Chapter 2: Curriculum History: The Perspective of the Past



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Chapter 2: Curriculum History: The Perspective of the Past
* Note to the instructor: Multiple choice, true/false, short answer/fill-in-the-blank, and essay questions are available for each chapter. Answers are provided after all types of questions have been listed.

Multiple Choice
1) Below are listed various movements in curriculum history. Which one is out of chronological sequence?


  1. Academic Scientism

  2. Technological Constructionism

  3. Progressive Functionalism

  4. Developmental Conformism

2) Most people consider John Dewey the father of progressive education, but Dewey himself considered the father of progressive education to be




  1. Bobbitt

  2. Hall

  3. Mann

  4. Parker

3) At one time in the past, a candidate for a seat on the Board of Education gave a speech in which she said: "We have stressed academics too long, it is about time we stress the importance of the child.” Below are four sets of terms that are specific to the various curriculum trends. Which set represents the statement of the candidate?




  1. Academic Scientism to Progressive Functionalism

  2. Developmental Conformism to Scholarly Structuralism

  3. Privatistic Conservatism to Romantic Radicalism

  4. Romantic Radicalism to Modern Conservatism

4) In thinking about the Committee of Ten and the Reorganization of Secondary Education that produced the "seven cardinal principles" the most significant difference is




  1. Committee of Ten included math; Reorganization did not

  2. Committee of Ten was more vocationally oriented

  3. Reorganization assumed high school was for everyone

  4. Reorganization assumed elementary schools should add algebra

5) Which of the following "developmental tasks" does not fit below with the other three?


  1. Learning to distinguish right from wrong

  2. Learning physical skills necessary for games

  3. Learning appropriate gender roles

  4. Learning to get along with age-mates

6) Ralph Tyler suggested three sources of information in determining what educational purposes should be included in curriculum. All of the following are appropriate sources except




  1. Studies of business needs

  2. Studies of contemporary life outside of school

  3. Studies of the learners

  4. Suggestions from subject experts

7) Piaget talked about psychological developmental stages based on approximate chronological time-spans. The age-range between 7 and 11 is called:




  1. Preoperational

  2. Sensorimotor

  3. Concrete operational

  4. Formal operational

8) In The American High School Today James B. Conant recommended:




  1. All students should take three years of mathematics

  2. All students should take two years of science

  3. All students should take four years of one foreign language

  4. All students should have a senior course in American Problems

9) The "open classrooms" of the "Romantic Radicalism" curricula movement was characterized by:




  1. Absence of walls in the classrooms

  2. Emphasis on a rich learning environment

  3. Students were allowed to attend the classroom of their choice

  4. Teachers could determine their curriculum in an open setting

10) If John Holt were designing a school it would probably:




  1. Allow individual teachers to teach what they wanted

  2. Have a loosely structured school-based curriculum

  3. Provide a scope and sequence with suggested activities

  4. Require specific instructional objectives determined by the teacher

11) With respect to effective schools research, which of the following does not below with the other three?




  1. Leadership and staff of a school have significant autonomy

  2. Elementary curriculum focuses on basic and complex skills

  3. Principal is an active instructional leader

  4. There are collaborative planning and collegial relationships

12) By the 1980s vouchers were allowed, in one form of another, in




  1. Alabama

  2. Delaware

  3. Louisiana

  4. New Jersey

13) "Goals 2000" contained many lofty ideas. Which one below is misstated?




  1. All children in America will start school ready to learn

  2. Every adult American will be literate

  3. Every school in America will be free of drugs and violence

  4. United States students will be first in the world in science or mathematics

14) Ernest Boyer in his High School explained the results of in-depth studies of 15 high schools. Though not a large number of schools, the book was important because




  1. It had a more positive approach than A Nation at Risk.

  2. It was intended for the higher-level administrators responsible for change.

  3. It paid more attention to academics and less to service.

  4. It introduced new research techniques.

15) There are many reasons, supporters say, that charter schools are a positive factor in American education. Which of the following is not one of the reasons usually given?




