Chapter 2 Understanding Fitness Principles Multiple Choice



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Chapter 2 Understanding Fitness Principles
Multiple Choice

1. Physical fitness is the ability to

A. perform moderate to vigorous physical activity without undue fatigue.

B. perform motor tasks accurately.

C. maintain equilibrium while moving.

D. perform more successfully in agility sports.

ANS: A

DIF: 1


REF: 32

MSC: Remembering


2. Exercise is a subset of physical activity that is

A. performed only by trained athletes.

B. unstructured.

C. done specifically to achieve or maintain fitness.

D. unplanned.

ANS: C


DIF: 1

REF: 32


MSC: Remembering
3. Stationary cycling at a moderate level would be equivalent to approximately ________ METS.

A. 1


B. 4

C. 7


D. 10

ANS: B


DIF: 3

REF: 32


MSC: Applying
4. The five health-related components of physical fitness are

A. cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, agility, balance, flexibility.

B. muscular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, coordination, body composition.

C. cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition.

D. cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, agility, flexibility.

ANS: C


DIF: 1

REF: 32


MSC: Remembering
5. Muscular strength is defined as the ability of your muscles to

A. exert force.

B. contract repeatedly over time.

C. change body position rapidly.

D. use oxygen to sustain exercise.

ANS: A


DIF: 1

REF: 32


MSC: Remembering
6. The ability of your muscles to contract repeatedly over time is known as

A. muscular strength.

B. muscular endurance.

C. power.

D. reaction time.

ANS: B


DIF: 1

REF: 33


MSC: Remembering
7. Which of the following is a benefit of maintaining a good level of flexibility?

A. decreased level of body fat

B. increased muscular strength

C. prevention of low back pain

D. decreased risk of diabetes

ANS: C


DIF: 2

REF: 34


MSC: Understanding
8. Lean body tissue consists of

A. fat, blood, and lymph nodes.

B. muscle, bone, and fat.

C. skin, fat, and fluids.

D. muscle, bone, and fluids.

ANS: D


DIF: 1

REF: 34


MSC: Remembering
9. The ability to perform work or contract muscles with high force quickly defines

A. endurance.

B. speed.

C. power.

D. strength.

ANS: C


DIF: 1

REF: 34


MSC: Remembering
10. The ability to change body position with speed and accuracy is

A. agility.

B. speed.

C. power.

D. strength.

ANS: A


DIF: 1

REF: 34


MSC: Remembering
11. The ability to perform a movement in a short period of time is

A. agility.

B. speed.

C. power.

D. strength.

ANS: B


DIF: 1

REF: 34


MSC: Remembering
12. The maintenance of equilibrium is

A. endurance.

B. balance.

C. power.

D. strength.

ANS: B


DIF: 1

REF: 34


MSC: Remembering
13. The time between a stimulus and response is

A. agility.

B. speed.

C. power.

D. reaction time.

ANS: D


DIF: 1

REF: 34


MSC: Remembering
14. Which of the following is considered a skill-related component of physical fitness?

A. power


B. flexibility

C. body composition

D. muscular endurance

ANS: A


DIF: 1

REF: 34


MSC: Remembering
15. The overload principle states that to see improvements in physical fitness

A. you must train every day.

B. you must train at a level that is greater than what your body is accustomed to.

C. you must increase your training level on a weekly basis.

D. you must train with a consistent routine that you are used to.

ANS: B


DIF: 1

REF: 35


MSC: Remembering
16. Bettina has been exercising for a few weeks and is becoming adjusted to her current intensity level. To improve further, she must

A. increase her overload training.

B. begin to train using a different mode of activity.

C. target skills that will improve her sports performance.

D. readjust her expectations because she has reached her plateau.

ANS: A


DIF: 3

REF: 35


MSC: Applying
17. Adaptation is defined as

A. the ability of muscles to exert force.

B. subjecting a muscle to more actively than it is used to.

C. a change in the body as a result of overload.

D. the ability to perform motor tasks smoothly.

ANS: C


DIF: 1

REF: 35


MSC: Remembering
18. A change in the body that occurs as a result of exercise training is known as

