Chapter 11 Attitudes and Influencing Attitudes Multiple Choice Questions



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Chapter 11 Attitudes and Influencing Attitudes
Multiple Choice Questions
1. When the SPCA presents facts to counter untrue myths, they are dealing most closely with the _____ component of attitudes.

A) classically conditioned

B) operantly conditioned

C) affective

D) cognitive

E) behavioral


Answer: D Page: 395 and 397
2. A learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object is known as a(n) _____.

A) belief

B) emotion

C) attitude

D) cognition

E) attribute


Answer: C Page: 396

3. Caleb learned from his parents that littering was bad, so when he sees someone doing it, he forms an unfavorable impression of that person. Caleb's learned predisposition to dislike someone who litters represents his _____.

A) emotion

B) personality

C) attitude

D) orientation

E) intelligence
Answer: C Page: 396
4. Which of the following is a function served by attitudes?

A) knowledge function

B) value-expressive function

C) utilitarian function

D) ego-defensive function

E) all of the above


Answer: E Page: 396
5. Some attitudes serve primarily as a means of organizing beliefs about objects or activities such as brands and shopping, which serves a(n) _____ function.

A) knowledge

B) value-expressive

C) utilitarian

D) ego-defensive

E) orientation


Answer: A Page: 396
6. Which function of attitudes serves to express an individual's central values and self-concept?

A) knowledge function

B) value-expressive function

C) utilitarian function

D) ego-defensive function

E) orientation function


Answer: B Page: 396
7. Josh is in elementary school, and he has learned that when he gets good grades and behavior reports, his parents are really proud of him and reward him. So he has developed a favorable attitude toward behaving and doing well in school. This attitude is serving which function?

A) knowledge function

B) value-expressive function

C) utilitarian function

D) ego-defensive function

E) orientation function


Answer: C Page: 396
8. Margaret only wants to buy her clothes at American Eagle Outfitter because she knows that they are considered acceptable by her peers, and she wants to be accepted by her peers. This attitude toward this brand of clothing is serving which function for Margaret?

A) knowledge function

B) value-expressive function

C) utilitarian function

D) ego-defensive function

E) orientation function


Answer: D Page: 396
9. Which of the following represent the three components of attitudes?

A) primary, secondary, and tertiary

B) knowledge, value-expressive, and utilitarian

C) cognitive, affective, and behavioral

D) cognitive, value-expressive, and behavioral

E) ego, personality, behavioral


Answer: C Page: 397
10. Which component of attitudes consists of a consumer's beliefs about an object?

A) affective

B) cognitive

C) factual

D) behavioral

E) utilitarian


Answer: B Page: 397
11. Mitch likes Toyota automobiles because he thinks they have the highest reliability of all automobiles. His belief about Toyota's reliability represents which component of Mitch's attitude?

A) affective

B) cognitive

C) factual

D) behavioral

E) utilitarian


Answer: B Page: 397
12. Which of the following is used to understand a consumer's cognitive component of attitude?

A) attribution theory

B) cognitive dissonance theory

C) multiattribute attitude model

D) attitude consistency theory

E) attitude perception model


Answer: C Page: 397-399
13. Which of the following can be a component of a multiattribute model?

A) a consumer's attitude toward a particular brand

B) a consumer's belief about how a brand performs on a given attribute

C) the importance the consumer attaches to an attribute

D) a consumer's ideal level of performance on an attribute

E) all of the above


Answer: E Page: 398
14. Duane is attempting to determine consumers' attitudes toward his restaurant by asking them their beliefs about how his restaurant performs on several attributes, such as price, ambience, quality of the food, and friendliness of service. Consumers can rate his restaurant with a score of 1 to 7 for each of these attributes, with 7 being the highest. Duane adds up the scores to see how he performs, using the assumption that a higher total is better. At a basic level, which type of model is Duane using?

A) multiattribute attitude model

B) cognitive assessment model

C) belief assessment model

D) summation model

E) attribute heuristic model


Answer: A Page: 398
15. An approach to measuring the importance of attitude components that requires consumers to allocate 100 points among the components such that the distribution of the points reflects the relative importance of the component is _____.