  1. Create choice for parents

  2. Create new professional opportunities for teachers

  3. Encourage innovative teaching practices

  4. Provide a higher degree of fiscal accountability

16) The "standards-based movement" suggests




  1. Assumes all schools use national standards

  2. Approach accountability vigorously

  3. Invest in teachers

  4. Make local decisions based on strict national standards

17) In the 90s there were many significant contributors to affecting curricula change. The one who exerted the most influence on gifted education was




  1. Ralph Tyler

  2. Joseph Renzulli

  3. Robert Marzano

  4. Elliot Eisner

18) NCLB was described as: "…a weapon of mass destruction targeted at the public schools in a campaign of shock and awe" by




  1. Gerald Bracy

  2. Lemont Alexander

  3. Albert Shanker

  4. Robert Marzano

19) One contemporary educator who is very interested in Differentiated Instruction and Understanding by Design is




  1. Linda Darling-Hammond

  2. Caron Ann Tomlinson

  3. Michael Fullen

  4. Joseph Renzulli

20) "Response to intervention" is a general education initiative that is




  1. A managed approach to reduce students classified as special education

  2. A managed approach to providing appropriate discipline

  3. A response teachers do when students are having problems

  4. A reactionary process to student actions

21) The Way I See It was written by Temple Grandin. Its focus is:

(A) How to ensure humane treatment of cattle

(B) The importance of understanding student disabilities

(C) How to work with children using RtI

(D) Advocacy for children with autism

22) The person who has served as chief education adviser to President Barack Obama is:

(A) Temple Grandin

(B) Patricia Wolfe

(C) Linda Darling-Hammond

(D) Charlotte Danielson

23) Government officials recently presented states with an unprecedented challenges and the opportunity to compete in “Race to the Top”. Which of the following reform areas of “Race to the Top” does not belong?

(A) Supporting data systems

(B) Evaluating teachers

(C) Maintaining science education

(D) Implementing rigorous standards

24) Diversity Education does not refer to which of the following?

(A) race


(B) gender

(C) social class

(D) age
25) Common Core Standards are designed to provide:

(A) basic knowledge and skills student need to graduate

(B) consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn

(C) help to teachers and parents know what they need to do to help students

(D) robust and relevant real world learning
True/False
1) True or False. The late sixties and early seventies is represented by the curricula movement called Privatistic Conservatism.
2) True or False. Frederick Taylor is associated with Romantic Radicalism.
3) True or False. The committee for the Reorganization of Secondary Education essentially freed high schools from the domination of colleges.
4) True or False. Piaget invented the concept of "developmental task.”
5) True or False. One of the assumptions from Havinghurst is that curriculum should emphasize functional outcomes.
6) True or False. Jerome Brunner was more concerned with the structure of academic disciplines while Joseph Schwab was also concerned about the processes of instruction.
7) True or False. Effective schools research showed that a strong central office should control curriculum.
8) True or False. Goals 2000 have not yet been achieved even though we are well into the 21st century.
9) True or False. John Goodlad found schools did a good job with inquiry, but not critical thinking.
10) True or False. All states allow charter schools.
11) True or False: equity is another term for diversity.

12) True or False: Brain Matters helps teachers functionally understand neuroscience research and how it helps in classrooms.



13) True or False: Race to the Top is designed to attract and keep great teachers and principals.


Short Answer
1) The United States underwent considerable change during the Viet Nam era from the late sixties to the early seventies. With respect to curriculum the movement was called____.
2) The two leaders of the "progressive functionalism" movement were John Dewey and ________.
3) One of the seven cardinal principles included in the report on the Reorganization of Secondary Education was "command of fundamental processes" which included ____________, ______________, _____________, and _____________.
4) Considering Havinghurst's developmental tasks, the task of achieving socially responsible behavior during ________________.
5) One very influential book was The American High School Today written by __________.
6) The period of ______________was characterized by a more conservative view of curriculum and an increase in religious faith.
7) List at least three criticisms leveled at the use of vouchers to allow students to attend private schools with, at least in part, public funds.
8) In 1994 Congress added two goals to "Goals 2000" What are they?
9) James Banks is best known for five editions of a book on____________.
10) In 1996, President Clinton issued what he called his "Technology Literacy Challenge." The challenge had four aspects; what are they?
11) Diversity Education relates to ­­­­________, _________, _______, and exceptionality of students.
12) Common Core Standards’ goal is to have _________ fully prepared for the future.
13) The bottom line is that public schools will need to make some substantial changes if they do not want to be overtaken by _________, ___________, and _____________.

