Chapter 17: Seedless Vascular Plants Multiple-Choice Questions Evolution of Vascular Plants; pp. 391-392; moderate; ans: d



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Chapter 17: Seedless Vascular Plants

Multiple-Choice Questions
1. Evolution of Vascular Plants; pp. 391-392; moderate; ans: d

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic shared by bryophytes and vascular plants?


a. multicellular embryos

b. a charophycean-alga-like ancestor

c. a monophyletic lineage

d. dominant gametophytes

e. an alternation of heteromorphic generations
2. Evolution of Vascular Plants; p. 392; difficult; ans: d

In the evolution of vascular plants, there is a trend toward the:


a. above-ground parts becoming structurally similar to the below-ground parts.

b. progressive reduction of the sporophyte.

c. sporophyte becoming nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte.

d. increased protection of the gametophyte by the sporophyte.

e. production of seeds in all lineages.
3. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 393; easy; ans: d

The main tissue systems of the vascular plant are the ______ systems.


a. root and shoot

b. root, shoot, and reproductive

c. root, stem, and leaf

d. dermal, vascular, and ground

e. xylem, phloem, and ground
4. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 393; moderate; ans: c

Which of the following statements about primary growth is FALSE?


a. It occurs close to the tips of stems and roots.

b. It is initiated by the apical meristems.

c. It primarily leads to thickening of the plant body.

d. It gives rise to primary tissues.

e. It gives rise to the primary plant body.
5. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 394; easy; ans: e

The cork cambium is a(n) ______ meristem that produces________.


a. apical; ground tissue

b. apical; cork

c. lateral; phloem

d. lateral; xylem

e. lateral; periderm
6. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 394; easy; ans: d

The conducting cells of the phloem are called:


a. tracheids.

b. vessel elements.

c. leaf traces.

d. sieve elements.

e. hydroids.
7. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 395; moderate; ans: b

Tracheids differ from vessel elements in that tracheids:


a. have lignified thickenings.

b. are less-specialized cells.

c. are a type of tracheary element.

d. conduct water and minerals.

e. provide support.
8. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 395; moderate; ans: a

What do ALL steles have in common?


a. primary xylem and primary phloem

b. a pith

c. leaf gaps

d. dermal tissue

e. vascular and cork cambia
9. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 396; moderate; ans: e

The siphonostele of ferns:


a. is the most primitive type of stele.

b. consists of a solid core of vascular tissues.

c. occurs only in the roots.

d. has a series of discrete strands around a central pith.

e. has leaf gaps.
10. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 396; moderate; ans: c

Microphylls differ from megaphylls in that microphylls:


a. occur in most vascular plants.

b. are associated with leaf gaps.

c. are associated with protosteles.

d. have branched veins.

e. evolved from branch systems.


11. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; pp. 396, 397; moderate; ans: b

Which sequence of events most likely describes the evolution of megaphylls?

a. Overtopping, dichotomous branching, planation, webbing

b. Dichotomous branching, overtopping, planation, webbing

c. Planation, dichotomous branching, overtopping, webbing

d. Webbing, dichotomous branching, overtopping, planation

e. Overtopping, planation, webbing, dichotomous branching
12. Reproductive Systems; p. 397; moderate; ans: b

Which of the following statements about reproduction in vascular plants is FALSE?


a. The eggs are nonmotile.

b. The gametophyte is structurally more complex than the sporophyte.

c. All vascular plants are oogamous.

d. There is an alternation of heteromorphic generations.

e. The sporophyte is the dominant phase of the life cycle.
13. Reproductive Systems; p. 397; moderate; ans: c

In ferns, antheridiogens induce antheridia in _______ gametophytes.


a. all

b. larger, less mature

c. smaller, less mature

d. larger, more mature

e. smaller, more mature
14. Reproductive Systems; p. 398; moderate; ans: a

Heterospory differs from homospory in that heterospory involves:


a. gametophytes with endosporic development.

b. larger gametophytes.

c. bisexual gametophytes.

d. spores differentiated on the basis of size not function.

e. different types of spores produced in the same sporangium.
15. Reproductive Systems; p. 398; moderate; ans: d

Which of the following is NOT an evolutionary trend in the vascular plants?


