Chapter 2: Major Theories for Understanding Human Development multiple choice



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Chapter 2: Major Theories for Understanding Human Development
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. A __________ is a logical system of concepts that provides a framework for organizing and interpreting observations.

a.

theory

b.

variable

c.

symbol

d.

correlation

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 22

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
2. The guiding premises underlying the logic of a theory are its ________________.

a.

predictions

b.

assumptions

c.

variables

d.

applications

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 23

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
3. The function of a theory is to

a.

dictate an appropriate research design.

b.

describe unobservable processes and relate them to observable events.

c.

develop hypotheses.

d.

create symbols that society can agree upon.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 23

OBJ: 1 KEY: * MSC: TYPE: Factual
4. Which of the following statements is considered a characteristic of a “good” formal theory?

a.

It is logical and internally consistent.

b.

It is unrelated to previous research.

c.

It is focused on a relatively narrow, specific subject area.

d.

It includes contradictory statements that can be tested.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 23

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
5. Which of the following statements best describes how theories help explain observations?

a.

They rule on specific contradictory examples.

b.

They identify orderly relationships.

c.

They are based on random sampling.

d.

They bring about change.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 23

OBJ: 1 KEY: * MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
6. Theories are generally limited to explaining behaviors that fall within that theory’s ____________.

a.

life stage

b.

range of applicability

c.

operational definitions

d.

statistical significance

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 23

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
7. The textbook highlights three questions to ask in order to understand the theory. Which of the following is not one of these questions?

a.

Which phenomena is the theory trying to explain?

b.

Who developed the theory?

c.

What assumptions does the theory make?

d.

What does the theory predict?

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 23

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
8. In order to understand a theory, one question to ask is: Which phenomenon is the theory trying to explain? Which of the following statements best describes how to answer this question?

a.

Theories do NOT try to explain phenomena; theories focus on causes of behavior.

b.

Theories explain the process for operationalizing concepts or phenomena that a researcher is to study.

c.

The statistical significance of a correlation coefficient is the phenomena being explained.

d.

The range of applicability based on the original intent of the theory is considered the phenomena.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 23

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
9. In order to understand a theory, one question to ask is: What assumptions does the theory make? Which of the following statements best describes how to answer this question?

a.

Assumptions are developed after the theory has been tested.

b.

The range of assumptions refers to the focus of the theory.

c.

Assumptions are the guiding premises underlying the logic of a theory.

d.

Theories do not make assumptions; theories focus on predicting assumptions.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 23

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
10. The assumptions of any theory may or may not be correct. Assumptions

a.

are based on research results from over 50 years ago, so they may not be relevant today.

b.

may be influenced by the cultural context of the theorist.

c.

predict statistical significance of the current research design only.

d.

may be the same as another theory.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 23

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
11. In order to understand a theory, one question to ask is: What does the theory predict? Which of the following statements best describes how to answer this question?

a.

Theories increase understanding by suggesting causal relationships as a prediction.

b.

Predictions can only be made if research results are statistically insignificant.

c.

Theories do not make predictions; theories focus on operationalizing concepts.

d.

Theories can only predict relationships between humans.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 23

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
12. A theory of human development is expected to provide explanations for which of the following?

a.

how society and economics change over time

b.

how people change and grow over the life span

c.

conflicts between ethnic subcultures

d.

causes of illness and health over the life span

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 24

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
13. A question that theory of human development should attempt to answer includes which of the following?

a.

What are the mechanisms that account for growth across the life span?

b.

What factors are likely to place a person at risk during specific life periods?

c.

How do physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functions interact?

d.

all of these

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 24

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
14. Which of the following is considered the age range MSC: TYPE: Conceptualized by psychosocial theory?

a.

infancy through age 12

b.

adolescence

c.

the entire life span

d.

early through middle adulthood

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 24

OBJ: 1 KEY: * MSC: TYPE: Factual

NOT: www
15. Human development theories are needed to



a.

help explain behavior at different levels of analysis.

b.

assist in uncovering truths about humans and animals.

c.

embellish case studies of families.

d.

illustrate relationships from the beginning of time.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 22

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
16. Evolutionary theory places the study of individual development in the context of

a.