Essay
1) The Committee of Ten was composed of the Commissioner of Education [there was no department at that time], one public school principal, five college presidents, two head masters from private preparatory schools, and one college professor. Could the composition of the committee reflect the curriculum movement of the day and foreshadow what the Committee of Fifteen would do? Explain and support your position.
2) It took the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education five years to develop the seven cardinal principles of secondary education. This was due, in part, to the analysis of much empirical data, including experiences with the Army "alpha tests.” Construct an essay in which you identify and explain the seven cardinal principles.
3) What are the two major effects of the committee for the Reorganization of Secondary Education's seven cardinal principles and why are they significant?
4) A new first grade teacher tells a colleague that she hopes her students develop the physical skills needed for games so they can enjoy recess more. What do think Havinghurst would think about that statement?
5) Havinghurst classified tasks with respect to developmental appropriateness. Construct an essay in which you state the stages of development and provide at least three tasks that are appropriate at each stage.
6) A high school teacher of mathematics learns that a sixth grade teacher expects students to theorize on principles of mathematics. The high school teacher is concerned. Based on the work of Piaget do you agree or disagree with the high school teacher and why.
7) The text states that PSSC Physics [Physical Science Study Committee] was developed during the period of scholarly structuralism. So was CHEM Study chemistry [Chemical education materials study] and three versions of biology from the BSCS [Biological Science Curriculum Study]. A teacher suggests that all of the activity is the result of “Russia’s captured German scientist beating our captured German scientists to space." Do you agree or disagree with the teacher and why.
8) During the “Romantic Radicalism" movement what was the effect at the secondary school level, especially with respect to electives.
9) Construct an essay in which you compare and contrast the "Romantic Radicalism" movement with the "Privatistic Conservatism" movement.
10) "America 2000" initiated by President George H. W. Bush became "Goals 2000" under President Bill Clinton. Construct an essay in which you describe the goals and indicate which have been met, which have not, and why.
11) The analysis of John Goodlad concluded that most education was limited to low level learning with very little inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving. Construct an essay explaining the significance of these findings.
12) Charter schools were envisioned as potentially providing significant advantages for the public schools. In 2002 Murphy and Hoffman completed a study. What were the results of that study and how has it effected the movement?
13) Some people say that No Child Left Behind could be re-written as "no test maker left behind.” Construct an essay in which you support or refute that statement.
14) Home schooling is increasing in the United States at a significant rate. While in the past some states did not allow home schooling, now all do and it is being taken advantage of. What reasons so proponents give for doing home schooling and are there any disadvantages?
15) The Constitution of the United States does not give educational authority to the federal government or prohibit it from the states; this means it is a state right. In the case of Special Education the federal government has assumed considerable control as a matter of "equal protection", but this is not true for other initiatives. Construct an essay explaining how the federal government has gained so much control.
16) Added to the educational issues for America’s public schools, the Tea Party, a grassroots movement of millions of likeminded Americans from all backgrounds and political parties, favor the elimination of the Education Department. Construct an essay explaining the stance of the Tea Party and why they want to eliminate the Department of Education.
17) Provide an overview of the various eras of curriculum, explaining the major influences of each on today’s curriculum.
18) Outline the various key factors in effective schools research and explain how they work together to support effective education.
19) Chose four of the major contributors to the research in curriculum and explain their contributions to the curriculum state of curriculum reform in the US.

Answers
Multiple Choice
1) B
2) D
3) A
4) C
5) A It is early childhood, the others are middle childhood
6) A
7) C
8) D If you go over the results you can mention it is also where the "Carnegie unit came from
9) B
10) A
11) D A-C are "organizational and structural" variables while D is a process variable
12) C
13) D The goal said science and math, not one or the other
14) A
15) D
16) C
17) B
18) A
19) B
20) A
21) D: The book is a book on the challenges of autism.

22) (C)
23) C – the Race to the Top program looks to enhancing science education


24) D
25) A – CCS are designed to provide knowledge and skills needed for success in college careers.

