Chapter 1 the globalization of international relations chapter overview



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CHAPTER 1
THE GLOBALIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

CHAPTER OVERVIEW
Chapter 1 sets the foundation for the rest of the textbook by introducing the core principles of international relations (IR), describing state and nonstate actors in IR, discussing four levels of analysis by which to explain events in IR, discussing the geographical context of IR, and presenting the historical context of IR since the beginning of the twentieth century.
The concept of collective-goods problems is discussed, and three core principles of IR are introduced as possible solutions to these problems: 1) dominance, which solves collective-goods problems by establishing a power hierarchy in which those at the top control those below, 2) reciprocity, which solves collective-goods problems by rewarding behavior that contributes to the group and punishing behavior that pursues self-interest at the expense of the group, and 3) identity, specifically the identities of participants in IR as members of a community; members of an identity community care about the interests of others in the community enough to sacrifice their own interests to benefit others.
The characteristics of states are outlined; specifically, territory, government, population, and sovereignty. A clear case is made for the variety and importance of the roles played by nonstate as well as state actors. Nonstate actors include transnational actors (intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and multinational corporations) and substate actors (actors within a country that influence its foreign policy and/or operate internationally).
Four levels of analysis employed in the study of IR are defined—individual, domestic, interstate, and global—together with a discussion of how they inform distinct explanations that compete for understanding IR. The issue of globalization is also addressed.
States are divided into nine regions, based on their geographic proximity, cultural and linguistic similarities, global influence comparability, and economic and military prowess. The North-South gap is described as the most important geographical element at the global level of analysis. The North consists of four regions: North America, Western Europe, Japan/Pacific, and Russia/Eastern Europe. The South consists of five regions: Latin America, Africa, Middle East, China, and South Asia. To aid students in their knowledge of geography, specifically the location of states in the world, maps for review and testing immediately precede this Chapter Overview, and map assessment follows in the Exam Questions section.
The chapter concludes with a discussion of the historical context of IR since the beginning of the twentieth century. The discussion is broken into two parts: The Cold War (1945–1990), and The Post-Cold War Era (1990–present). Major events in IR are introduced and placed in their proper historical context.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Upon completion of this chapter, students will be able to do the following:


  1. Understand and apply core principles and models of international relations

  2. Distinguish between various types of actors in international relations and their influences

  3. Describe the global geography and its impact on international relations

  4. Recognize patterns in the historical development of the international system


LECTURE OUTLINE


  1. International Relations

    1. Narrowly defined – relationships among the world’s governments

    2. Relationships closely connected with other actors, social structures, geographical and historical influences

    3. Together these elements power the central trend in IR today – globalization

    4. Two events reflect globalization – September 11 attacks and global economic recession of 2008–2009

  2. Core Principles of IR

    1. IR revolves around one key problem: how can a group – in this case two or more countries – serve its collective interests when doing so requires its members to forgo their individual interests?

    2. Collective-goods problem – the problem of how to provide something that benefits all members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to it

    3. Three basic principles offer possible solutions to collective-goods problems.

      1. Dominance – solves collective-goods problem by establishing a power hierarchy in which those at the top control those below

      2. Reciprocity – solves collective-goods problem by rewarding behavior that contributes to the group and punishing behavior that pursues self-interest at the expense of the group

      3. Identity – identities of participants as members of a community – members of an identity community care about the interests of others in the community enough to sacrifice their own interests to benefit others

      4. Example of nuclear proliferation

  3. IR as a Field of Study

    1. As a part of political science, IR is about international politics – the decisions of governments about foreign actors, especially other governments

    2. But field is interdisciplinary – relating international politics to economics, history, sociology

    3. Mix of conflict and cooperation in relationships among countries

    4. Subfields – international security (questions of war and peace), international political economy (trade and financial relations)

  4. Actors and Influences

    1. State actors – territory, government, population, sovereignty

    2. International system – set of relationships among world’s states

      1. Modern international system existed for less than 500 years

      2. Before then – city-states, empires, feudal fiefs

      3. Idea that nations should have own states – nation-states

      4. Some political entities not formally recognized as states – e.g., Taiwan and others

    3. Nonstate actors

      1. Called transnational actors when they operate across international borders

      2. Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) – organizations whose members are national governments, e.g., OPEC, WTO, NATO, African Union