classical conditioning based on learning over time.

b.

individual development in the context of the history of the species.

c.

habituation with a mother/caregiver figure for survival.

d.

biologically-guided genetic growth plans.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 22

OBJ: 1 KEY: * MSC: TYPE: Factual
17. Which of the following is the best descriptor phrase for the laws of natural selection?

a.

the genetic make-up of most species is remarkably similar

b.

over time, species are becoming more and more responsive to radiation

c.

over generations, species gradually change in response to changing environmental conditions

d.

genetics alone account for species change

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 25

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
18. Which of the following terms focuses on describing the unique adaptive behaviors of specific species, such as mating, caregiving, play, and strategies for obtaining resources?

a.

chemistry

b.

education

c.

ethology

d.

teratology

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 26

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
19. The comparative study of unique adaptive behaviors is called ethology. This type of study helps clarify ______________ to the long-term survival of the species.

a.

the contributions of culture

b.

the importance of developmental males

c.

the role of gender

d.

the contributions of each generation

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 26

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
20. Evolutionary psychology includes the study of

a.

the future development of behavior.

b.

the dominance of members of species currently living.

c.

the origins of social behavior.

d.

similarity of mammals in various environmental settings.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 26

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
21. The continuation of a species depends on the capacity of its individual members to survive, mate, reproduce, and

a.

rear their offspring.

b.

have reflexes.

c.

use spoken language.

d.

express emotion.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 27

OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Factual
22. Which of the following statements is considered a major implication of evolutionary theory related to the study of human development?

a.

The importance of similarities among all humans allows for the scientific study of continuity over time.

b.

Factors that influence reproductive success of a group have implications for the survival of the species.

c.

The early years of childhood are most critical in shaping the structure of adult personality.

d.

The course of human development is shaped by entries into and exits from key life roles.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 27

OBJ: 2 KEY: * MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
23. Which of the following statements best illustrates the link between evolutionary theory and psychosocial theory?

a.

Through patterns of reinforcement, genetics is linked to individual development during adulthood.

b.

Adults strengthen their genetic make-up and influence as they age.

c.

The process of cultural survival is considered random in specific generations.

d.

Individuals face a continuous struggle to adapt traits and abilities to environmental demands.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 27

OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
24. Psychosocial evolution refers to

a.

the survival of humans who progress through various life stages.

b.

ways in which knowledge can alter or transform behavior and override genetically guided patterns.

c.

the fact that psychosocial development cannot be influenced by individuals’ conscious decisions.

d.

strategies to achieve a positive resolution during a psychosocial crisis.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 27

OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
25. ANS: According to psychosexual theory, what are the two instinctual drives that contribute to personality development?

a.

sexuality and shame

b.

aggression and affiliation

c.

sexuality and aggression

d.

sexuality and inhibition

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 28

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: www
26. Which of the following is considered the focus of Freud’s psychosexual theory?

a.

the influence of sexual and aggressive drives to motivate behavior

b.

learned behaviors and habits on moral development

c.

social roles on family uniqueness

d.

goals and expectations on confidence building

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 28

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
27. Freud hypothesized that many explanations for seemingly natural behavior could be found by analyzing the conflicting sexual and aggressive needs, fears, and wishes that are housed in the

a.

metaconscious.

b.

conscious.

c.

ego.

d.

unconscious.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 29

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
28. Which of the following statements is considered an assumption of Freud's psychosexual theory?

a.

All behavior is a result of cultural conditioning.

b.

Children’s behavior is rational and thoughtful.

c.

All behavior is motivated.

d.

Most behavior is a result of random factors that cannot be explained.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 28

OBJ: 1 KEY: * MSC: TYPE: Factual
29. In psychosexual theory, which of the following terms refers to reality-oriented functions such as perception, learning, memory, and judgment?

a.

superego

b.

ego

c.

id

d.

unconscious

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 30

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
30. According to psychosexual theory, which structure houses the person’s moral and ethical principles?

a.

id

b.

ego

c.

superego

d.

guilt

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 30

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
31. In psychosexual theory, how is the ego related to the id and the superego?

a.

The ego is mostly unconscious, pushing the id and superego into awareness.

b.

The ego tries to satisfy the id without offending the superego.

c.

