Chapter 1 Introduction to Developmental Psychology and Its Research Strategies multiple choice



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Chapter 1 Introduction to Developmental Psychology and Its Research Strategies
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. How do experience and biological processes affect human development?

a.

Experience produces change through maturation, and biological processes produce change through learning.

b.

Both experience and biological processes produce change through learning.

c.

Experience produces change through learning, and biological processes produce change through maturation.

d.

Both experience and biological processes produce change through maturation.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Conceptual REF: 2

OBJ: LO 1 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Remember


2. What are the two major underlying processes that interact to determine the development of the individual?

a.

maturation and recapitulation

b.

growth and learning

c.

learning and maturation

d.

recapitulation and growth

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Factual REF: 2

OBJ: LO 1 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Remember


3. Which of the following is an example of developmental change that primarily reflects maturation?

a.

a child taking his or her first steps at about 1 year of age

b.

a child solving simple arithmetic problems in Grade 1

c.

a child speaking the same language as his or her parents

d.

a child becoming proficient at riding a bicycle

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Conceptual REF: 2

OBJ: LO 1 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Higher Order


4. Which of the following is an example of developmental change that primarily reflects learning?

a.

a child taking his or her first steps at about 1 year of age

b.

a child speaking his or her first word at about 1 year of age

c.

a child solving simple arithmetic problems in Grade 1

d.

a child reaching sexual maturity in early adolescence

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Conceptual REF: 2

OBJ: LO 1 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Higher Order

5. What is the term for the developmental process that underlies a change in response to experience?

a.

maturation

b.

biological process

c.

learning

d.

physical development

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Factual REF: 2

OBJ: LO 1 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Remember


6. What is the best way to start when beginning an intervention to optimize a child’s development?

a.

Determine what goals to achieve and work toward those goals.

b.

Identify what is normal and determine why changes occur before trying to optimize development.

c.

Set goals and develop a system of rewards and punishments.

d.

Locate children who have developed optimally, so information can be compiled about their experiences.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Conceptual REF: 3

OBJ: LO 2 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Higher Order


7. A researcher videotaped preschoolers at a playground for a study of the frequency of cooperative behaviours. What was the researcher’s goal?

a.

description

b.

explanation

c.

operationalization

d.

optimization

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Applied REF: 3

OBJ: LO 2 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Higher Order


8. Which research goal establishes the facts of development?

a.

optimization

b.

adaptation

c.

explanation

d.

description

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Factual REF: 3

OBJ: LO 2 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Remember

9. Suppose that researchers find that the average Canadian infant begins to stand alone at the age of 10 months. What type of development would this be an example of?

a.

psychoanalytic

b.

ideographic

c.

nonrepresentative

d.

normative

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Applied REF: 3

OBJ: LO 2 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Higher Order


10. How can the research goal of description be summarized?

a.

as How

b.

as Best

c.

as What

d.

as Why

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Conceptual REF: 3

OBJ: LO 2 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Remember


11. What does normative development consist of?

a.

changes that characterize most individuals

b.

changes that are specific to the individual

c.

changes that result from experience and environmental influences

d.

changes that optimize developmental outcomes

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Factual REF: 3

OBJ: LO 2 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Remember


12. What does ideographic development consist of?

a.

changes that characterize most individuals

b.

changes that are specific to the individual

c.

changes that result from the unfolding of a genetic “blueprint”

d.

changes that optimize developmental outcomes

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Factual REF: 3

OBJ: LO 2 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Remember

13. Kayla started walking at 12 months of age, just like her three brothers and her seven cousins. Most children start walking at about this age. What type of development does this example illustrate?

a.

optimization of development

b.

holistic development

c.

normative development

d.

ideographic development

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Applied REF: 3-4

OBJ: LO 2 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Higher Order


14. Michaela is 24 months old and she still has not spoken her first word. All four of her brothers spoke their first words at about 12 months of age, which is typical for most children. In this example, which general developmental concept does Michaela’s lack of speech illustrate?

a.

maturational development

b.

holistic development

c.

normative development

d.

ideographic development

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Applied REF: 3

OBJ: LO 2 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Higher Order


15. Contemporary developmentalists maintain that human development is a continual and cumulative process. Which statement most accurately expresses this viewpoint?

a.

Early childhood experiences have little impact on adult behaviour and attitudes.

b.