      3. Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) – private organizations

      4. Multinational corporations (MNCs) – companies that span multiple countries

      5. Substate actors – exist within one country but either influence the country’s foreign policy or operate internationally or both

  5. Levels of Analysis

    1. Individual

    2. Domestic

    3. Interstate

    4. Global

    5. Different sorts of explanations for international events

  6. Globalization

    1. Expanded international trade, telecommunications, monetary coordination, multinational corporations, technical and scientific cooperation, cultural exchanges, migration and refugee flows, relations between world’s rich and poor countries

    2. One view – result of liberal economic principles – global marketplace

    3. Second view – world’s major economies no more integrated today than before World War I, North-South gap increasing

    4. Third view – transformationalists – state sovereignty eroded by EU, WTO

  7. Global Geography

    1. North-South gap most important geographical element at the global level of analysis

    2. North

      1. West – North America, Western Europe, Japan/Pacific

      2. Old East – Russia and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

    3. South

      1. Latin America

      2. Africa

      3. Middle East

      4. Much of Asia

  8. The Evolving International System

    1. The Cold War, 1945–1990

      1. Yalta, Marshall Plan

      2. NATO and Warsaw Pact, containment

      3. Sino-Soviet split

      4. Korean War

      5. Sputnik, U-2 spy plane, Bay of Pigs

      6. Cuban Missile Crisis

      7. Proxy wars

      8. Vietnam War

      9. Tiananmen Square

      10. Perestroika and glasnost – fall of Soviet Union

    2. The Post-Cold War Era, 1990–present

      1. Gulf War – Iraq occupied Kuwait

      2. Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

      3. Breakup of Yugoslavia

      4. Somalia and Rwanda

      5. September 11, 2001; Afghanistan, Iraq

      6. More peaceful than Cold War

      7. Globalization in international economic relations

      8. China more central to world politics


Problem-based learning activities

  • Geographic Data Exercise: Using the CIA World Factbook (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/), look up the following statistics for TWO countries from EACH map you studied in Chapter 1: life expectancy at birth, literacy, GDP per capita, population below the poverty line, and public debt.

    • Briefly describe the data you find, particularly focusing on patterns among countries and regions.

    • What are three potential explanations for the differences you found?

    • What are three potential consequences for the differences you found?

    • What, if anything, could the international community do in order to decrease these differences?

Reference: LO 1.3 and LO 1.4

Skill: Analysis


  • Geographic Data Exercise: Please go to Freedomhouse’s website (http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=363&year=2010) and use the global map of freedom to look up the following data for TWO countries from EACH map you studied in Chapter 1: political rights score, political liberties score, status of freedom, and the trend compared to the previous year.

    • Briefly describe the data you find, particularly focusing on patterns among countries and regions.

    • How would you explain the similarities and differences you found?

    • What do the trend arrows you found suggest for the future of democracy in the countries you looked up?

    • How does the data on democracy you found compare with other data for each country, such as the economic and social data you looked up for the previous exercise?

Reference: LO 1.3 and LO 1.4

Skill: Analysis


  • Levels of Analysis Exercise: The domestic riots that erupted in Egypt in January of 2011 shook the entire international community. If you do not feel informed enough about the riots, search the archives of different online newspapers to find relevant information before answering the following questions:

    • Using the different levels of analysis you learned about in Chapter 1, please analyze the potential causes for the riots. Try to identify at least 2–3 factors on each level of analysis that can enhance your understanding of this event.

      • Individual level: Try to think of the role different individuals played in the riots, e.g., protesters, police, Egyptian president Mubarak, Egyptian government officials, foreign leaders, reporters, etc.

      • Domestic level: Consider the impact of domestic politics, the state of the economy, the media, public opinion, religion, political ideologies, interest groups, etc.

      • Interstate level: Identify regional or international influences that may have impacted the riots, such as the preceding events in Tunisia, Egypt’s regional and global alliances, etc.

      • Global level: How have factors such as the international media, global communication, the Internet (e.g., Facebook), international organizations, or other global factors affected the event?

    • Which of the levels, if any, do you consider most important in understanding the causes of the riots, and why?