A. homeostasis.

B. metabolic equivalent.

C. training effect.

D. overload.

ANS: C


DIF: 1

REF: 35


MSC: Remembering
19. The dose-response relationship states that the amount of adaptation you can expect from exercise directly relates to

A. the amount of overload incorporated into the program.

B. the time of day you exercise.

C. the specific body system that is stressed.

D. the order in which you perform different types of training.

ANS: A


DIF: 1

REF: 35


MSC: Remembering
20. To progress safely and improve fitness, it is recommended that you

A. increase overload frequency by no more than 20% each time you make changes in your program.

B. increase overload frequency and intensity by 20% each time you make changes in your program.

C. increase overload intensity and duration by 10% each time you make changes in your program.

D. increase overload frequency, intensity, or duration by no more than 10% each time you make changes in your program.

ANS: D


DIF: 1

REF: 36


MSC: Remembering
21. Sally is currently jogging 3 times per week for 30 minutes. She has become comfortable with this workout and now wants to increase her workout time. Using the principle of progression, Sally should increase her time to approximately ________ minutes.

A. 33


B. 36

C. 39


D. 42

ANS: A


DIF: 3

REF: 35-36

MSC: Applying
22. The principle that only the body systems worked during training will show adaptations is known as

A. individuality.

B. specificity.

C. reversibility.

D. frequency.

ANS: B


DIF: 1

REF: 36


MSC: Remembering
23. The principle that states that training levels will decrease towards initial levels when training is stopped is known as

A. individuality.

B. specificity.

C. reversibility.

D. frequency.

ANS: C


DIF: 1

REF: 36


MSC: Remembering
24. Jim and Steve have been working out together for 3 months. Although they have been doing the same workout, Steve has shown faster improvement. This difference in their responses to exercise illustrates the principle of

A. separateness.

B. individuality.

C. recuperation.

D. mind over body.

ANS: B


DIF: 3

REF: 36


MSC: Applying
25. The principle of recuperation is aimed at preventing

A. boredom.

B. cross-training.

C. overtraining.

D. individuality.

ANS: C


DIF: 1

REF: 37


MSC: Remembering
26. How many minutes of moderate physical activity should an adult perform each week to maintain health?

A. 75 minutes

B. 60 minutes

C. 150 minutes

D. 200 minutes

ANS: C


DIF: 1

REF: 38


MSC: Remembering
27. The physical activity pyramid

A. relates nutritional goals to physical activity levels.

B. consists of layers of types of physical activity and gives recommendations for each.

C. excludes sedentary activities.

D. includes aerobic activities but not muscular training.

ANS: B


DIF: 2

REF: 38


MSC: Understanding
28. According to the physical activity pyramid, individuals should work on muscular fitness

A. every day.

B. 5 days per week.

C. 2 days per week.

D. 1 day per week.

ANS: C


DIF: 1

REF: 38-39

MSC: Remembering
29. Activities at the top of the physical activity pyramid represent

A. activities that are the most important to improving fitness.

B. activities related to flexibility training.

C. activities that are the most vigorous in nature.

D. activities that you should spend the least amount of time on.

ANS: D


DIF: 2

REF: 38-39

MSC: Understanding
30. Both the American College of Sports Medicine and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommend at least ________ minutes of exercise daily for youth under the age of 18.

A. 20


B. 30

C. 40


D. 60

ANS: D


DIF: 1

REF: 38


MSC: Remembering
31. The FITT formula is used to

A. design a safe and effective exercise program.

B. determine how much water to consume during exercise.

C. estimate energy expenditure.

D. estimate body composition.

ANS: A


DIF: 2

REF: 40


MSC: Understanding
32. Resistance training intensity is usually measured by

A. the amount of weight lifted.

B. the heart rate during lifts.

C. the speed with which you lift the weights.

D. the size of the muscles when contracted during activity.

ANS: A


DIF: 2

REF: 40


MSC: Understanding
33. Exercise intensity is most closely related to

A. how often you exercise.

B. how hard you exercise.

C. how many minutes you exercise.

D. how many modes of exercise you use.

ANS: B


DIF: 1

REF: 40


MSC: Remembering
34. The components of the FITT formula are

A. frequency, intensity, time, and type.

B. fitness, intensity, training, and type.

C. frequency, individuality, time, and training.

D. fitness, individuality, time, and type.

ANS: A


DIF: 1

REF: 40


MSC: Remembering
35. The times per week that an activity is performed is known as