The superego is the commander-in-chief, the ego is the sergeant, and the id is the private.

d.

The ego’s moral and ethical principles dictate the actions of the id.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 31

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
32. Which of the following terms refers to methods used to protect the person from anxiety?

a.

defense mechanisms

b.

adaptation

c.

emotional intelligence

d.

role enactment

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 32

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
33. _______ is a common defense mechanism used by children and adults in which they claim that a bad experience never happened.

a.

Denial

b.

Projection

c.

Rejection

d.

Reality expansion

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 32

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
34. In terms of psychosexual theory, which of the following statements about defense mechanisms is most accurate?

a.

Children are so honest that they use only coping mechanisms.

b.

Only very neurotic people use defense mechanisms.

c.

The basic function of defense mechanisms is to protect the person from being overwhelmed by painful thoughts and feelings such as anxiety and guilt.

d.

After a long period, defense mechanisms lead to higher levels of functioning.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 32

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
35. According to psychosexual theory, the most significant personality developments take place during which of the following life stages?

a.

prenatal period

b.

first, five or six years of life

c.

adolescence

d.

early adulthood

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 28

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
36. In psychosexual theory, development is divided into __________ stages.

a.

three

b.

five

c.

seven

d.

nine

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 31

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: www
37. According to psychosexual theory, what are the stages of development?

a.

oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

b.

id, ego, superego

c.

unconscious, preconscious, conscious

d.

reaction formation, projection, and denial

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 31

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
38. Which of the following statements reflects an important contribution made by psychosexual theory to the study of human development?

a.

The role of childhood experiences can be used to explain adult behavior.

b.

Parenting practices help shape biological sexual urges.

c.

The foundation for sexual drives is projected to the next generation.

d.

The unconscious is the main contributor to sexual development.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 34

OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Factual
39. Which of the following is considered a similarity between psychosexual theory and psychosocial theory?

a.

use of a life span approach

b.

description of the functions of the ego system

c.

consideration of middle childhood as a ‘latent’ and quiet life stage

d.

incorporation of importance of schooling on development

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 35

OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
40. Which of the following statements is considered a difference between psychosocial and psychosexual theory?

a.

Psychosocial theory does not suggest stages of development.

b.

Psychosocial theory is not interested in child-rearing practices.

c.

Psychosocial theory suggests directions for development beyond adolescence into adulthood and old age.

d.

Psychosocial theory places greater emphasis on infancy and toddlerhood.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 35

OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
41. Which of the following terms refers to the process of organizing and making meaning of experience?

a.

equilibrium

b.

repression

c.

cognition

d.

ethology

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 35

OBJ: 1 KEY: * MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
42. Which of the following psychosexual terms is most closely related to the processes of cognition?

a.

unconscious processing

b.

impulse expression

c.

ego functions

d.

projection

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 35

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
43. Cognitive developmental theory focuses specifically on how

a.

knowing emerges and is transformed into logical, systematic capacities for reasoning.

b.

the ego interprets experiences into logical, systematic, thought processes.

c.

evolution continues throughout the life span of a specific species based on cognition.

d.

various systems within a family impact an individual's capacity for thought.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 35

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
44. What is Piaget trying to explain in his cognitive development theory?

a.

the process for how the capacity for logical thought develops

b.

reasons why some children are mathematically gifted

c.

individual differences in learning styles

d.

the process for how culture influences cognition

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 36

OBJ: 1 KEY: * MSC: TYPE: Factual

NOT: www
45. According to Piaget, organisms strive to achieve a balance of organized structures that provides effective ways of interacting with the environment. This is known as



a.

balancing.

b.

intelligence.

c.

equilibrium.

d.

consciousness.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 36

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
46. Equilibrium is achieved through ____________, a process of gradually modifying existing schemes in order to take into account discrepancies between what is known and what is being experienced.

a.

natural selection

b.

evolution

c.

adaptation

d.

schematic overload

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 36

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
47. In cognitive developmental theory, equilibrium is achieved through a process of

a.

fixation.

b.

adaptation.

c.

conditioning.

d.

rewards and punishments.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 36

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
48. What is the difference between a scheme and an operation in cognitive developmental theory?