Reference: LO 1.2

Skill: Application and Analysis


  • Foreign Policy Strategy Exercise: One of the most pressing international security concerns for the United States and the international community is the potential development of nuclear weapons by Iran and North Korea. Divide into groups of 4–6 students. Imagine that you are policy analysts working for the National Security Council. It is your job to analyze the different foreign policy strategies used by the United States in the past 50 years and to determine which, if any, might be relevant for dealing with Iran and North Korea. Based on your analysis, you will need to come up with a recommendation for how the United States should react to Iran and North Korea’s attempts to develop nuclear weapons.

Reference: LO 1.4

Skill: Analysis and Application


  • Globalization Debate: Divide the class into groups of 4–6 students. Half of the groups are designated as globalization supporters, the other half as antiglobalization protesters. Students should work together to identify a range of arguments to support their respective positions. Once completed, one group from each side will debate each other on the impact of globalization in the following areas:

    • Global trade

    • Global economic development

    • Global poverty

    • Democratization

    • Cultural and social development

Reference: LO 1.1 and LO 1.2

Skill: Application
EXAM QUESTIONS: CHAPTER 1
MULTIPLE CHOICE


  1. International relations

    1. involves only presidents, generals, and diplomats.

    2. influences daily life only when war occurs.

    3. concerns the relationships among the world’s governments.

    4. is largely concerned with bilateral relations between states.

    5. involves only states.

Answer: C

Reference: LO 1.1, p. 2

Skill: Understanding


  1. The central trend in international relations today is

    1. terrorism.

    2. economic development.

    3. diplomacy.

    4. globalization.

    5. democratization.

Answer: D

Reference: LO 1.1, p. 2

Skill: Understanding


  1. International relations revolves around the key problem of how

  1. to deal with the issue of global warming.

  2. to solve global poverty.

  3. a group can reconcile its collective and individual interests.

  4. to properly negotiate treaties.

  5. to manage territorial conflict.

Answer: C

Reference: LO 1.1, p. 3

Skill: Understanding


  1. The collective-goods problem is

  1. the problem of how to provide something that benefits all members of a group regardless of what each member contributes.

  2. that states are taking unilateral security actions.

  3. that the majority of the world’s resources are consumed by a small percentage of the world population.

  4. that communes are no longer promoting economic growth.

  5. that the global financial system is increasingly interconnected.

Answer: A

Reference: LO 1.1, p. 3

Skill: Understanding

  1. A current example of a collective-goods problem is that

  1. poverty is so common around the globe.

  2. states find it hard to cooperate on monetary policy.

  3. states have a hard time communicating.

  4. states find it hard to cooperate to reduce environmental damage.

  5. states cannot agree on what they have in common.

Answer: D

Reference: LO 1.1, p. 3

Skill: Application


  1. Why are collective goods easier to provide in small groups than large groups?

    1. The defection of one member is harder to conceal.

    2. The defection of one member has a smaller impact on the overall collective good.

    3. Small groups want to cooperate more than large groups.

    4. Small groups tend to have a central authority to enforce rules on members.

    5. They are not easier to provide in small groups because in large groups there are more members to punish the defector.

Answer: A

Reference: LO 1.1, p. 3

Skill: Understanding


  1. ALL BUT WHICH of the following makes collective-goods problems more likely at the international level?

  1. State sovereignty

  2. The lack of a central authority

  3. The greater willingness of domestic societies to cooperate

  4. The lack of punishment for defections

  5. The nature of “global” problems that do not affect a single state.

Answer: C

Reference: LO 1.1, pgs. 3–4

Skill: Analysis


  1. How do dominance and reciprocity compare as solutions to collective-goods problems? Dominance

    1. relies on a power hierarchy acting as a central authority, whereas reciprocity operates without any central authority.

    2. has advantages and disadvantages, whereas reciprocity has only advantages.

    3. forms the basis of most institutions in the international system, whereas reciprocity has limited application.

    4. is the basis of cooperation in IR, whereas reciprocity typically leads to conflict.

    5. works best in groups of small states, whereas reciprocity works best in groups of large states.

Answer: A

Reference: LO 1.1, pgs. 4–6

Skill: Analysis


  1. The disadvantages of dominance as a solution to collective-goods problems include which of the following?

    1. A downward spiral as each side punishes what it believes to be negative acts by the other

    2. Stability that comes at a cost of constant oppression of the lower-ranking members in the status hierarchy

    3. Other groups being unlikely to challenge the top group’s power position

    4. Fueling arms races in which members respond to other members’ buildup of weapons

    5. A loss of credibility, if too many threats are made

Answer: B

Reference: LO 1.1, p. 4

Skill: Analysis


  1. How is the identity principle distinguished from the dominance and reciprocity principles?

    1. The identity principle relies on mutually beneficial arrangements, whereas the dominance and reciprocity principles rely on members to sacrifice their own interests to benefit others.