True/False
1) False
2) False
3) True
4) False
5) True
6) True
7) False
8) True
9) False Schools did not do either very well
10) False
11) True
12) True
13) True
Short Answer
1) Romantic Radicalism
2) Franklin Bobbitt
3) reading, writing, arithmetic, and oral and written expression any order
4) adolescence
5) James B. Conant
6) privatistic conservatism
7) The criticisms include (1) it is a concept that goes against the basic mission of American public education, (2) it circumvents laws separating church and state, desegregation, and due process rights, (3) allows expression of personal biases and to reform via political or religious beliefs, (4) it lowers the quality of some schools, and (5) the focus should be on improving public schools, not deflecting school funds elsewhere. Accept any three
8) In brief the two are: (1) the nations teaching force will have access to programs for continued improvement [staff development], and (2) every school will promote partnerships to increase parental involvement.
9) multiculturalism
10) (1) connect every classroom to the internet, (2) expand access to modern multimedia computers, (3) make high quality educational software an integral part of the curriculum, and (4) enable teachers to integrate technology effectively into instruction any order is fine
11) Race, gender, social class
12) Students
13) Homeschooling, vouchers, charter schools.


Essay Suggestions
1) This was during the academic scientism movement and the composition clearly

reflects the concept as secondary schools being designed for college preparation in an age where the industrial revolution and other factors required a higher level of education. The Committee of Fifteen, dealing with elementary education, had to support the earlier reform so it was logical that the elementary years be reduced and algebra be added to the curriculum to ensure all students, even those not continuing to college would have math skills. Based on the instructor's class material more may be expected then presented here.


2) What individual instructors desire as an explanation is up to them, but all seven should be included: (1) health lives, (2) command of fundamental processes, (3) worthy home membership, (4) vocational preparation, (5) citizenship, (6) worthy use of leisure time, and (7) ethical character
3) The two major effects are: (1) removing the high school from the undue influence of colleges and (2) advanced the concept of a comprehensive high school [may also say high school for everyone, not just college bound] The importance is somewhat individualized and instructors should consider the rationality of student responses.
4) Havinghurst would not be pleased with the teacher's comment because first grade is still early childhood and learning physical skills is a middle childhood developmental task. Expect a higher degree of rhetoric, but remember you should not use this item and the following item since they cover essentially the same type of material. This is a higher order test item while #5 is comprehension.
5) Within early childhood the list includes: (1) getting ready to read, (2) learning to distinguish right from wrong, (3) learning sex [gender] differences and sexual modesty, (4) learning to talk. Within middle childhood he includes: (1) learning physical skills necessary for games, (2) learning to get along with age-mates, (3) learning appropriate masculine or feminine social role, and (4) developing fundamental skills in reading, writing, and calculating. The final stage is adolescence and contains: (1) accepting one's physique and using the body effectively, (2) preparing for marriage and family life, (3) preparing for an economic career, (4) developing and achieving socially responsible behavior, and (5) developing intellectual skills and concepts necessary for civic competence. Any three from each stage. It is suggested you not use both #4 and #5 since some of the same material is covered. Item #4 is higher order, #5 is lower order.
6) The student needs to agree with the high school teacher because in the sixth grade students are in the concrete operational stage, not formal operational. They need a little more maturity before theorizing.
7) Students should agree. The text states that the 1957 successful launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union. Students should explicate more than a sentence by providing a rationale why this is reasonable. If you go over this item you may want to mention that the United States did have the "cream of the crop", but they were not allowed to do much because they had been members of the Nazi party. After Sputnik they were allowed to work and we have never looked back.
8) Expect an essay that clearly indicates more, shorter-term electives were encouraged. Even required courses, such as English would provide students with a wide variety of shorter length courses that would satisfy the English requirements.
9) You should expect a description for romantic radicalism that is very open ended with no real prescribed academic structure. Teachers would have a wide degree of freedom. Privatistic conservatism, on the other hand, stressed a more challenging curriculum with attention being paid to critical thinking skills.
10) The key here is that NONE have been met. Expect students to identify the goals, recognize they have not been met and hypothesize why. There are many rationales that may be used including the fact that they were politically determined without appropriate consideration for educational realism, funding difficulties, etc. Establish your own Rubric
11) One would hope students recall earlier reform efforts and discover that change has not really happened too much of a degree since the first part of the 20th century. Students could point to a lack of meaningful staff development, a lack of buy-in over the years, or other factors. This is a complex higher-order question and the depth to which students can respond will depend on what has been done in class, not just what is in the text.
12) The study showed that charter schools were not any better or worse; the promise was not fulfilled. In some states there was a move for alternative charter schools providing more freedom from local boards and administrations. A much higher level of independence was allowed.
13) Most students should support the statement. The law requires a great amount of assessment so test makers jumped on the bandwagon and are making a fortune design tests for individual states, etc. I suppose some could refute the statement by indicating states and school districts could make up their own tests or use only what is already available.
14) Proponents usually point to: (1) teach a particular set of values and beliefs, (2) accomplish more academically than in the public schools, (3) customize and individualize the instruction and curriculum to each child, (4) use approaches other than those that are typical in the regular schools, (5) enhance family relationships, (6) provide guided and reasoned social interactions, and (7) provide a safer environment. Some opponents have pointed to the lack of diversity in social settings and reduced opportunities for co-curricular involvement.
15) The federal government exerts influence by creating "voluntary" standards, compliances, etc. States and districts do not have to sign on, but if they do not, they sacrifice federal funds; in other words it is a bribe. This assumes students have knowledge other than what is in the text, but a graduate student should recognize the pattern. You may remind them that national speed limits were once established by refusing highway funds to states that did not comply, etc.
16) They Hate Standards because Standards are an "unfunded mandate" and because they want the states to have the freedom to develop their own programs to address local problems. They favor elimination of the Cabinet office, created as a separate department by President Carter in 1979 to elevate the federal government’s profile on what had been considered a primarily local concern and because they say that the 30-year-old agency had failed students and that the states could do a better job. Tea partiers believe, “I think I would rather have local school boards, teachers, parents, people … deciding about your schools and not have it in Washington.” They want to see the federal agency abolished. At least 10 Republican tea party candidates have either considered or called for an end to the agency, which for fiscal 2010 had a discretionary budget of $46.8 billion.

