperature changes depending on the depth of the water. Which is the dependent variable?



a.

temperature

c.

both a and b

b.

depth

d.

neither a nor b













Chapter 5 Erosion Test

Essay
1. The two pebbles shown were found during a hike. One pebble is limestone, and the other is quartz. Limestone is softer than quartz. Limestone reacts more readily in acid than quartz does.

Design an experiment to determine which pebble is limestone and which is quartz using both a physical means of weathering and a chemical means. Predict how each mineral will behave in your test.
2. The graph shows the average acidity for various locations in the United States in 2007. The lower the pH value is for a substance, the more acidic that substance is. The location in New York received about twice as much precipitation annually as the location in Illinois.

Is more chemical weathering likely to occur in the New York location or in the Illinois location? Explain your answer
Chapter 4 & 5 Test

Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. ANS: B

Soil is a mixture of weathered rock, rock fragments, decayed organic matter, water, and air.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-4 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
2. ANS: A

A-horizon contains most of the organic matter in the soil, it is usually darker than other horizons.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-5
3. ANS: D

When physical processes naturally break rocks into smaller pieces, mechanical weathering occurs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-1 | 5-2 STA: SC.6.E.6.1
4. ANS: B

Chemical weathering is fastest in warm, wet places.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-3 STA: SC.6.E.6.1
5. ANS: C

Mechanical weathering occurs fastest in locations that have frequent temperature changes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-2 STA: SC.6.E.6.1
6. ANS: D

Organic matter is the remains of something that was once alive.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-5 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
7. ANS: C

Over thousands of years, weathering can break rock into smaller and smaller pieces. These pieces, also known as sediment, are called sand, silt, and clay.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-1 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
8. ANS: C

The chemical makeup of a rock is not changed by mechanical weathering.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-2 | 5-3 STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2
9. ANS: B

Soil is full of life, and life on Earth depends on soil.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-7
10. ANS: C

Repeated freezing and thawing can break rocks apart.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-2 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
11. ANS: A

Iron oxide is a common oxide of Earth materials.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-3 STA: SC.7.E.6.7
12. ANS: D

The five factors of soil formation are parent material, climate, topography, biota, and time.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-4 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
13. ANS: A

The soil you see deeper down is lighter in color and probably contains larger pieces of rock.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-5 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
14. ANS: B

The unweathered, bedrock layer is the R-horizon.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-5 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
15. ANS: A

When physical processes naturally break rocks into smaller pieces, mechanical weathering occurs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-2 STA: SC.6.E.6.1
16. ANS: C

Chemical weathering changes the materials that are part of a rock into new materials.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-3 STA: SC.6.E.6.1
17. ANS: B

Water enters cracks in rocks. When the temperature reaches 0°C, the water freezes. Water expands as it freezes and the expansion widens the crack.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-1 | 5-2 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
18. ANS: A

The heat from the fire causes a sudden expansion of nearby rocks that causes the rocks to crack.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-1 STA: SC.6.E.6.1
19. ANS: A

Weathering fades brightly colored signs, dries out wooden objects, causes shiny cars to become rusty.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson1

OBJ: 5-1 STA: SC.6.E.6.1
20. ANS: D

A 90 year-old person is considered old, but soil is still young after a thousand years.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-4 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
21. ANS: C

Sand and clay are both the result of mechanical weathering.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-2 STA: SC.6.E.6.1
22. ANS: B

The greater total surface area of clay particles means more water sticks to its surfaces, along with any substances the water contains. The increased surface area allows weathering to have more effect.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-4 STA: SC.6.E.6.1
23. ANS: D

Abrasion is the grinding away of rock by friction or impact. Rock fragments in a stream, movement of glaciers, wind and waves all cause abrasion.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-2 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
24. ANS: B

Another process that causes chemical weathering is called oxidation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-2 STA: SC.6.E.6.1
25. ANS: A

Scientists use pH, which is a property of solutions, to find out of a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-6 STA: SC.8.P.8.8
26. ANS: B

Useful ores, such as bauxite and hematite, are oxides of aluminum and iron.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-3 STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2
27. ANS: A

The outside of the rock has the most contact with oxygen in the air. Therefore, this outer part oxidizes the most.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-3 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
28. ANS: B

Chemical weathering is fastest in warm, wet places.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-2 | 5-3 STA: SC.6.E.6.1
29. ANS: A

Mechanical weathering occurs fastest in locations that have frequent temperature fluctuations. This type of weathering requires cycles of either wetting and drying or freezing and thawing.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-1 STA: SC.6.E.6.1
30. ANS: C

Decomposition is the process of changing once-living material into dark-colored organic material.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-4 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
31. ANS: B

Soil scientists classify the soil fragments according to their size. Rock fragments can be boulders, cobbles, gravel, sand, silt, or clay.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-6 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
32. ANS: B

The start material of soil is called parent material.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-5 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
33. ANS: B

Biota is all of the organisms that live in a region.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-7 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
34. ANS: A

Horizons are layers of soil formed from the movement of the products of weathering.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-5 STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2
35. ANS: D

The layer of weathered parent material is called the C-horizon. Parent material can be rock or sediment.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-5 STA: SC.7.E.6.2
36. ANS: A

The amount of water in soil pores is its moisture content. Soil scientists determine weight loss by drying samples in an oven at 100°C.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-6
37. ANS: C

Acid-forming chemicals enter the air from natural sources such as volcanoes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-6 STA: SC.6.E.6.1
38. ANS: D

