Chapter 14 In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion



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  • Chapter 14
  • _____________________________________________________
  • Structure of the chapter:
  • The Modern Challenges to Religion
  • Non-Modern Religious Beliefs Today
  • MODERN RELIGION
  • Modern Religion and Other Stages
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • Modern Challenges to Religion
  • scientific worldviews
  • secularity
  • autonomous selfhood
  • the tentativeness of
  • knowledge.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • The Challenge of
  • Scientific Worldviews
  • -- naturalism (no miracles)?
  • -- aimless universe?
  • -- darwinism and its challenges (ch. 12)
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • The Challenge of
  • Secularity
  • give up other-worldliness
  • to improve this world:
  • seek to decrease
  • war, poverty, disease, child
  • abuse, abuse of women,
  • slavery, torture, oppression of
  • the weak, injustice . . . .
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • The Challenge of
  • Autonomous selfhood
  • OR: obey God,
  • follow religious
  • tradition; do what
  • the Church says.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • The Challenge of
  • The tentativeness of knowledge
  • OR:
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • Structure of the chapter:
  • The Modern Challenges to Religion
  • Non-Modern Religious Beliefs Today
  • MODERN RELIGION
  • Modern Religion and Other Stages
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • Non-Modern Religious Beliefs Today
  • Rev. Pat Robertson
  • Famous fundamentalist
  • Amish in the City –
  • And numerous traditional
  • Religious groups today.
  • David Koresh,
  • Branch Davidians, Waco
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • Non-Modern Religious Beliefs Today
  • For the essay exam, be able to indicate how these three groups
  • – fundamentalists, sects like the Amish, and a “cult” like Brand Davidians –
  • React to the four challenges of modernity.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • Structure of the chapter:
  • The Modern Challenges to Religion
  • Non-Modern Religious Beliefs Today
  • MODERN RELIGION
  • Modern Religion and Other Stages
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science
  • Unite religion with science
  • Wait for further developments.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • We will review 4 theologians and a skeptic,
  • just to see a range of responses to science.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • Friedrich Schleiermacher
  • 1768-1834
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • Cultural context:
  • Deism had eliminated miracles.
  • biblical miracles, the incarnation
  • and resurrection of Jesus !?
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • -- true religion = experience of the
  • divine Whole on which the entire
  • universe depends.
  • This experience is “God-consciousness.”
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • -- true religion = experience of the
  • divine Whole on which the entire
  • universe depends.
  • Religion does not depend on external
  • evidence like science does.
  • It is entirely separate from science.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • -- true religion = experience of the
  • divine Whole on which the entire
  • universe depends.
  • True religion does not depend on
  • belief in miracles.
  • [a concession to deism??]
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • -- true religion = experience of the
  • divine Whole on which the entire
  • universe depends.
  • -- all doctrines are just symbolic attempts
  • to express the basic religious experience.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • -- all doctrines are just symbolic
  • expressions of the basic
  • religious experience.
  • -- e.g. idea that Jesus is divine
  • as well as human ?
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • -- e.g. idea that Jesus is divine
  • as well as human ?
  • Just a symbol of this: Jesus had
  • the greatest God-consciousness
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • -- e.g. belief in a life after death?
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • -- e.g. belief in a life after death?
  • This is just a symbolic way of
  • expressing trust that at death a
  • person enters into final unity with
  • the Whole.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • -- result: no LITERAL
  • incarnation of God in Jesus,
  • nor life after death.
  • “Fundamentalism” defined itself
  • as a rejection of “liberal theology”
  • in the early 1900s. (See ch. 12)
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • Rudolph Otto (the “numinous” guy)
  • God = mystery, fascinating & terrifying.
  • This God can be found through religious
  • experience or feeling,
  • as Schleiermacher said.