A. frequency.

B. intensity.

C. time.


D. type.

ANS: A


DIF: 1

REF: 40


MSC: Remembering
36. The duration of the exercise is known as

A. frequency.

B. intensity.

C. time.


D. type.

ANS: C


DIF: 1

REF: 40


MSC: Remembering
37. The mode of activity chosen is known as

A. frequency.

B. intensity.

C. time.


D. type.

ANS: D


DIF: 1

REF: 40


MSC: Remembering
38. John is getting ready to do bench presses. After doing some jumping jacks and light rowing activity, he begins to concentrate on range-of-motion exercises for his shoulders. John has moved from the ________ phase to the ________ phase of warm-up.

A. gradual; intense

B. general; specific

C. rest; exercise

D. basic; core

ANS: B


DIF: 3

REF: 41


MSC: Applying
39. When performing range-of-motion exercises, your movements should be ________ and ________.

A. fast; purposeful

B. forceful; repetitive

C. relaxed; controlled

D. slow; powerful

ANS: C


DIF: 2

REF: 41


MSC: Understanding
40. Which of the following is a purpose of the exercise warm-up?

A. decrease blood flow

B. decrease body temperature

C. increase muscle elasticity

D. increase lean mass

ANS: C


DIF: 2

REF: 41


MSC: Understanding
41. A primary purpose of the general cool-down is to slowly return ________ back to resting levels.

A. breathing rate

B. muscle elasticity

C. free fatty acids

D. blood sugar level

ANS: A


DIF: 1

REF: 41


MSC: Remembering
42. How long should the exercise-to-rest transition take?

A. 20 to 30 minutes

B. 5 to 15 minutes

C. 2 to 3 minutes

D. less than 1 minute

ANS: B


DIF: 1

REF: 41


MSC: Remembering
43. Stretching exercise should be performed

A. before the general warm-up.

B. during the general warm-up.

C. at the beginning of the specific warm-up.

D. at the end of the specific warm-up.

ANS: D


DIF: 2

REF: 41


MSC: Understanding
44. During the specific cool-down, you should

A. perform a less vigorous form of the activity done during your workout.

B. try to lower your body temperature quickly.

C. stretch the muscle groups worked during the activity.

D. keep the heart rate elevated as much as possible.

ANS: C


DIF: 2

REF: 41


MSC: Understanding
45. If you have a light snack prior to exercising, it should be consumed at least ________ minutes prior to beginning the activity.

A. 10


B. 15

C. 20


D. 30

ANS: D


DIF: 1

REF: 42


MSC: Remembering
46. General recommended guidelines for water intake prior to exercise are approximately ________ ounces of fluid 2 to 3 hours before exercise and ________ ounces 10 to 20 minutes prior to exercise.

A. 5; 5


B. 8; 10

C. 10; 15

D. 20; 10

ANS: D


DIF: 1

REF: 42


MSC: Remembering
47. The most important aspect of footwear is

A. proper fit.

B. color scheme.

C. cost.


D. brand.

ANS: A


DIF: 1

REF: 42


MSC: Remembering
48. Which factor has the least impact on designing an exercise program?

A. age


B. weight

C. current fitness level

D. gender

ANS: D


DIF: 2

REF: 43


MSC: Understanding
49. Kristina's mom wants to begin an exercise program. However, she is overweight and concerned about the impact exercise might have on her knees. To decrease her chance of injury, Kristina might recommend that her mom try

A. weight-bearing activities.

B. additional stretching exercises.

C. cross-training.

D. balance exercises.

ANS: C


DIF: 3

REF: 43


MSC: Applying
50. The World Health Organization recommends balance training in seniors to reduce the risk of ________.

A. falls


B. diabetes

C. heart disease

D. Alzheimer's disease

ANS: A


DIF: 1

REF: 43


MSC: Remembering
51. Men over 45 and women over 55 should obtain ________ before beginning an exercise program.