a. Nutritional dependency of the gametophyte on the sporophyte

b. Reduction in size of the gametophyte

c. Reduction in complexity of the gametophyte

d. Increased prominence of antheridia and archegonia

e. Decreased reliance on water for transferring sperm to egg

16. The Phyla of Seedless Vascular Plants; p. 398; difficult; ans: c

The four major groups of vascular plants are:

I. monilophytes, lycophytes, and progymnosperms

II. flowering plants

III. rhyniophytes, zosterophyllophytes, and trimerophytes

IV. gymnosperms

Which of the following is the correct sequence—from earliest to most recent—of the time period in which they were dominant on Earth?
a. I, II, III, IV

b. I, III, IV, II

c. III, I, IV, II

d. III, IV, II, I

e. IV, III, I, II
17. Phylum Rhyniophyta; p. 402; difficult; ans: c

Which of the following statements about the phylum Rhyniophyta is FALSE?


a. They are the earliest well-known vascular plants.

b. They lived during the mid-Silurian.

c. They were differentiated into stems, roots, and leaves.

d. They had dichotomously branching stems.

e. They were homosporous.
18. Phylum Rhyniophyta; p. 402; moderate; ans: b

Cooksonia, a member of the phylum ______, is the oldest known ______.
a. Psilotophyta; fern

b. Rhyniophyta; vascular plant

c. Rhyniophyta; protracheophyte

d. Zosterophyllophyta; vascular plant

e. Zosterophyllophyta; protracheophyte
19. Phylum Zosterophyllophyta; p. 403; difficult; ans: e

The Zosterophyllophyta differ from the Rhyniophyta in that the Zosterophyllophyta:


a. were homosporous.

b. were not differentiated into roots, stems, and leaves.

c. had a protostele.

d. became extinct.

e. produced lateral sporangia.
20. Phylum Trimerophytophyta; p. 403; moderate; ans: c

Members of the phylum ______ probably evolved directly from the rhyniophytes and most likely are the ancestors of the ferns and progymnosperms.


a. Pteridophyta

b. Lycopodiophyta

c. Trimerophytophyta

d. Zosterophyllophyta

e. Sphenophyta

21. Phylum Lycopodiophyta; pp. 404, 406; difficult; ans: b

Which of the following statements about sporophylls in the club mosses is FALSE?


a. They are modified leaves.

b. They are borne on the gametophyte.

c. They bear sporangia.

d. They may be interspersed among sterile microphylls.

e. They may be grouped into strobili.
22. Phylum Lycopodiophyta; pp. 404-405; moderate; ans: b

In the club moss life cycle:


a. the gametophytes are unisexual.

b. a gametophyte may produce a series of sporophytes.

c. water is not required for fertilization.

d. microphylls, but not strobili, are formed.

e. the sporophyte does not usually become independent of the gametophyte.
23. Phylum Lycopodiophyta; pp. 405, 408; moderate; ans: d

Lycopodium differs from Selaginella and Isoetes in that Lycopodium:
a. is differentiated into roots, stems, and leaves.

b. has sporophylls.

c. is heterosporous.

d. lacks ligules.

e. has a protostele.
24. Phylum Lycopodiophyta; p. 405; moderate; ans: b

In the Selaginella life cycle, the archegonia:


a. protrude through the megasporophyll.

b. protrude through a rupture in the megaspore wall.

c. develop on the microsporophyll.

d. develop from the suspensor.

e. cause the microsporangial wall to rupture.
25. Phylum Lycopodiophyta; pp. 408-409; moderate; ans: a

Which of the following statements about quillworts is FALSE?


a. They have a short, fleshy above-ground stem.

b. They have a specialized cambium.

c. Some obtain carbon for photosynthesis from sediments.

d. Some have CAM photosynthesis.

e. Each leaf is a potential sporophyll.


26. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 409; easy; ans: c

Which of the following is NOT one of the major lineages of the Monilophyta?


a. Equisetopsida

b. Marattiopsida

c. Zosterophyllopsida

d. Polypodiopsida

e. Psilotopsida
27. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 409; moderate; ans: d

The common name “fern” refers to which of the following groups.


a. Psilotopsida, Polypodiopsida, and Equisetopsida only

b. Marattiopsida, Polypodiopsida, and Equisetopsida only

c. Psilotopsida, Marattiopsida, and Equisetopsida only

d. Psilotopsida, Marattiopsida, and Polypodiopsida only

e. Psilotopsida, Marattiopsida, Polypodiopsida, and Equisetopsida
28. Phylum Monilophyta; pp. 414-415; moderate; ans: a

In contrast to a eusporangium, a leptosporangium:


a. arises from a single initial cell.

b. produces more spores.

c. has a tapetum that is one cell layer thick.

d. is larger.

e. arises from one or more surface cells.
29. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 414; easy; ans: b

The innermost wall layer of a eusporangium is called the:


a. rachis.

b. tapetum.

c. annulus.

d. lip cell.

e. sporocarp.
30. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 414; easy; ans: b

The annulus is most directly involved in:


a. providing mineral ions to the capsule.

b. discharging spores.

c. protecting against dessication.

d. water uptake.

e. photosynthesis.


31. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 415; moderate; ans: c

______ is a genus of phylum Monilophyta, order Ophioglossales.


a. Azolla

b. Psaronius

c. Botrychium

d. Salvinia

e. Trichomanes
32. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 415; moderate; ans: a

Psilotum is a _______ fern belonging to the order _______.
a. eusporangiate; Psilotales.

b. eusporangiate; Psilotopsida.

c. leptosporangiate; Psilotales.

d. leptosporangiate; Psilotopsida

e. leptosporangiate; Ophioglossales
33. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 415; moderate; ans: c

Who am I? I am a eusporangiate fern belonging to the class Psilotopsida that has tiny leaves but no

roots.
a. Ophioglossum

b. Botryichium

c. Tmesipteris

d. Zostera

e. Lycopodium
34. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 415; moderate; ans: d

A eusporangiate fern with a leaf having two parts—a vegetative portion and a fertile portion—belongs to the:


a. genus Marsilea.

b. order Filicales.

c. genus Azolla.

d. genus Ophioglossum.

e. order Marattiales.
35. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 417; moderate; ans: c

A rachis is a(n):


a. type of pinna.

b. type of rhizome.

c. extension of the petiole.

d. folded portion of a frond.

e. sporangium.
36. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 417; easy; ans: b

The indusium of Polypodiopsida is a:


a. cluster of sporangia.

b. leaf outgrowth covering a sorus.

c. leaf outgrowth covering a prothallus.

d. megaphyll.

e. “fiddlehead.”
37. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 418; difficult; ans: a

In a typical member of Polypodiopsida, the:


a. antheridia and archegonia form on the prothallus.

b. gametophyte persists long after the sporophyte has become independent.

c. roots develop by circinate vernation.

d. sporangia are produced on the upper surface of the leaves.

e. rhizomes are the most conspicuous part of the sporophyte.
38. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 418; easy; ans: b

The prothallus of Polypodiopsida is a(n):


a. cluster of sporangia.

b. heart-shaped gametophyte.

c. outgrowth of a leaf.

d. type of pinna.

e. portion of the rachis.
39. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 419; moderate; ans: a

Trichomanes speciosum is an example of a fern:
a. lacking a sporophyte stage.

b. lacking a gametophyte stage.

c. lacking gemmae.

d. producing thalloid sporophytes.

e. producing filamentous sporophytes.
40. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 419; difficult; ans: d

The Marsileaceae and Salviniaceae differ from the other families of ferns in that the Marsileaceae and Salviniaceae:


a. are leptosporangiate.

b. are eusporangiate.

c. are homosporous.

d. are heterosporous.

e. produce leaves in whorls of three.

41. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 419; moderate; ans: c

An example of a water fern that produces bean-shaped sporocarps is:


a. Azolla.

b. Salvinia.

c. Marsilea.

d. Botrychium.

e. Ophioglossum.
42. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 419; easy; ans: b

______ is a water fern that bears sporangia on submerged, rootlike leaves.


a. Azolla

b. Salvinia

c. Marsilea

d. Botrychium

e. Ophioglossum
43. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 421; easy; ans: d

Carinal canals and conspicuously jointed stems are characteristic of the:


a. club mosses.

b. quillworts.

c. whisk ferns.

d. horsetails.

e. resurrection plants.
44. Phylum Monilophyta; pp. 422, 424; moderate; ans: b

Which of the following statements about the Equisetum life cycle is FALSE?


a. Sporangia are borne along the margins of sporangiophores.

b. Spore dispersal is facilitated by elaters similar to those of Marchantia.

c. Gametophytes may be bisexual.

d. Sperm are multiflagellated.

e. Gametophytes are green and free-living.