A) perceptual mapping

B) the Likert scale

C) the semantic differential scale

D) the rank-order scale

E) none of the above


Answer: E Page: 399
16. When considering consumers' ideal levels of performance on attributes when using a multiattribute attitude model, which attitude index is best?

A) 0


B) 25

C) 50


D) 100

E) over 100


Answer: A Page: 399
17. Feelings or emotional reactions to an object reflect the _____ component of an attitude.

A) knowledge

B) cognitive

C) affective

D) behavioral

E) orientation


Answer: C Page: 399
18. Kimberly-Clark is interested in mothers' emotional reactions to their Huggies brand of disposable diapers, which usually have popular characters or cute designs printed on them. Which component of attitude is Kimberly-Clark interested in?

A) knowledge

B) cognitive

C) affective

D) behavioral

E) orientation


Answer: C Page: 399
19. Janice and her mother were visiting an art gallery, and they were looking at modern art. When they came to one painting, Janice said, “I like that.” When her mother asked her why she liked it, all she could say was, “I don't know, I just like it.” Which component of attitude does this represent?

A) cognitive

B) affective

C) behavioral

D) latent

E) manifest


Answer: B Page: 399
20. Nike has several models of athletic shoes, and most have high functionality. However, several models are also sleek looking and can actually make a fashion statement for the wearer as well as performing the functional aspects of the product. By going beyond the cognitive associations of functionality and attempting to tap consumers' affective reactions, Nike and other marketers are developing products with _____.

A) aesthetic appeal

B) aspirational appeal

C) benefit appeal

D) social appeal

E) personality appeal


Answer: A Page: 400
21. SAM (Self-Assessment Manikin) is used to assess which component of attitude?

A) cognitive

B) affective

C) behavioral

D) orientation

E) personality


Answer: B Page: 401-402
22. Why are the SAM and adSAM measures effective across cultures?

A) because the pictorial representations don't require translation or alteration

B) because the numerical representations don't require translation or alteration

C) because they are based on emotions

D) because they are based on attitudes

E) because the musical representations do not include lyrics


Answer: A Page: 401-402
23. Which component of attitude represents one's tendency to respond in a certain manner toward an object or activity?

A) cognitive

B) affective

C) behavioral

D) orientation

E) personality


Answer: C Page: 402
24. How are actual behaviors and response tendencies most often measured?

A) physiological measures

B) multiattribute models

C) SAM and adSAM

D) direct questioning

E) 100-point constant-sum scales


Answer: D Page: 402
25. Which of the following statements adequately reflects the concept of attitude component consistency?

A) All three attitude components do not change over time.

B) A change in one attitude component tends to produce related changes in the other components.

C) The three attitude components operate independently from each other, so a change in one component does not necessarily mean the others will change.

D) All three attitude components are equal in their influence on one's attitude.

E) Each component is equally important regardless of the situation.


Answer: B Page: 403
26. Which of the following is a factor that may account for inconsistencies between measures of beliefs and feelings and observations of behavior?

A) lack of need

B) failure to consider relative attitudes

C) failure to consider interpersonal influence

D) failure to consider situational factors

E) all of the above


Answer: E Page: 403-404
27. Which of the following is NOT a factor accounting for inconsistencies between measures of beliefs and feelings and observations of behavior?

A) lack of need

B) lack of ability

C) weakly held beliefs and affect

D) failure to consider negative reactions

E) failure to consider interpersonal influence


Answer: D Page: 403-404
28. Which theory holds that behavioral intentions are based on a combination of the attitude toward a specific behavior, the social or normative beliefs about the appropriateness of the behavior, and the motivation to comply with the normative beliefs?

A) cognitive dissonance theory

B) theory of reasoned action

C) elaboration likelihood model

D) attribution theory

E) noncompensatory theory


Answer: B Page: 404
29. Eric is 25 years old and has a favorable attitude toward drinking alcohol. However, he knows that he should not drink and drive, so he always makes sure that someone in his group is the designated driver. Which theory can explain his behavior?

A) cognitive dissonance theory

B) theory of reasoned action

C) elaboration likelihood model

D) attribution theory

E) noncompensatory theory


Answer: B Page: 404
30. Which of the following is a strategy for altering the cognitive component of a consumer's attitude?