  • 1869-1937
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • In between Schl and Otto: Feuerbach
  • Rudolph Otto (the “numinous” guy)
  • More people accept Otto than Feuerbach
  • 1869-1937
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • b. Ludwig Feuerbach
  • “inner experience can deceive us”
  • 1804-1872
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • b. Ludwig Feuerbach
  • “inner experience can deceive us”
  • We have a capacity for the infinite.
  • The infinite scares us
  • So we “project” a comforting image
  • into the sky: God, made in our own image.
  • 1804-1872
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • b. Ludwig Feuerbach
  • We attribute to this “God”
  • our own powers of thought and
  • free choice, made perfect.
  • Then we submit to this fiction we
  • have created.
  • 1804-1872
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • b. Ludwig Feuerbach
  • He did not prove God does not exist.
  • But he planted the suspicion.
  • Both Marx and Freud used this theory.
  • These 3 = “masters of suspicion.”
  • 1804-1872
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • In between Schl and Otto: Feuerbach
  • Rudolph Otto (the “numinous” guy)
  • More people accept Otto than Feuerbach.
  • Nonetheless, Feuerbach made people nervous.
  • 1869-1937
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • b. Feuerbach’s suspicion
  • c. Karl Barth’s “neo-orthodoxy”
  • 1886-1968
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • b. Feuerbach’s suspicion
  • c. Karl Barth’s “neo-orthodoxy”
  • 1886-1968
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • b. Feuerbach’s suspicion
  • c. Karl Barth’s “neo-orthodoxy”
  • no miracles
  • but faith is God’s gift
  • not something to be proven
  • or disproven by science.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • b. Feuerbach’s suspicion
  • c. Karl Barth’s “neo-orthodoxy”
  • d. Rudolph Bultmann’s
  • “Christian existentialism”
  • 1884-1976
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • d. Rudolph Bultmann’s
  • “Christian existentialism”
  • We do “ex-ist” in the universe.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • d. Rudolph Bultmann’s
  • “Christian existentialism”
  • We do “ex-ist” in the universe.
  • Shall we then despair?
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • d. Rudolph Bultmann’s
  • “Christian existentialism”
  • We do “ex-ist” in the universe.
  • Shall we then despair?
  • No: say “nevertheless
  • I will have courage,
  • inspired by Christ.
  • Salvador Dali, 1954.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • d. Rudolph Bultmann’s
  • “Christian existentialism”
  • This echoed the position of
  • Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)
  • Fear and Trembling: Abraham.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • d. Rudolph Bultmann’s
  • “Christian existentialism”
  • This echoed the position of
  • Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)
  • Fear and Trembling: Abraham.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • d. Rudolph Bultmann’s
  • “Christian existentialism”
  • This echoed the position of
  • Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)
  • Fear and Trembling: Abraham.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • a. Schleiermacher’s “liberal theology”
  • b. Feuerbach’s suspicion
  • c. Karl Barth’s “neo-orthodoxy”
  • d. Rudolph Bultmann’s
  • “Christian existentialism”
  • e. Mircea Eliade’s phenomenology of religion
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • e. Mircea Eliade’s phenomenology of religion
  • Experience of the sacred is
  • “sui generis” -- unique.
  • The sacred cannot be grasped
  • by non-sacred methods.
  • (Primitive people are closer
  • to the sacred than moderns.)
  • [end of section on segregate]
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • [First -- two people to ignore for the exam:]
  • G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831)
  • Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • A person to recall: agnostic Julian Huxley
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • A person to recall: agnostic Julian Huxley
  • and his friend Pere Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, S.J.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
  • proposed a Christian version
  • of Huxley’s theory
  • 1881- 1955
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
  • differentiation
  • complexification
  • conscientization:
  • DESIGN
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
  • differentiation
  • complexification
  • conscientization
  • OMEGA POINT--
  • union of all with the divine
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
  • OMEGA POINT--
  • union with the divine
  • History of the universe
  • driving towards unity: LOVE
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
  • (He was forbidden to publish
  • his ideas. When he died in
  • 1955 they were still treated as
  • dangerous -- But eventually:
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Mysticized Science:
  • mingle knowledge of the universe with
  • experiencing it as sacred
  • [ignore these names also: Bohm, Davies.]