    2. Contributions to development assistance or UN peacekeeping missions are better explained by the dominance and reciprocity principles than the identity principle.

    3. The identity principle plays no role in preventing nuclear proliferation, whereas the dominance and reciprocity principles do play a role.

    4. The identity principle does not rely on self-interest, whereas the dominance and reciprocity principles rely on achieving individual self-interest.

    5. Nonstate actors rely on the dominance and reciprocity principles more than the identity principle.

Answer: D

Reference: LO 1.1, pgs. 4–6

Skill: Analysis


  1. In 2010, Russia offered to give Iran nuclear fuel in return for its enriched uranium. This type of nuclear deal can be considered an example of which principle?

    1. Dominance

    2. Reciprocity

    3. Identity

    4. Collective interest

    5. Collective good

Answer: B

Reference: LO 1.1, p. 8

Skill: Application



  1. International relations is largely a/n _________ discipline.

    1. historical

    2. theoretical

    3. economic

    4. practical

    5. political

Answer: D

Reference: LO 1.1, p. 9

Skill: Understanding


  1. The two major subfields of international relations are

    1. conflict and cooperation.

    2. comparative politics and international security.

    3. international security and international political economy.

    4. international political economy and comparative politics.

    5. international organization and international law.

Answer: C

Reference: LO 1.1, p. 9

Skill: Understanding


  1. Which of the following is NOT a necessary component of a state?

    1. Territory

    2. Government

    3. Sovereignty

    4. Population

    5. Democracy

Answer: E

Reference: LO 1.2, p. 10

Skill: Understanding


  1. Sovereignty is

    1. a state government answering to no higher authority.

    2. a goal of international organizations in world affairs.

    3. the ability of one country to have influence over another.

    4. the development of participatory institutions of social life.

    5. political control over the military.

Answer: A

Reference: LO 1.2, p. 10

Skill: Understanding



  1. A nation is a

    1. territorial entity controlled by a government and inhabited by a population.

    2. group of people who share characteristics such as language and culture.

    3. set of relationships among the world’s states.

    4. middle step between being a colony and being an independent state.

    5. member of the United Nations.

Answer: B

Reference: LO 1.2, p. 10

Skill: Understanding


  1. Palestinians can be considered to be members of a

    1. sovereign state.

    2. nonsovereign state.

    3. failed state.

    4. nation.

    5. nation-state.

Answer: D

Reference: LO 1.2, p. 10

Skill: Application


  1. The set of relationships among the world’s states, structured according to certain rules and patterns of interaction, is referred to as

  1. globalization.

  2. international institutionalization.

  3. the international system.

  4. interdependence.

  5. international relations.

Answer: C

Reference: LO 1.2, p. 10

Skill: Understanding


  1. An example of a political entity often referred to as a state but NOT formally recognized as one is

    1. Israel.

    2. Iraq.

    3. Taiwan.

    4. Western Sahara.

    5. Lebanon.

Answer: C

Reference: LO 1.2, p. 10

Skill: Understanding



  1. Nonstate actors include ALL BUT WHICH of the following?

    1. Groups and interests within states that influence a state’s foreign policy

    2. Actors that operate below the state level as well as across state borders

    3. Groups like Amnesty International and the United Fruit Company

    4. Actors like substate actors and multinational corporations

    5. Individual decision makers in the government

Answer: E

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 13–14

Skill: Understanding


  1. The so-called military-industrial complex in the United States could be considered a/n _______ actor.

    1. governmental

    2. substate

    3. international

    4. transnational

    5. multinational

Answer: B

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 13–14

Skill: Understanding


  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a transnational actor?

    1. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization

    2. Multinational corporations

    3. Intergovernmental organizations

    4. The US State Department

    5. The African Union

Answer: D

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 13–14

Skill: Understanding


  1. An organization whose members are national governments is a(n)

    1. nongovernmental organization (NGO).

    2. intergovernmental organization (IGO).

    3. worldwide transnational organization (WTO).