A) change beliefs

B) shift importance

C) add beliefs

D) change ideal

E) all of the above


Answer: E Page: 406
31. For years, American automobiles did not have the level of quality that foreign, particularly Japanese, automobiles had. However, that has changed, and most automobiles built in the United States have comparable or superior quality than imports. Consumers' attitudes are slow to change, however, and marketers must use which strategy to change the cognitive component of consumers' attitudes?

A) change beliefs

B) shift importance

C) add beliefs

D) change ideal

E) change feelings


Answer: A Page: 406
32. In an attempt to alter consumers' cognitive component of their attitude toward Pepsi brand of cola, a freshness date was added on the cans. Pepsi wanted consumers to consider this attribute that was never a consideration before. Pepsi was using which strategy to alter the cognitive structure of a consumer's attitude?

A) change beliefs

B) shift importance

C) add beliefs

D) change ideal

E) change feelings


Answer: C Page: 406
33. Which of the following is an approach used by marketers to increase consumers' affect toward their brand?

A) classical conditioning

B) create a positive affect toward the ad or Web site

C) mere exposure

D) a and b

E) a, b, and c


Answer: E Page: 406-408
34. The owner of a local restaurant wants to enhance consumers' attitudes toward his restaurant by changing the affective component of their attitude. Which of the following is an appropriate approach to achieve this objective?

A) Change consumers' beliefs about attributes of his restaurant.

B) Use positive music in their advertisements so that over time consumers will transfer the positive affect associated with the music to the restaurant.

C) Convince consumers that an attribute for which this restaurant is strong is more important than other attributes consumers consider for this product category.

D) Inform consumers that delivery is now available.

E) Offer coupons to get consumers to visit the restaurant.


Answer: B Page: 406-407
35. Simply presenting a brand to an individual on a large number of occasions might make the individual's attitude toward the brand more positive is known as _____.

A) mere exposure

B) the familiarity effect

C) positive exposure

D) repetitive exposure

E) the saturation effect


Answer: A Page: 408
36. How does mere exposure enhance attitudes?

A) by changing beliefs

B) by adding beliefs

C) through enhanced familiarity

D) through shifting importance

E) by changing perceptions of the ideal


Answer: C Page: 408
37. For which type of products can affect, emotions, and Aad play a role in more conscious, high-involvement settings?

A) durable products

B) hedonic products

C) services

D) high–price products

E) nondurable products


Answer: B Page: 409
38. Changing behavior prior to changing affect or cognition is based primarily on _____.

A) classical conditioning

B) operant conditioning

C) iconic rote learning

D) analytical reasoning

E) mere exposure


Answer: B Page: 409
39. Which of the following is a common technique for inducing trial behavior?

A) coupons

B) free samples

C) point-of-purchase displays

D) tie-in purchases

E) all of the above


Answer: E Page: 409
40. Which of the following is an individual factor that can influence attitude change?

A) program context

B) level of viewer distraction

C) buying occasion

D) consumer knowledge

E) all of the above


Answer: D Page: 409
41. Which of the following is a theory about how attitudes are formed and changed under varying conditions of involvement?

A) cognitive dissonance theory

B) theory of reasoned action

C) elaboration likelihood model

D) attribution theory

E) noncompensatory theory


Answer: C Page: 409
42. The elaboration likelihood model posits two routes to persuasion, which are the _____.

A) primary route and secondary route

B) temporary route and permanent route

C) central route and peripheral route

D) manifest route and latent route

E) direct route and indirect route


Answer: C Page: 410
43. Carissa is highly involved is a purchase decision for a new car. She has searched the Internet, visited car dealerships, talked to friends and family, and paid attention to advertisements. According to the elaboration likelihood model, by which route is Carissa likely to be persuaded?

A) primary route

B) secondary route

C) central route

D) peripheral route

E) direct route


Answer: C Page: 410
44. Which of the following is FALSE regarding the central route to persuasion in the elaboration likelihood model?

A) Consumers exhibit high involvement with the product, message, or decision.

B) Consumers exhibit strong attention focused on central, product-related features and factual information.

C) Consumers experience conscious thoughts about product attributes and use outcomes.

D) Persuasion operates through classical conditioning.

E) Persuasion generally alters product beliefs.