a.

an operation is a verbal scheme

b.

an operation is a mental manipulation of related schemes

c.

a scheme is more complex than an operation

d.

a scheme is in equilibrium and an operation is in disequilibrium

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 36

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
49. In Piaget’s theory, which of the following are considered the two complementary processes that account for adaptation?

a.

sensorimotor intelligence and preoperational thought

b.

natural selection and fitness

c.

cultural discontinuity and moral reasoning

d.

assimilation and accommodation

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 36

OBJ: 1 KEY: * MSC: TYPE: Factual
50. Accommodation is referred to as the

a.

resistance to changing familiar schemes held in place through equilibrium.

b.

tendency to interpret new experiences in light of existing schemes.

c.

desire to make meaning out of experience.

d.

tendency to modify schemes to account for new attributes revealed through experience.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 36

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
51. Kendra has been breastfed. The first time she gets a bottle of apple juice, she uses the same sucking motion she has been accustomed to using during breastfeeding. Juice floods out of the nipple of the bottle. This is an example of

a.

defensive behavior.

b.

assimilation.

c.

adaptive self-organization.

d.

vicarious learning.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 36

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Application
52. The first stage in Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory is

a.

sensorimotor intelligence.

b.

preoperational thought.

c.

concrete operational thought.

d.

formal operational thought.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 36

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: www
53. The preoperational thought stage is when

a.

infants become toddlers.

b.

children learn a language.

c.

children can understand abstract concepts.

d.

children become adolescents.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 36

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
54. Which of the following statements best describes a characteristic of formal operational thought?

a.

Knowing is based primarily on instruction from others.

b.

Logic is based on the creation of a system of interrelated rules that can be used for problem solving.

c.

Knowing is based primarily on direct experience by the individual within a family context.

d.

Logic is based largely on memories of past experiences.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 37

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
55. Dakota has started to read short biographies of women she believes are important. She makes lists of who is most important in categories like business leader, political leader, and star athlete. Then she starts to read about the number one person in each category. Which of Piaget’s stages do you think Dakota is in?

a.

formal operational stage

b.

concrete operational stage

c.

preoperational stage

d.

post formal operational stage

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 37

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Application
56. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, which of the following statements is most accurate?

a.

Repetition is the most important experience for promoting cognitive growth.

b.

Young children and adults approach problems using the same basic principles of logic and reasoning.

c.

Encounters with discrepancy promote the growth of logical thinking.

d.

Because they cannot use symbols, infants do not have the capacity for problem solving.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 37

OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
57. Which of the following statements is considered an assumption of Piaget’s cognitive development theory?

a.

All behavior is motivated.

b.

Advances in cognitive capacities occur into old age.

c.

Personality development ends at age 6.

d.

The roots of cognition lie in an infant's biological capacities.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 37

OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Factual
58. Which of the following is considered one of Piaget’s contributions to understanding infant cognition?

a.

Infants are able to create and manipulate symbols.

b.

For infants, most thinking is unconscious.

c.

Infants have the same capacity for abstract reasoning as adolescents.

d.

Infants establish logical connections.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 37

OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
59. By asking children how they know what they know, Piaget introduced the study of

a.

intelligence.

b.

metacognition.

c.

categorization.

d.

morality.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 38

OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
60. In contrast to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Vygotsky placed greater emphasis on

a.

social context.

b.

role of exploration and experimentation.

c.

biological bases of cognition.

d.

evolution.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 38

OBJ: 1 KEY: * MSC: TYPE: Factual
61. What are the central concepts of Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development?

a.

id, ego, superego

b.

assimilation, accommodation, schemes

c.

culture, zone of proximal development, movement from intermental to the intramental

d.

microsystem, exosystem, and mesosystem

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 38

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: www
62. Vygotsky emphasized the role of a culture's __________ in shaping thought.

a.

tools and signs

b.

levels of continuity

c.

boundaries

d.

roles

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 38

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
63. Vygotsky argued that complex mental operations exist first in the social world and are then internalized. He described this as movement from the ___________ to the __________.

a.

ego; superego

b.

intermental; intramental

c.

model; child

d.