    4. multinational organization (MNO).

    5. global governmental organization (GGO).

Answer: B

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 13–14

Skill: Understanding



  1. Which of the following is NOT an intergovernmental organization?

  1. The European Union (EU)

  2. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

  3. The World Trade Organization (WTO)

  4. Amnesty International (AI)

  5. African Union (AU)

Answer: D

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 13–14

Skill: Understanding


  1. Groups within states that influence the state’s foreign policy are called

    1. substate actors.

    2. transnational actors.

    3. nongovernmental organizations.

    4. undergovernmental actors.

    5. intergovernmental organizations.

Answer: A

Reference: LO 1.2, p. 14

Skill: Understanding


  1. The _______ level of analysis concerns the choices and actions of human beings.

    1. domestic

    2. global

    3. individual

    4. interstate

    5. state

Answer: C

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 14–17

Skill: Understanding


  1. The ________ level of analysis concerns the influence of the international system upon outcomes, whereas the ________ level of analysis concerns the influence of trends and forces that transcend the interactions of states upon outcomes.

    1. domestic, interstate

    2. global, individual

    3. individual, domestic

    4. interstate, global

    5. domestic, global

Answer: D

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 14–17

Skill: Understanding


  1. The level of analysis that considers the geographic locations and relative power of states is the ________ level of analysis, whereas the ________ level of analysis concerns groups of individuals within states.

    1. individual, interstate

    2. domestic, individual

    3. interstate, domestic

    4. global, individual

    5. domestic, global

Answer: C

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 14–17

Skill: Understanding


  1. Consideration of the political organizations, government agencies, and economic sectors of states is the focus of the ________ level of analysis.

    1. individual

    2. domestic

    3. interstate

    4. global

    5. systemic

Answer: B

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 14–17

Skill: Understanding


  1. What role do states play as economic units in the process of globalization, according to economic liberalists?

    1. They are the driving forces.

    2. A handful of states dominate the process.

    3. They share equal power in the process.

    4. They opposed the process.

    5. They have become obsolete.

Answer: C

Reference: LO 1.2, p. 17

Skill: Understanding


  1. Which of the following theorists are most likely to believe that the European Union is ultimately going to replace its individual member states?

    1. Economic liberalists

    2. Realists

    3. Transformationalists

    4. Globalization skeptics

    5. Classical liberalists

Answer: C

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 17–19

Skill: Understanding


  1. With respect to globalization,

    1. opponents are united in their goals and tactics.

    2. policies to expand free trade are a central focus of antiglobalization protesters.

    3. all sides agree that the North-South gap is disappearing.

    4. states are becoming stronger, more important actors in IR.

    5. union members from the global North want to stop their jobs from being shipped to the global South, where workers do not want them anyway.

Answer: B

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 17–19

Skill: Analysis


  1. Which of the following is NOT a point of view on globalization?

    1. Globalization diffuses authority, transforming state power to operate in new contexts.

    2. The world’s major economies are no more integrated today than before World War I, and the North-South gap is increasing.

    3. Globalization is changing international security more quickly and profoundly than international political economy.

    4. Globalization is the fruition of liberal economic principles where a global marketplace has brought growth and prosperity.

    5. All of the above are points of view on globalization.

Answer: C

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 17–19

Skill: Analysis


  1. The disparity between the relatively rich industrialized countries and the relatively poor countries is called the

  1. tragedy of the commons.

  2. collective-goods problem.

  3. scarcity problem.

  4. development dilemma.

  5. North-South gap.

Answer: E

Reference: LO 1.3, pgs. 19–20

Skill: Understanding


  1. Which of the following regions can claim the largest GDP per capita?

    1. Europe

    2. Japan/Pacific

    3. China

    4. North America

    5. Russia/CIS

Answer: D

Reference: LO 1.3, p. 21 (Table 1.4)

Skill: Understanding


  1. In the global North, the GDP per capita is roughly ____ times as high as in the global South.

    1. three

    2. four

    3. five

    4. six

    5. ten

Answer: D

Reference: LO 1.3, p. 21 (Table 1.4)

Skill: Analysis


  1. During the Cold War, the alliance of states coordinated under the leadership of the Soviet Union was called the

  1. Eastern Alliance.

  2. Warsaw Pact.

  3. Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.