Answer: D Page: 410
45. Dana is watching television when a commercial for a brand of bathroom cleaner comes on. She is not very interested in the product category, but the ad was entertaining and made her laugh. As a result, she had a positive attitude toward the brand of cleaner advertised. According to the elaboration likelihood model, which route to persuasion influenced Dana?

A) primary route

B) secondary route

C) central route

D) peripheral route

E) indirect route


Answer: D Page: 410
46. Generally speaking, compared to attitudes formed under the peripheral route, attitudes formed under the central route tend to be _____.

A) stronger

B) more resistant to counterpersuasion attempts

C) more accessible from memory

D) more predictive of behavior

E) all of the above


Answer: E Page: 411
47. Addison is a brand manager and wants consumers to form attitudes that are strong, resistant to counterpersuasion attempts, more accessible from memory, and more predictive of behavior. Which route of the elaboration likelihood model should he encourage consumers to take?

A) primary route

B) secondary route

C) central route

D) peripheral route

E) direct route


Answer: C Page: 411
48. The source of a communication represents _____.

A) “how” a message is communicated

B) “who” delivers the message

C) the “what” of the message

D) the “when” of the message

E) the “where” of the message


Answer: B Page: 412
49. _____ consists of trustworthiness and expertise.

A) A two-sided message

B) The two routes to persuasion

C) Message appeal

D) Source credibility

E) Message structure


Answer: D Page: 412
50. Dr. Rosenfeld is the doctor on Sunday House Call, a Sunday morning health program on the Fox News channel. Dr. Rosenfeld is highly esteemed in his field and provides up-to-date medical information for viewers. Sometimes he recommends specific products, and Valerie, a regular viewer of the program, trusts what he says or recommends because he doesn't seem to have an apparent motive to mislead viewers. Which characteristic does Dr. Rosenfeld possess?

A) source credibility

B) source derogation

C) source experience

D) source likeability

E) source attractiveness


Answer: A Page: 412
51. In which type of ad does a person, generally a typical member of the target market, recount his or her successful use of the product, service, or idea?

A) single message

B) two-sided message

C) comparative ad

D) testimonial ad

E) demonstration


Answer: D Page: 412
52. Anne appears in a television commercial for a local chiropractor. She tells the audience how she suffered from migraine headaches several times a month. However, once she started treatment at this particular chiropractor, her headaches disappeared. She claimed, “I kept expecting them to come back, but they didn't. I have a whole new lease on life, thanks to Peavy Chiropractic!” Which type of ad is this?

A) single message

B) two-sided message

C) comparative ad

D) testimonial ad

E) demonstration


Answer: D Page: 412
53. Advertisements and packages for Kellogg's Smart Start breakfast cereal include the seal of the American Heart Association, indicating that it is a hearty-healthy choice. This seal can influence consumers to purchase this brand because the American Heart Association has a reputation of trustworthiness and expertise. The seal appearing on packages and in advertisements represents a _____.

A) third-party endorsement

B) testimonial

C) two-sided message

D) sponsorship

E) message frame


Answer: A Page: 412
54. Which of the following is NOT a reason why celebrity sources are effective?

A) Celebrities may attract attention to the advertisement.

B) A celebrity's likeability and popularity often translate into higher Aad which can enhance brand attitudes.

C) Some celebrities are also experts.

D) Celebrities are physically attractive, and research has shown that individuals will agree with a physically attractive person regardless of the message or their own initial attitude.

E) Consumers may identify with or desire to emulate the celebrity.


Answer: D Page: 413-414
55. Which of the following do marketers need to be concerned about with respect to using celebrities as company spokespersons?

A) overexposure of the celebrity

B) negative behavior involving the spokesperson

C) image of the celebrity does not match the image of the product or brand

D) a and b

E) a, b, and c


Answer: E Page: 414
56. Tony the Tiger, the Jolly Green Giant, and the Aflac duck are examples of _____.

A) celebrity spokespersons

B) sponsors

C) spokescharacters

D) two-sided messages

E) inanimate celebrity characters


Answer: C Page: 415
57. Spokescharacters can be _____.

A) animated animals

B) animated people

C) animated products

D) animated objects

E) all of the above


Answer: E Page: 415
58. Which of the following occurs when a company provides financial support for an event such as the Olympics or a concert?