Early childhood experiences are the major determinants of adult behaviour and attitudes.

c.

Early childhood experiences have a lasting impact on adult behaviour and attitudes, but experiences during other, later, periods of life also play a role.

d.

Negative childhood events affect adult personality and behaviour, but positive childhood events have little impact.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Conceptual REF: 4

OBJ: LO 3 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Remember


16. Which statement best exemplifies the holistic approach to development?

a.

Parents notice the gaps in the child’s abilities and must work to fill those gaps.

b.

Traits or abilities are distinct and show separate developmental patterns of change.

c.

Aspects of developmental change are interrelated.

d.

Developmental trends in human and nonhuman animals are similar.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Conceptual REF: 4

OBJ: LO 3 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Higher Order

17. The holistic perspective is a dominant theme of human development. What does this perspective emphasize?

a.

Growth and change are continual.

b.

Physical, cognitive, and psychosocial aspects of development are independent.

c.

Growth and change are cumulative processes.

d.

Physical, cognitive, and psychosocial aspects of development are interdependent.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Factual REF: 4-5

OBJ: LO 3 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Remember


18. Suppose that the plasticity principle did not apply to development. How would this change our understanding of a child’s abilities?

a.

Children with cognitive disabilities could be taught many skills.

b.

Children who grow up in poor environments would suffer inevitably from their deficiencies.

c.

Parental training would be vital for all children to develop normally.

d.

Sex differences in children’s behaviour would be nonexistent.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Conceptual REF: 5

OBJ: LO 3 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Higher Order


19. Which of the following terms refers to the capacity for change in response to positive or negative life experiences?

a.

holistic

b.

tabula rasa

c.

innate purity

d.

plasticity

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Factual REF: 5

OBJ: LO 3 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Remember


20. What does the holistic perspective of development emphasize?

a.

the active role of the child in his or her own development

b.

development is a lifelong process that is continual and cumulative

c.

the interdependent way in which all components of the self determine development

d.

the belief that all the members of the family influence the development of each other

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Factual REF: 5

OBJ: LO 3 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Remember

21. Nancy is a developmentalist and she tells her friend that she believes it is important to study children in laboratory settings. She further states that there is no need to study the child’s social relationships. Are Nancy’s views consistent with the holistic view of development?

a.

They are consistent with the holistic perspective.

b.

They are consistent with the holistic perspective, but they do not represent complete agreement with it either.

c.

They are consistent with the holistic perspective, but Nancy is not aware of recent research.

d.

They are not consistent with the holistic perspective.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Applied REF: 4-5

OBJ: LO 3 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Higher Order


22. Clovis was abandoned as an infant and spent the first five years of his life being moved from one temporary foster home to another. When he is 5, his aunt discovers Clovis’s whereabouts and provides him with a great deal of understanding, love, and stimulating activities. When Clovis becomes an adult, how would you expect him to behave?

a.

Clovis has become angry, antisocial, and aggressive because of his early abandonment.

b.

Clovis has become shy and anxious because of his early abandonment.

c.

Clovis has no residual effects of the early experiences and has reached his fullest potential.

d.

Clovis may or may not show residual effects of his early experiences; there is no way of knowing for sure what he will be like as an adult.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Applied REF: 5

OBJ: LO 3 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Higher Order


23. How were children treated during the medieval period?

a.

as miniature adults with full rights and privileges

b.

harshly, and they were viewed as expendable

c.

differently than they are today, but there was some concept that they were not adults

d.

coddled and indulged even more than modern children

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Factual REF: 6

OBJ: LO 4 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Remember

24. Ivan, a father of three children, states that children are really no different from adults. He believes that the way to raise children is to have them take on adult responsibilities as soon as they are physically able. Which statement best describes Ivan’s view?

a.

It is an example of what developmentalists suggest are the most effective modern child-rearing practices.

b.

It is more consistent with some previous periods in history than with today’s modern view of child rearing in Canada.

c.

It is an example of what developmentalists suggest is a causal factor for the development of pathology.

d.

It is more consistent with today’s modern Canadian view of child rearing than with views from previous periods of history.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Applied REF: 6

OBJ: LO 4 TOP: Introduction to Developmental Psychology

BLM: Higher Order


25. In which ancient society were boys deliberately treated very harshly to toughen them to become disciplined soldiers in adulthood?

a.

Rome

b.

Israel

c.

Britain

d.

Sparta
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