About half the volume of soil is solid material. The other half is made up of liquids and gases.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-6 STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2
39. ANS: C

The top, organic layer is called the O-layer.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-5 STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2
40. ANS: D

Temperature would change when you remove and transport the soil.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-6
41. ANS: B

The independent variable is the factor that is changed by the investigator to observe how it affects a dependent variable.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 3

OBJ: NOS-7 STA: SC.7.N.1.4
42. ANS: A

The dependent variable is the factor a scientist observes or measures during an experiment.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 3

OBJ: NOS-7 STA: SC.7.N.1.4
43. ANS: A

An anemometer, or wind-speed gauge, is used to measure the speed and the force of wind.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 2

OBJ: NOS-6
44. ANS: C

After a hypothesis is tested, you can analyze your results using various methods. Often, it is hard to see trends or relationships in data while collecting it. Data should be sorted, graphed, or classified in some way.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 1

OBJ: NOS-1 STA: SC.6.N.1.1 | SC.7.N.1.1 | SC.8.N.1.1 | MA.6.S.6.2
45. ANS: A

The study of Earth, including rocks, soils, oceans, the atmosphere, and surface features is Earth science.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 1

OBJ: NOS-1 STA: SC.7.N.1.5
46. ANS: B

People use science in their everyday lives and careers. For example, firefighters wear clothing that has been developed and tested by scientists to withstand extreme temperatures and not catch fire. Parents use science when they set up an aquarium for their children’s pet fish. Athletes use science when they use high-performance gear or wear high-performance clothing.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 1

OBJ: NOS-1
47. ANS: C

A scientific theory is an explanation of observations or events that is based on knowledge gained from many observations and investigations.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 1

OBJ: NOS-2 STA: SC.6.N.3.1
48. ANS: B

Unlike a scientific theory that explains why an event occurs, a scientific law only states that an event will occur under certain circumstances. For example, Newton’s law of gravitational force implies that if you drop an object, it will fall toward Earth. Newton’s law does not explain why the object moves toward Earth when dropped, only that it will.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 1

OBJ: NOS-2 STA: SC.6.N.3.1 | SC.6.N.3.2
49. ANS: B

Scientists recognize that some questions cannot be studied using scientific inquiry. Questions that deal with opinions, beliefs, values, and feelings cannot be answered through scientific investigation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 1

OBJ: NOS-3 STA: SC.6.N.3.1 | SC.6.N.3.2 | MA.6.S.6.2
50. ANS: A

The independent variable is the factor that you want to test. It is changed by the investigator to observe how it affects a dependent variable. The dependent variable is the factor you observe or measure during an experiment. When the independent variable is changed, it causes the dependent variable to change.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 3

OBJ: NOS-7 STA: SC.7.N.1.4 | SC.7.N.1.3
ESSAY
1. ANS:

Sample answer:

First I would rub the pebbles together. Quartz should cause abrasion of (scratch) the limestone. Next, I would place each pebble in a small jar of an acidic liquid. The limestone should react more quickly than the quartz and begin to dissolve. I will observe the pebbles in the liquid for several days if needed to see noticeable chemical weathering. The pebble that reacts more quickly in the acid and that is worn away more quickly is limestone.
Students’ answers should include:

• The student should test how the pebbles physically weather by rubbing them together.

• The limestone should undergo abrasion by the quartz.

• The student should test how the pebbles chemically weather by putting them each in an acidic liquid.

• The limestone should react more quickly in the acid and should show signs of chemical weathering sooner than the quartz.

• The student would need to observe the pebbles in solution for a period of time.

PTS: 1

DIF: Cognitive Complexity: High Complexity | Student Level: Average | Depth of Knowledge 4: Extended Thinking | Bloom's Traditional: Synthesis and Evaluation | Bloom's Revised: Creating



REF: 3a21504a-e685-11de-9c72-001185f0d2ea

OBJ: G6_EC_61000_Weathering STA: SC.6.E.6.1

TOP: Physical Weathering: List examples of physical weathering. | Chemical Weathering: List examples of chemical weathering.

KEY: weathering | physical | chemical | quartz | limestone | design

MSC: Test Generator | Uses visual element | g6_unit2_Unit Test B
2. ANS:

Sample answer:

More chemical weathering is likely to happen in New York than in Illinois. The precipitation in New York was slightly more acidic than the precipitation in the Illinois location. More acidic precipitation weathers rock faster than less acidic precipitation. Also, the rocks will be exposed to more acid precipitation in New York, which will cause them to weather more.
Students’ answers should include:

• More chemical weathering will happen in New York than in Illinois.

• The precipitation in New York is slightly more acidic than in Illinois.

• The more acidic the precipitation, the faster the weathering.

• More precipitation means that the rocks will weather faster because they are exposed to more of the weathering agent.

PTS: 1


DIF: Cognitive Complexity: Medium Complexity | Student Level: Average | Depth of Knowledge 2: Basic Application of Skill | Bloom's Traditional: Application | Bloom's Revised: Applying REF: 3a23b2a5-e685-11de-9c72-001185f0d2ea

OBJ: G6_EC_61000_Weathering STA: SC.6.E.6.1



TOP: Physical Weathering: List examples of physical weathering. | Chemical Weathering: List examples of chemical weathering. KEY: weathering | physical | chemical | human

MSC: Test Generator | Uses visual element | g6_unit2_Unit Test A


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