microsystem; mesosystem

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 38

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
64. Ricky wants to play a computer game, but cannot quite figure out how to get the figures to jump and kick. Ricky watches his older sister play the computer game for a few minutes and asks her a few questions. Then Ricky is able to play the game by himself. According to Vygotsky's theory, this is an example of

a.

formal operational reasoning.

b.

learning in the zone of proximal development.

c.

cultural determinism.

d.

equilibrium.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 39

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Application
65. What is the zone of proximal development?

a.

length of time needed to accommodate

b.

distance between the radius of significant others and development

c.

length of time needed to assimilate

d.

distance between developmental level and level of potential development

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 39

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual NOT: www
66. Which of the following statements is considered an implication for human development based on Vygotsky’s theory?

a.

In all cultures, children will approach problem solving in the same way.

b.

Social interaction and culture shape an individual's cognitive development.

c.

It is better to spend time with people who are a little less skilled than you in order to build self-esteem.

d.

The direction of cognitive growth is largely determined by genetic factors.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 39

OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
67. Which of the following concepts promotes development in both Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory and Erikson’s psychosocial theory?

a.

discrepancies

b.

reinforcement

c.

hierarchical categorization

d.

prime adaptive ego qualities

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 40

OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
68. Which of the following psychosocial theory concepts is most similar to Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development?

a.

psychosocial crisis

b.

stages of development

c.

developmental tasks

d.

radius of significant relationships

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 40

OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
69. Whereas theories of cognitive development emphasize thinking and reasoning, theories of learning tend to focus on which of the following?

a.

hypothesis testing that occurs in scientific problem solving

b.

relatively permanent changes in behavior that result from experience

c.

language development and written communication

d.

the role of genetic factors in guiding adaptive behavior

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 41

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
70. Social learning theory emphasizes the process of learning new behaviors by

a.

observing and imitating the behavior of others.

b.

being taught by more skillful adults and peers.

c.

being reinforced for increasingly close approximations of the desired behavior.

d.

developing a cognitive map.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 41

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual
71. What is learning through vicarious reinforcement?

a.

learning through ignoring negative behaviors in a naturalistic setting

b.

learning by observing what happens to someone else who is either rewarded or punished for their actions

c.

learning through trial and error

d.

learning through repeated associations between two stimuli either conditioned or unconditioned

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 41

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
72. When Don watches his brother practice the piano, he sees how proud his mother is and how she compliments him for his hard work. This encourages Don to practice his trumpet. According to social learning theory, this is an example of which of the following?

a.

vicarious reinforcement

b.

negative reinforcement

c.

positive reinforcement

d.

punishment

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 41

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Application
73. Social cognition is considered

a.

a type of positive stimulus package for infants.

b.

a trend in social learning theory emphasizing a cognitive orientation.

c.

a product of a cognitive map.

d.

a natural selection process considered a by-product of evolutionary theory.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 41

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: www
74. Which of the following statements is considered an implication for human development based on social learning theory?

a.

All components of social learning theory are considered positive responses to cognitive development.

b.

All learning requires direct instruction.

c.

Natural selection occurs in one’s determination of an appropriate behavioral response.

d.

Models are relevant in guiding the behavior of others.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 42

OBJ: 2 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
75. Which of the following best describes the difference between cognitive behaviorism and the other theories of learning?

a.

Cognitive behaviorists study internal mental activities that influence behavior.

b.

Cognitive behaviorists study the stimulus-response relationship to determine behavioral influences.

c.

Cognitive behaviorists study reflexes as the biological basis learning.

d.

Cognitive behaviorists focus on the relationships among systems to understand learning.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 42

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
76. What is a cognitive map?

a.

map of shapes and adjoining surfaces

b.

combination of the unconscious, preconscious, and conscious

c.

internal representation of the learning environment

d.

set of boundaries between the self and others

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 42

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
77. Sudha has been driving to school using the same route for two years. Although she has never had time to stop at the Coffee Corner on her way to school, she knows where it is and how to direct a friend there. This is an example of which of the following concepts?

a.

positive reinforcement

b.

cognitive map

c.

expectations

d.

imitative learning

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 42

OBJ: 1 MSC: TYPE: Application
78. Walter Mischel identified six cognitive factors that influence behavior. Which of the following is

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