A) third-party endorsement

B) sponsorship

C) celebrity endorsement

D) source credibility

E) two-sided message


Answer: B Page: 415
59. Appeal characteristics represent _____ a message is communicated.

A) by whom

B) when

C) where

D) how

E) the timing by which


Answer: D Page: 416
60. Which type of appeal uses the threat of negative (unpleasant) consequence if attitudes or behaviors are not altered?

A) one-sided message

B) two-sided message

C) fear appeals

D) humorous appeals

E) comparative ads


Answer: C Page: 416
61. A long-running television commercial for Dial soap would show an individual in various situations with other people (e.g., car pool or elevator). This individual would join the others and look around, appearing to be in discomfort. Then a voice over would say, “Aren't you glad you used Dial...don't you wish everyone did?” Which type of appeal does this illustrate?

A) one-sided message

B) two-sided message

C) fear appeal

D) third-party endorsement

E) comparative ad


Answer: C Page: 416
62. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding humorous appeals?

A) Ads built around humor appear to increase attention to the ad.

B) The overall effectiveness of humor is generally increased when the humor relates to the product or brand in a meaningful way.

C) Humorous ads are low risk because they tend to translate well across situations and cultures.

D) Companies have been successful using humor that is only loosely tied to the product.

E) Ads built around humor appear to increase liking of the ad.


Answer: C Page: 416-417
63. Which type of ad directly compares the features or benefits of two or more brands?

A) one-sided message

B) two-sided message

C) fear appeal

D) third-party endorsement

E) comparative ad


Answer: E Page: 417
64. An advertisement for AT&T long distance telephone service split the screen in two and showed a person on each screen talking on the telephone. Below each person, there was a running total of the cost of the call. At the end of the commercial, the total cost on the AT&T side was lower than that for the Sprint side. This is an example of which type of ad?

A) one-sided message

B) two-sided message

C) fear appeal

D) third-party endorsement

E) comparative ad


Answer: E Page: 417
65. Which of the following statement is true regarding comparative advertising?

A) Comparative advertising is more effective regardless of the source.

B) Comparative advertising is particularly effective for promoting established, market-share leader brands.

C) Audience characteristics, especially brand loyalty associated with the sponsoring brand, are important.

D) Broadcast media, particularly radio, appear to be better vehicles for comparative advertisements.

E) A partially comparative ad is one in which a specific competitor is not named.


Answer: C Page: 418-419
66. Which type of ad is designed primarily to elicit a positive affective response rather than to provide information or arguments?

A) one-sided message

B) two-sided message

C) fear appeal

D) emotional ad

E) comparative ad


Answer: D Page: 419
67. Which of the following is NOT a way emotional ads may enhance persuasion?

A) by increasing attention of the ad and, therefore, ad recall

B) by increasing liking of the ad

C) by increasing product liking through classical conditioning

D) by increasing product liking through high-involvement processes

E) all of the above are ways emotional ads may enhance persuasion


Answer: E Page: 419
68. Which type of appeal attempts to build a personality for the product or create an image of the product user?

A) humorous appeal

B) utilitarian appeal

C) value-expressive appeal

D) hedonic appeal

E) emotional appeal


Answer: C Page: 420
69. Instead of featuring any functional benefits of the product or brand in ads for the iPod, this product was introduced by showing a silhouette of a person dancing with the white earbuds and holding a white iPod MP3 player. Which type of advertising appeal does this illustrate?

A) one-sided message

B) two-sided message

C) testimony

D) value-expressive appeal

E) utilitarian appeal


Answer: D Page: 420
70. Which type of appeal involves informing the consumer of one or more functional benefits that are important to the target market?

A) multi-sided message

B) value-expressive appeal

C) utilitarian appeal

D) factual appeal

E) supportive appeal


Answer: C Page: 420
71. An advertisement for the Honda Civic Hybrid featured gas mileage in the subheading (49 city/51 highway). The copy also noted that owners of this automobile may be eligible for a clean-fuel tax deduction. At the time this ad appeared, gas was over $3.00 per gallon, which made the information important to consumers. This is an example of which type of appeal?