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Two more modern “arguments from design”:
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Two more modern “arguments from design”:
  • a. Anthropic Principle (“fine tuning”)
  • The apparent randomness of the universe
  • is not so random after all.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • a. Anthropic Principle
  • Also called the
  • Goldilocks argument –
  • everything is “just right.”
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Two more modern “arguments from design”:
  • a. Anthropic Principle (“fine tuning”)
  • The whole structure and history of the
  • universe looks as though it were
  • designed to allow life to appear -- and us.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • a. Anthropic Principle
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • a. Anthropic Principle
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Two arguments from design
  • a. Anthropic Principle
  • Each basic force is finely tuned
  • to cumulatively produce a universe
  • with galaxies of stars heavy elements,
  • making planets like ours possible
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Two arguments from design
  • a. Anthropic Principle
  • Each basic force is finely tuned
  • to cumulatively produce a universe
  • with galaxies of stars heavy elements,
  • making planets like ours possible -- and US.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Two arguments from design
  • a. Anthropic Principle
  • This is not Paley’s argument that LIFE is too
  • complex to be the result of accident.
  • It argues that life could arise and develop by
  • natural selection only because the whole
  • universe was finely tuned from the start.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Two more modern “arguments from design”:
  • a. Anthropic Principle (“fine tuning”)
  • b. “Intelligent Design”
  • (all arguments from design can be named this --
  • BUT: )
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • b. “Intelligent Design”
  • Wm Dembski’s design inference:
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • b. “Intelligent Design”
  • Wm Dembski’s design inference:
  • Find “highly specified complexity.”
  • Did it happen by accident? No.
  • Do the laws of nature produce it?
  • Did it have to have been designed then? Yes.
  • NATURALISM IS WRONG (?)
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • b. “Intelligent Design”
  • Wm Dembski’s design inference:
  • Find “highly specified complexity.”
  • Did it happen by accident? No.
  • Do the laws of nature produce it? No.
  • Did it have to have been designed then? Yes.
  • ALTERNATIVE: NATURAL SELECTION
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 1) scientific worldviews
  • Three different approaches:
  • Segregate religion from science.
  • Integrate religion with science.
  • Patient Moderation about Religion and Science
  • “Modern” forms of religion usually say:
  • Adapt when reasonable to do so--
  • e.g., Copernicus,
  • Darwin
  • End of part 1 of ch. 14
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • The Human Home.
  • God-given,
  • to be made better
  • in answer to a divine call,
  • to love one another.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 2) secularity
  • Modern religion values this world
  • E.g., Bishop Robinson’s 1960
  • Honest to God
  • promotes “worldly holiness” --
  • Find God in creation and others.
  • Practice religious humanism:
  • trust that God empowers us
  • to seek and achieve greater human well-being
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 2) secularity
  • Modern religion values this world
  • E.g., Liberation Theologies --
  • Latin American, black, feminist
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 2) secularity
  • Modern religion values this world
  • E.g., Liberation Theologies --
  • Latin American:
  • preferential option for
  • the poor and oppressed
  • Gustavo Gutierrez
  • 1927 --
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 2) secularity
  • Modern religion values this world
  • E.g., Black Liberation Theology
  • James Cone,
  • "Black Theology and Black Power,” 1969
  • “The truth about injustice
  • always sounds outrageous”
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 2) secularity
  • Modern religion values this world
  • E.g., Feminist Theology
  • Recovering the story of women,
  • giving them a history/reality,
  • and equal status in the human
  • family before God.
  • Phyllis Trible
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 2) secularity
  • Modern religion values this world
  • E.g., “Deep Ecology”
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 2) secularity
  • Modern religion values this world
  • E.g., “Deep Ecology”
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 2) secularity
  • Modern religion values this world
  • E.g., “Deep Ecology”
  • Older view:
  • Bible gives humans dominion over earth.