True-False Questions
1. Evolution of Vascular Plants; p. 392; easy; ans: T

The great height reached by some vascular plants was made possible by the evolution of the ability to synthesize lignin.


2. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 393; easy; ans: T

The vascular tissue system is embedded in the ground tissue system.


3. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 393; easy; ans: T

The vertical growth of the plant is an example of primary growth.


4. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 394; easy; ans: T

Tracheary elements are the conducting cells of the xylem.


5. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 395; moderate; ans: F

Tracheids most likely evolved from vessel elements.


6. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 395; easy; ans: F

A eustele has a pith, but a siphonostele does not.


7. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 396; moderate; ans: T

Microphylls are associated with stems possessing protosteles.


8. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 396; moderate; ans: F

The blade of a megaphyll contains only a single vein.


9. Reproductive Systems; p. 397; moderate; ans: T

Antheridiogens are water-soluble substances that affect sex expression.


10. Reproductive Systems; p. 398; moderate; ans: F

In angiosperms and most gymnosperms, the entire megagametophyte is the pollen grain.


11. The Phyla of Seedless Vascular Plants; p. 398; moderate; ans: T

Three of the phyla of seedless vascular plants—Rhyniophyta, Zosterophyllophyta, and Trimerophytophyta—had become extinct by the end of the Devonian period.


12. Phylum Zosterophyllophyta; p. 403; moderate; ans: T

The zosterophyllophytes were most likely the ancestors of the lycophytes.


13. Phylum Lycopodiophyta; p. 404; moderate; ans: F

In Lycopodium, the sporangia are borne on microsporophylls and megasporophylls.


14. Phylum Lycopodiophyta; p. 405; moderate; ans: F

Selaginella is homosporous, with bisexual gametophytes.
15. Phylum Lycopodiophyta; p. 408; moderate; ans: T

Each leaf of Isoetes is a potential sporophyll, capable of bearing either megasporangia or microsporangia.


16. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 412; moderate; ans: F

The thick trunk of tree ferns is due to the functioning of a vascular cambium.


17. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 414; moderate; ans: T

In a eusporangium, the initials divide by the formation of walls parallel to the surface.


18. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 414; moderate; ans: T

The tapetum of a leptosporangium consists of two layers.


19. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 415; moderate; ans: T

Psilotum has tiny leaves but lacks roots.
20. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 417; moderate; ans: T

All ferns other than Psilotopsida and Marattiopsida are leptosporangiate.


21. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 417; easy; ans: F

Circinate vernation is a type of branching pattern in a megaphyll.


22. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 419; easy; ans: T

Sporocarps are produced by members of the genus Marsilea.


23. Phylum Monilophyta; pp. 419, 421; easy; ans: T

Horsetails are homosporous plants having jointed stems.


24. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 421; easy; ans: F

In Equisetum, strobili are clustered into sporangiophores.



Essay Questions
1. Evolution of Vascular Plants; pp. 391-392; moderate

Summarize the key events in the evolution of vascular plants from a charophycean-algal-like organism.


2. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; pp. 393–394; moderate

Explain the differences between primary and secondary growth.


3. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 395; moderate

Discuss the evolution of tracheary elements. In what way is this an example of convergent evolution?


4. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; pp. 395–396; difficult

Describe the three main types of steles and their hypothesized evolution.


5. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; pp. 396, 397; easy

Describe the evolution of megaphylls.


6. Reproductive Systems; pp. 397-398; moderate

Discuss the main differences between homospory and heterospory.


7. Reproductive Systems; p. 398; moderate

Describe the ways in which the gametophytes of vascular plants have evolved.


8. The Phyla of Seedless Vascular Plants; p. 398; difficult

Discuss the evolution of primitive vascular plants by using representatives of the rhyniophytes, zosterophyllophytes, and trimerophytes.


9. Phylum Lycopodiophyta; pp. 403–409; moderate

Compare and contrast the Lycopodiaceae, Selaginaceae, and Isoetaceae.


10. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 414; moderate

How is the development of a eusporangium different from that of a leptosporangium?


11. Phylum Monilophyta; pp. 415–425; difficult

What are the features that distinguish the Psilotopsida, Polypodiopsida, and Equisetopsida? Sketch a representative life cycle of each.


12. Phylum Monilophyta; pp. 419-421, 424-425; moderate

Equisetum is probably the oldest surviving plant genus. Describe the structure and reproduction of this plant.


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