A) value-expressive appeal

B) comparative ad

C) two-sided message

D) utilitarian appeal

E) supportive appeal


Answer: D Page: 420
72. Which of the following is true regarding value-expressive versus utilitarian appeals?

A) Utilitarian appeals attempt to build a personality for the product or create an image of the product user.

B) Utilitarian appeals are most effective for functional products.

C) Products serve either a utilitarian purpose or a value-expressive purpose but not both.

D) For value-expressive products, banner ads on Web sites serve primarily to transport consumers to the more detailed target ads or sites.

E) all of the above


Answer: B Page: 420-421
73. Advertisements or sales messages in which only one point of view is expressed are referred to as _____.

A) biased messages

B) one-sided messages

C) two-sided messages

D) utilitarian appeals

E) noncomparative ads


Answer: B Page: 421
74. Toyota offers a hybrid version of its popular Highlander mid-sized SUV. The advertising for this car features the positive benefits of owning a hybrid, but it fails to mention that the Hybrid is considerably more expensive than the conventional version of the model. This is an example of a(n) _____.

A) biased message

B) one-sided message

C) two-sided message

D) positive appeal

E) comparative ad


Answer: B Page: 421
75. Which type of advertisement or sales presentation presents both good and bad points?

A) unbiased message

B) one-sided message

C) two-sided message

D) positive/negative message

E) balanced message


Answer: C Page: 421
76. For years, L'Oreal hair color would say in their ad that L'Oreal is “expensive, but you're worth it.” This is an example of which type of advertisement?

A) truthful message

B) one-sided message

C) two-sided message

D) negative/positive message

E) balanced message


Answer: C Page: 421
77. _____ refers to presenting one of two equivalent value outcomes either in positive or gain terms or in negative or loss terms.

A) Message sidedness

B) Message framing

C) Benefit segmentation

D) Positive/negative message

E) Priming


Answer: B Page: 422
78. The simplest form of message framing where only a single attribute is the focus of the frame is known as _____.

A) priming

B) a one-sided message

C) goal framing

D) simple framing

E) attribute framing


Answer: E Page: 422
79. Which type of message framing stresses either the positive outcomes of performing a behavior or the negative outcomes of not performing a behavior?

A) attribute framing

B) two-sided framing

C) goal framing

D) end-state framing

E) benefit/loss framing


Answer: C Page: 422
80. Segmenting consumers on the basis of their most important attribute or attributes is called _____.

A) benefit segmentation

B) demographic segmentation

C) psychographic segmentation

D) attribute segmentation

E) utilitarian segmentation


Answer: A Page: 422

True/False Questions
81. Attitudes serve four key functions for individuals: knowledge function, value-expressive function, utilitarian function, and a heuristic function.
Answer: False Page: 396
82. The cognitive component of attitude consists of a consumer's beliefs about an object.
Answer: True Page: 397
83. The affective component of an attitude is one's tendency to respond in a certain manner toward an object or activity.
Answer: False Page: 399
84. One critical aspect of attitudes is that all three components tend to be consistent.
Answer: True Page: 403
85. Four basic marketing strategies used for altering the cognitive structure of a consumer's attitude are: change beliefs, shift importance, add beliefs, and change ideal.
Answer: True Page: 406
86. There is evidence that affect or brand preference may be increased by mere exposure.
Answer: True Page: 408
87. The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion posits two routes to persuasion: direct route and indirect route.
Answer: False Page: 409-410
88. If competing brands are comparable in terms of product features (central cues), then consistent with the elaboration likelihood model, under high involvement, peripheral cues like pleasant music will have no influence on brand preferences.
Answer: False Page: 411
89. A credible source can enhance message processing and acceptance.
Answer: True Page: 412
90. Sponsorship occurs when a company provides financial support for an event.
Answer: True Page: 415
91. Research has shown that using high levels of fear in advertising such that consumers feel threatened are the most effective.
Answer: False Page: 416
92. Broadcast media, particularly television, appear to be better vehicles for comparative advertisements, because broadcast lends itself to more thorough comparisons.
Answer: False Page: 419
93. Value-expressive appeals involve informing the consumers of one or more functional benefits that are important to the target market.
Answer: False Page: 420
94. A two-sided message presents both good and bad points.
Answer: True Page: 421
95. The simplest form of message framing is Attribute Framing, where only a single attribute is the focus of the frame.
Answer: True Page: 422
96. In a goal framing setting, a positive frame is generally the most effective.
Answer: False Page: 422
97. Segmenting consumers on the basis of the most important attribute or attributes is called benefit segmentation.
Answer: True Page: 422