  4. Baghdad Pact.

  5. the Nonaligned Movement.

Answer: B

Reference: LO 1.4, p. 24

Skill: Understanding


  1. During the Cold War, the alliance of states coordinated under the leadership of the United States was called the

  1. European Union.

  2. United States Central Command.

  3. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

  4. Warsaw Pact.

  5. North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

Answer: E

Reference: LO 1.4, p. 24

Skill: Understanding


  1. After World War II, Germany was occupied by

    1. the United States and the Soviet Union only.

    2. the United States and Britain only.

    3. the United States and France only.

    4. the United States, the Soviet Union, and Britain only.

    5. the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, and France.

Answer: E

Reference: LO 1.4, p. 24

Skill: Understanding



  1. The Berlin Wall was built by

    1. West Germany.

    2. East Germany.

    3. Russia.

    4. the United States.

    5. Britain.

Answer: B

Reference: LO 1.4, p. 24

Skill: Understanding


  1. ALL BUT WHICH of the following were policies or organizations designed to fight the Soviet Union?

    1. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization

    2. Containment

    3. The Marshall Plan

    4. Détente

    5. The Munich Analogy

Answer: D

Reference: LO 1.4, pgs. 24–27

Skill: Analysis


  1. In what way did the United States attempt to contain Soviet influence around the world after World War II?

    1. Maintaining military bases and alliances only in Europe, close to Soviet borders

    2. Staging missile tests in the Arctic to intimidate the Soviets

    3. Providing aid through the Marshall Plan to rebuild Western Europe

    4. Splitting with China

    5. All of the above

Answer: C

Reference: LO 1.4, p. 24

Skill: Analysis


  1. What was the result of the Korean War at the time of the 1953 truce?

    1. North Korea controlled more of the Korean peninsula, having gained territory from South Korea.

    2. South Korea controlled more of the Korean peninsula, having gained territory from North Korea.

    3. The United States shifted its support to North Korea, and China shifted its support to South Korea.

    4. South Korea became communist and North Korea became democratic.

    5. None of the above

Answer: E

Reference: LO 1.4, p. 26

Skill: Understanding


  1. Which of the following events in the post-World War II period probably brought the United States and the Soviet Union closest to nuclear war?

    1. Building of the Berlin Wall

    2. Cuban Missile Crisis

    3. Korean War

    4. U.S. involvement in Vietnam

    5. The Berlin airlift

Answer: B

Reference: LO 1.4, p. 26

Skill: Analysis


  1. Which of the following was NOT a crisis of the Cold War?

    1. Helsinki conflict

    2. Korean War

    3. Building of the Berlin Wall

    4. Cuban Missile Crisis

    5. Vietnam War

Answer: A

Reference: LO 1.4, pgs. 26–27

Skill: Understanding


  1. In the Cold War era, just as was the case for the United States in Vietnam, the Soviet Union could not defeat rebel armies in

    1. Hungary.

    2. Czechoslovakia.

    3. Poland.

    4. Afghanistan.

    5. China.

Answer: D

Reference: LO 1.4, p. 27

Skill: Understanding


  1. The first armed conflict of the post-Cold War era was

    1. the disintegration of the Soviet Union.

    2. the disintegration of Yugoslavia.

    3. Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait.

    4. the humanitarian crisis in Somalia.

    5. the conflict in Rwanda.

Answer: C

Reference: LO 1.4, p. 28

Skill: Understanding



  1. When Yugoslavia fell apart,

    1. European countries joined forces and sent troops to defend the borders of the newly independent, sovereign states.

    2. UN peacekeeping troops intervened and were able to keep casualties to a minimum.

    3. an arms embargo was placed on heavily armed Serbia, while Bosnia was allowed to build up its arsenal so each side would be more equal.

    4. ethnic Serbs seized parts of Croatia and Bosnia, where they killed or forced non-Serbs from their homes.

    5. successor states immediately joined the European Union.

Answer: D

Reference: LO 1.4, pgs. 28–29

Skill: Analysis


  1. Recent crises involving nuclear weapons programs involve which of the following countries?

    1. China and Israel

    2. Venezuela and Somalia

    3. North Korea and Iran

    4. Iraq and Syria

    5. Russia and Ukraine

Answer: C

Reference: LO 1.4, p. 31

Skill: Understanding


  1. The post-Cold War era is

    1. more complex and unpredictable than the Cold War period.