17) Academic Scientism (1890-1916): Academic influence was result of systematic and somewhat effective efforts of colleges to shape the curriculum for basic education while scientific influences results from attempts of educational theorists to use newly developed scientific knowledge in decisions making about the mission of the school and content of curriculum.

Progressive Functionalism (1917-1940): Characterized by child-centered orientation and the functional orientation of curriculum scientists.

Developmental Conformism (1941-1956): This era of educational history was a transition period. This was a turbulent time period with international conflict and tension since the US entered WWII, racial unrest in the US, and the dawning of the atomic age.

Scholarly Structuralism (1957-1967): The time was a time when the factors producing the international tensions continued and Sputnik was launched creating a focus on educational math and science with President Johnson allocating aid from the federal level.

Romantic Radicalism (1968 – 1974): This era was a time of national fragmentation and upheaval. A strongly vocal “counterculture” developed, espousing the virtues of drug-induced hallucinogenic visions, rock music, and spontaneous “openness” in all relationships.

Privatistic Conservatism (1975-1989): This period was strongly conservative, increasing religiosity, and included widespread immigration.

Technological Constructionism (1990-1999): This era can be viewed as a time of digital opportunity, content standards, school choice, voucher legislation, homeschooling.

Modern Conservatism (2000-present): Educational reform became one of the most divisive issues in America. Components that have influence on education: Race to the Top, Common Core Standards, The Tea Party.

18) School Effectiveness and School Reform: Purkey and Smith (1983) outlined the key factors in Effective schools. Focus on Organizational and structural variable and Process variables= Over the years, the Correlates have been refined and expanded to



the following:

  • Instructional Leadership

  • Clear and Focused Mission

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Climate of High Expectations

  • Frequent Monitoring of Student Progress

  • Positive Home-School Relations

  • Opportunity to Learn and Student Time on Task

19) Benjamin Bloom: Bloom’s taxonomy supporting levels of thinking and learning with a focus on helping students go to higher levels; John Goodlad: clear vision of what schools could become; James Banks: focus on multicultural education; Elliott Eisner: development of aesthetic intelligence; Robert Marzano: focus on strategies that work and habits of mind; Joseph Renzulli: focus on creativity and giftedness; Linda Darling Hammond: assisted with the National Teaching Standards; Carol Ann Tomlinson: made differentiated instruction a common concept.




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