Essay Questions
98. Name and describe the four functions attitudes serve for individuals.
Page: 396

Answer:


Attitudes serve four key functions for individuals:

  1. Knowledge function--serves as a means of organizing beliefs about objects or activities such as brands and shopping. These attitudes can be accurate or inaccurate with respect to objective reality, but the attitude rather than reality will often determine behaviors.

  2. Value-expressive function--attitudes serve to express an individual's central values and self-concept.

  3. Utilitarian function--based on operant conditioning. People tend to form favorable attitudes toward objects and activities that are rewarding and negative attitudes toward those that are not.

  4. Ego-defensive function--people form and use attitudes to defend their egos and self-images against threats and shortcomings.

99. A local Kia automobile dealership owner conducted some informal market research and found that many consumers had negative attitudes toward this brand. Explain what can be done to change the cognitive component of consumers' attitudes.


Page: 405-406

Answer:


Four basic marketing strategies are used for altering the cognitive structure of a consumer' s attitude:

  1. Change Beliefs--involves shifting beliefs about the performance of the brand on one or more attributes. Attempts to change beliefs generally involve providing facts or statements about performance.

  2. Shift Importance--most consumers consider some product attributes to be more important than others. Marketers often try to convince consumers that those attributes on which their brands are relatively strong are the most important.

  3. Add Beliefs--add new beliefs to the consumer's belief structure.

  4. Change Ideal--change perceptions of the ideal brand or situation.

100. Harrison is very involved with any type of electronic product, such as televisions, sound systems, cellular phones, and computers. According to the elaboration likelihood model (ELM), explain how marketers of these types of products can succeed in influencing Harrison.


Page: 409-410

Answer:


The ELM suggests that involvement is a key determinant of how information is processed and attitudes changes. High involvement, which describes Harrison, results in a central route to attitude change by which consumers deliberately and consciously process those message elements that they believe are relevant to a meaningful and logical evaluation of the brand. These elements are elaborated on and combined into an overall evaluation. As a result, the ELM suggests that vastly different communications strategies are required to communicate effectively with high- versus low-involvement consumers. In general, detailed factual information (central cues) is effective in high-involvement, central route situations (i.e., Harrison).
101. Companies spend millions of dollars each year for celebrities to appear in their marketing communications. Explain why this might be a good investment. That is, discuss the reasons why celebrity endorsers are effective.
Page: 413-414

Answer:


Celebrity sources are effective for a variety of reasons:

Attention--celebrities may attract attention to the advertisement. Consumers tend to be curious about celebrities and are drawn to ads in which they appear.

Attitude toward the ad--A celebrity's likeability and popularity often translate into higher Aad which can enhance brand attitudes.

Trustworthiness--despite being paid for their endorsements, celebrities often develop strong and credible public personas that consumers trust, and trust translates into purchases.

Expertise--some celebrities are also experts, particularly in music and sports.

Aspirational aspects--consumers may identify with or desire to emulate the celebrity, and as a consequence, they may imitate the behavior and style of a celebrity through purchases of similar brands and styles.

Meaning transfer--consumers may associate known characteristics of the celebrity with attributes of the product that coincide with their own needs or desires.
102. Compare and contrast one-sided and two-sided messages, and explain why marketers would use a two-sided message.
Page: 421-422

Answer:


In advertisements and sales presentation, marketers generally present only the benefits of their product without mentioning any negative characteristics it might possess or any advantages a competitor might have. These are one-sided messages, since only one point of view is expressed. The idea of a two-sided message, presenting both good and bad points, is counterintuitive, and more marketers are reluctant to try such an approach. However, two-sided messages are generally more effective than one-sided messages in changing a strongly held attitude. One reason is because they are unexpected and increase consumer trust in the advertiser. They are particularly effective with highly educated consumers. However, product type, situation variables, and advertisement format influence the relative effectiveness of the two approaches.


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