  • The end of the world is not far off.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 2) secularity
  • Modern religion values this world
  • E.g., “Deep Ecology”
  • Newer view:
  • Humans = stewards.
  • Care for God’s
  • great creation.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 3) autonomous selfhood
  • A kind of humanism.
  • Humanism implies --
  • trust in human abilities
  • to serve human well-being
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 3) autonomous selfhood
  • Humanism implies
  • trust in human abilities
  • to serve human well-being
  • Contrast traditional Xtn view:
  • We are fallen sinners.
  • Pride is the worst of sins.
  • Dirk Bouts, d. 1475.
  • “The Fall of the Damned,”
  • ca. 1450.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 3) autonomous selfhood
  • Humanism implies
  • trust in human abilities
  • to serve human well-being
  • Contrast traditional Xtn view
  • With humanism:
  • we are imperfect but capable of great good
  • With Xtn humanism, capable as God made us:
  • trust in personhood, as
  • image & likeness of God
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 3) autonomous selfhood
  • Humanism implied
  • trust in human abilities
  • to serve human well-being
  • Xtn humanism = “implicit faith”
  • that acting “autonomously”
  • is living by the value of personhood.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 3) autonomous selfhood
  • Humanism implied
  • trust in human abilities
  • to serve human well-being
  • Xtn humanism = “implicit faith”
  • that acting “autonomously”
  • is living by the value of personhood.
  • Recall: autonomy = taking responsibility
  • through inner reflection and choice.
  • This = “authentic human existence.”
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 3) autonomous selfhood
  • Humanism implied
  • trust in human abilities
  • to serve human well-being
  • Xtn humanism = “implicit faith”
  • faith that Personhood
  • is the ultimate truth –
  • that “God” is the ultimate truth,
  • that our freedom is an ‘image’ of that God.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 4) tentativeness of knl.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 4) tentativeness of knl.
  • Can Jews, Christians, Muslims, Hindus, etc.
  • treat their sacred texts and traditions as tentative?
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 4) tentativeness of knl.
  • Can Jews, Christians, Muslims, Hindus, etc.
  • treat their sacred texts and traditions as tentative?
  • Modern religious thinkers say:
  • the Ultimate is infinitely
  • greater than our knowledge.
  • Even the truth of scripture and
  • tradition cannot contain the
  • full truth of God, Allah, etc.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and 4) tentativeness of knl.
  • Can Jews, Christians, Muslims, Hindus, etc.
  • treat their sacred texts and traditions as tentative?
  • Modern religious thinkers say:
  • We should not be surprised
  • that we are still on a journey
  • of discovery about the
  • Ultimate.
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • Structure of the chapter:
  • The Modern Challenges to Religion
  • Non-Modern Religious Beliefs Today
  • MODERN RELIGION
  • Summed up in last paragraph on p. 308
  • Modern Religion and Other Stages
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and other stages of religion
  • The stages tend to accumulate:
  • primitive + archaic + historic + modern
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and other stages of religion
  • The stages tend to accumulate:
  • primitive + archaic + historic + modern
  • historic modern
  • Archaic
  • Primitive
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and other stages of religion
  • The stages tend to accumulate:
  • primitive + archaic + historic + modern
  • Modern can reject earlier modes???
  • Better to draw upon them:
  • imagination of primitive
  • narratives and images of archaic
  • intellectual and mystical sophistication of historic
  • Chapter 14
  • In the Presence of Mystery: Modern Religion
  • _____________________________________________________
  • MODERN RELIGION and other stages of religion
  • The stages tend to accumulate:
  • primitive + archaic + historic + modern
  • Modern can reject earlier modes???
  • Better to draw upon them:
  • imagination of primitive
  • narratives and images of archaic
  • intellectual & mystical sophistication of historic
  • Balanced by scientific understanding, secularity,
  • autonomy, and openness to development ?
  • End of ch. 14


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