    2. more peaceful than the Cold War period.

    3. characterized by a more global international economy.

    4. characterized by transnational concerns such as environmental degradation and disease.

    5. All of the above

Answer: E

Reference: LO 1.4, pgs. 31–32

Skill: Analysis
FILL IN THE BLANK


  1. _________ is the study of domestic politics of foreign countries.

Answer: Comparative politics

Reference: LO 1.1, p. 9

Skill: Understanding


  1. The International Committee of the Red Cross is an example of a(n) __________ because its members are not governments.

Answer: nongovernmental organization, NGO

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 13–14

Skill: Understanding


  1. OPEC is an example of a(n) __________ because its members are governments.

Answer: intergovernmental organization, IGO

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 13–14

Skill: Understanding


  1. Actors operating below and across state borders are ________ actors.

Answer: transnational

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 13–14

Skill: Understanding


  1. Treaties between states occur at the _________ level of analysis.

Answer: interstate

Reference: LO 1.2, p. 16 (Table 1.3)

Skill: Understanding


  1. Narrow definitions of the Middle East typically exclude _________ and _________.

Answer: North Africa; Turkey

Reference: LO 1.3, p. 21

Skill: Understanding


  1. Through the policy of _________, the United States sought to halt the expansion of Soviet influence during the Cold War.

Answer: containment

Reference: LO 1.4, p. 24

Skill: Understanding


  1. The first summit meeting between Cold War superpowers took place in ________ in 1955.

Answer: Geneva

Reference: LO 1.4, p. 26

Skill: Understanding


  1. Arguably, the world came closest to a nuclear war during the ___________.

Answer: Cuban Missile Crisis

Reference: LO 1.4, p. 26

Skill: Understanding


  1. During the Cold War, the two superpowers often jockeyed for position in the global South, supporting ____________ in which they typically supplied and advised opposing factions in civil wars.

Answer: proxy wars

Reference: LO 1.4, p. 27

Skill: Understanding

ESSAY


  1. How does international relations affect your daily life? How do you as a college student affect international relations? Give three concrete examples of each.

Reference: LO 1.1, pgs. 1–10

Skill: Application


  1. Countering global warming is considered an example of a collective-goods problem. Based on what you have learned, in what ways could you apply the principles of dominance, identity, and reciprocity to help states reduce their greenhouse emissions?

Reference: LO 1.1, pgs. 3–10

Skill: Application


  1. Of the various actors in international relations described in Chapter 1 of the textbook, which ones do you believe have lost influence in the past 50 years, and which ones have gained influence? Why do you believe that is?

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 10–14

Skill: Analysis


  1. How would you use the different levels of analysis to explain the causes of the 9/11 terrorist attacks? How useful is the approach of categorizing a typically very complex world in terms of simplified levels of analysis?

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 10–14

Skill: Application


  1. What is globalization? How has the world changed politically, economically, and culturally as a result of this phenomenon? On what basis do opponents of globalization criticize it?

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 17–19

Skill: Understanding



  1. Try to identify two ways in which globalization has positively impacted international relations and two ways in which its impact has been negative. Please be as specific as possible about the cause-and-effect relationships you are describing.

Reference: LO 1.2, pgs. 17–19

Skill: Analysis


  1. Distinguish between the nine global regions of the world. How (according to what criteria) were they grouped? Why are these factors important? Is there another set of criteria that should be used? Why or why not?

Reference: LO 1.3, pgs. 19–23

Skill: Analysis


  1. Based on what you know, what are two potential causes and two potential consequences of the so-called North-South gap?

Reference: LO 1.3, pgs. 19–23

Skill: Analysis


  1. The Cold War derives its name from the fact that the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, never openly fought each other. Given the number of proxy wars and near clashes, how accurate do you believe this description is?

Reference: LO 1.4, pgs. 24–27

Skill: Evaluation


  1. After the end of the Cold War, the world experienced a significant number of ethnic and civic conflicts. Based on what you have learned about international relations during the Cold War, how would you explain this phenomenon?

Reference: LO 1.4, pgs. 24–32

Skill: Analysis


  1. What are three key events of the twentieth century that have shaped international relations today? Describe the events you choose and explain each of your choices.

Reference: LO 1.4, pgs. 24–32

Skill: Analysis



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