A. a personal trainer

B. permission from their doctor

C. a fitness magazine

D. life insurance

ANS: B


DIF: 1

REF: 43


MSC: Remembering
52. Which of the following conditions would always require a medical clearance before exercising?

A. migraines

B. overweight

C. diabetes

D. cold

ANS: C


DIF: 1

REF: 44


MSC: Remembering
53. If you take either prescription or over-the-counter medications, before exercising you should

A. take only half the recommended dosage.

B. ask a physician about potential side effects.

C. avoid taking the medicine.

D. check the internet to see if other people take it before exercise.

ANS: B


DIF: 2

REF: 44


MSC: Understanding
54. What percentage of adults in the United States participates in regular leisure-time physical activity?

A. 6%


B. 19%

C. 34%


D. 53%

ANS: C


DIF: 1

REF: 44


MSC: Remembering
55. When planning your fitness program, which of the following is the best question to ask yourself?

A. How many calories do I want to burn?

B. What motivates me?

C. What activity is most popular with my friends?

D. Which exercise will help me to lose weight the fastest?

ANS: B


DIF: 5

REF: 46


MSC: Evaluating
56. If you understand your __________, you can plan activities in a way that makes you more likely to stick with the program.

A. cardiovascular system

B. body’s physiology

C. respiratory rate

D. motivations

ANS: D


DIF: 1

REF: 46


MSC: Remembering
57. Your friend plays on the intermural soccer team. You notice one week that she is spending more time than usual running in the mornings and practicing kicking goals in the afternoon. When you ask about her intensity, she explains that she has a big game coming up and that she is determined to win. Which of the following is her chief motivation for exercise?

A. competition

B. socializing

C. losing weight

D. having fun

ANS: A


DIF: 3

REF: 46


MSC: Applying
58. __________ barriers to physical activity include both external/physical factors and social/interpersonal factors that may make it harder or easier for you to exercise.

A. Physiological

B. Psychological

C. Environmental

D. Personal

ANS: C


DIF: 1

REF: 47


MSC: Remembering
59. __________ barriers to physical activity include personal and physical factors affecting exercise participation.

A. Physiological

B. Psychological

C. Environmental

D. Personal

ANS: D


DIF: 1

REF: 47


MSC: Remembering
60. To counter a lack of motivation, you should choose exercise that is

A. challenging and repetitive.

B. fun and convenient.

C. easy and low-impact.

D. risky and impressive.

ANS: B


DIF: 2

REF: 48


MSC: Understanding
61. Actions that can be performed daily by beginning exercisers are

A. exercise training.

B. lifestyle physical activities.

C. vigorous physical activities.

D. sports activities.

ANS: B


DIF: 2

REF: 49


MSC: Understanding
62. Aerobic exercise, weight lifting, and yoga are all examples of

A. exercise training.

B. lifestyle physical activities.

C. moderate physical activities.

D. sports activities.

ANS: A


DIF: 2

REF: 49


MSC: Understanding
63. Golf, tennis, and soccer are all examples of

A. exercise training.

B. lifestyle physical activities.

C. vigorous physical activities.

D. sports activities.

ANS: D


DIF: 2

REF: 49


MSC: Understanding
True or False

1. Increased levels of body fat put an individual at risk for diabetes.

ANS: TRUE

DIF: 1


REF: 34

MSC: Remembering


2. Fitness gains diminish in about half the time it takes to acquire them.

ANS: TRUE

DIF: 2

REF: 36


MSC: Understanding
3. During resistance training, the majority of the training adaptations occur during the workout.

ANS: FALSE

DIF: 1

REF: 37


MSC: Remembering
4. The exercise-to-rest transition during the cool-down should last at least 20 minutes.

ANS: FALSE

DIF: 1

REF: 41


MSC: Remembering
5. The chances of dehydration affecting performance are greater than the chances of food intake affecting performance.

ANS: TRUE

DIF: 1

REF: 42


MSC: Remembering
6. The most important aspect of proper footwear is the cost of the shoe.

ANS: FALSE

DIF: 1

REF: 42


MSC: Remembering
7. If you have a physical disability such as poor balance, you should not exercise.

ANS: FALSE

DIF: 1

REF: 43


MSC: Remembering
8. Individuals who are in wheelchairs may use most strength-training machines that involve a seated position.

ANS: TRUE

DIF: 1

REF: 44


MSC: Remembering
9. People with asthma should obtain a medical clearance before beginning an exercise program.

ANS: TRUE

DIF: 1

REF: 43-44



MSC: Remembering
10. Individuals with significant bone or joint problems should develop a workout plan focusing on high-impact exercises.

ANS: FALSE

DIF: 1

REF: 44


MSC: Remembering
11. Pregnant women should not run in marathons in 105-degree heat.

ANS: TRUE

DIF: 3

REF: 45


MSC: Applying
12. You live in a part of the country where it rains much of the time, which keeps you from wanting to jog outside. The rain is an example of a personal barrier to physical activity.

ANS: FALSE

DIF: 3

REF: 47


MSC: Applying
13. To successfully stick with a fitness program, you must incorporate it into your schedule.

ANS: TRUE

DIF: 1

REF: 48


MSC: Remembering
14. People who state that they don't have time for exercise may not consider exercise to be a top priority.

ANS: TRUE

DIF: 2

REF: 47


MSC: Understanding
15. Gardening is an example of a lifestyle physical activity.

ANS: TRUE

DIF: 3

REF: 49


MSC: Applying
16. The further away an exercise facility is from your home, school, or work, the less likely you are to use it.

ANS: TRUE

DIF: 1

REF: 50


MSC: Remembering
17. Before choosing an exercise facility, it is important to consider its location, hours of operation, and costs.

ANS: TRUE

DIF: 1

REF: 50


MSC: Remembering
18. Living in an area where there is great urban sprawl can reduce the likelihood that one will exercise regularly.

ANS: TRUE

DIF: 1

REF: 50


MSC: Remembering
19. It is more difficult to decide to change a behavior than to commit to changing it.

ANS: FALSE

DIF: 1

REF: 51


MSC: Remembering
20. External exercise rewards commonly involve feeling better about yourself, feeling healthier, and having better life satisfaction from exercising.

ANS: FALSE

DIF: 1

REF: 51


MSC: Remembering
Short Answer

1. What is the term for the ability to perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without undue fatigue?

ANS: physical fitness

DIF: 1


REF: 32

MSC: Remembering

2. Planned or structured physical activity is known as what?

ANS: exercise

DIF: 1

REF: 32


MSC: Remembering
3. What is the ability to move your joints in a full range of motion?

ANS: flexibility

DIF: 1

REF: 33


MSC: Remembering
4. The relationship between the amount of adaptation you can expect and the amount of overload or training dose that you complete is known as what?

ANS: dose-response relationship

DIF: 1

REF: 35


MSC: Remembering
5. Weight training is also known as what?

ANS: resistance training

DIF: 1

REF: 37


MSC: Remembering
6. Tangible rewards are known as what?

ANS: external rewards

DIF: 1

REF: 51


MSC: Remembering
7. Improvements in self-esteem, health, and life satisfaction as a result of exercising are an example of what kind of reward?

ANS: internal

DIF: 1

REF: 51


MSC: Remembering
Essay

1. Name and describe each of the five health-related components of fitness. Give examples of how you would design a program to improve each component.

ANS: Answers will vary.

DIF: 5


REF: 32-34

MSC: Evaluating


2. Discuss the principles of fitness and how they contribute to the design of a fitness program.

ANS: Answers will vary.

DIF: 4

REF: 35-37



MSC: Analyzing
3. Compare and contrast physical activity recommendations from two different governmental agencies or professional organizations.

ANS: Answers will vary.

DIF: 4

REF: 37-39



MSC: Analyzing
4. Describe the physical activity pyramid and its components. Provide specific recommendations with respect to frequency and time where appropriate.

ANS: Answers will vary.

DIF: 2

REF: 38-39



MSC: Understanding
5. Using the FITT formula, design a sample fitness program. Make sure your program includes both a warm-up and cool-down component.

ANS: Answers will vary.

DIF: 5

REF: 40-41



MSC: Evaluating
6. List five factors that should be considered when developing a fitness program. For each, explain how this factor might contribute to the overall program design.

ANS: Answers will vary.



DIF: 4

REF: 43-44



MSC: Analyzing



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