Chapter 1 and Sections 1 3 Major Goals of Chapter 1



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  • Chapter 1 and Sections 3.1-3.3
  • Major Goals of Chapter 1:
  • 1. Define the term chemistry.
  • 2. Identify substances (matter) as chemicals.
  • 3. Describe some physical and chemical properties of matter.
  • 4. Describe the activities that are part of the scientific method.
  • 5. Describe how you tell call whether you have a pure element or a compound.
  • Major Goals of Sections 3.1 - 3.3
  • 1. The organization of matter concept map.
  • 2. Classify matter as pure substances or mixtures.
  • 3. Homogeneous versus heterogeneous substances.
  • Before viewing this powerpoint, go to end of Chapter 1 and read the Chapter Review:
  • 1.1 Chemistry and Chemicals
  • 1.2 Some Fundamental Ideas of Chemistry
  • 1.3 Scientific Method: Think like a Scientist
  • 1.4 A Study Plan for Learning Chemistry
  • Also read,
  • Sections 3.1, 3.2 & 3.3 Classification of Matter
  • They all work to characterize or analyze the composition, structure
  • and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.
  • And these individuals?

Creative Chemistry Dr. Gergens - SD Mesa College

  • I. What is Chemistry?
  • supplemental HO 5
  • Chemistry is the study of the composition of matter (substances) and
  • the way in which they interact physically and chemically over time.
  • Energy is involved in every change/transformation of matter.
  • Chemists work to characterize or analyze the composition, structure
  • and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.
  • Section 1.1 - Chemistry & Chemicals
  • Chemistry is the study of the properties of matter. These are:
  • • physical and chemical properties, including,
  • • physical separations and physical changes
  • • chemical separations and chemical changes

Matter + Time + Energy + Expert Knowledge

  • Equals New and Useful Substances, Products, and Materials
  • Creative Chemistry
  • Evolutionary Chemistry
  • Matter + Time + Energy
  • • Chemists work to characterize or analyze the composition, structure
  • and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.
  • • Chemists can use their expert knowledge in designing and
  • performing chemical reactions in the laboratory.
  • • Chemists will even “stir, mix and fish” with
  • the hope of recovering new materials

What is matter?

  • A. Matter has mass and occupies volume.
  • a. mass is a physical measurement of the amount or quantity of a substance.
    • Note: the weight of an object depends on the strength of the gravitational force exerted on an object. (weightlessness).
  • b. volume is an area of space for a physical amount of a substance.
  • c. the ratio of a mass amount per a volume is
  • called density; density = mass/volume
  • supplemental HO 5
  • Section 1.2 - Some Fundamentals of Chemistry

B. Change, ∆

  • a. physical change in state. For example.
  • boiling liquid water into water as steam
  • b. chemical change is a substance's ability to change form into new some new substance. For example.
  • hydrogen and oxygen react to make water
  • c. a symbol for change is the Greek letter, ∆, delta.
  • supplemental HO 5

C. Time

  • the change in time equals the final time minus initial time
  • supplemental HO 5
  • This statement would be mathematically
  • written as:
  • ∆t = tfinal - tinitial

D. Energy allows us to do things; the capacity to do work.

  • a. temperature measures the average kinetic energy of molecules.
  • supplemental HO 5
    • The change in temperature mathematically
    • would be written as:
    • ∆T = Tfinal - Tinitial

b. heat energy

  • 1. adding heat, or heat absorbed, is an endothermic process, a change in heat, ∆heat
  • 2. removing heat, or heat released, is an exothermic process, a change in heat, ∆heat
  • 3. The symbol ∆ also represents heat or the process of heating
  • supplemental HO 5
  • Add these definitions to your “Key Terms”
  • at the end of Chapter 1
  • E. Composition
  • ALL PURE SUBSTANCES are HOMOGENEOUS
  • pure substance - overall composition consists of only one substance. Examples are:
  • a. elements - the fundamental unit of all matter which combines to form compounds.
  • b. compounds - two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio or proportion.
  • MIXTURES (impure substances)
  • mixtures are two or more different substances mixed together
  • supplemental HO 6

Mixture Composition

  • Substances as mixtures.
  • There are two types of mixtures:
  • 1. homogeneous
  • For example, a homogeneous solution is a mixture of dissolved solute in a solvent
  • A salt water solution; NaCl (solute) dissolved in H2O (solvent)
  • 2. heterogeneous
  • Your eye can see two or more separated phases in the mixture
  • Classic example: vinegar and oil as salad dressing
  • Epsom salt in apricot oil
  • supplemental HO 6
  • F. Pure Composition homogeneous
  • a. elements - the fundamental unit of all matter which combines to form compounds.
  • b. compounds - two or more different elements combined in fixed a ratio or proportion; having a chemical formula, for example H2O
  • supplemental HO 6

a chemical formula (molar subscript ratio of atoms)

  • H2O (water) 2H:1O
  • 2 hydrogens for every 1 oxygen
  • H2O2 (dihydrogen peroxide) 2H:2O
  • 2 hydrogens for every 2 oxygens
  • Or 1 hydrogen for every 1 oxygen
  • 1H:1O
  • The concept of elements combined in a fixed a ratio
  • Add this to your notes
  • A compound has a chemical formula

G. Separation of composition

  • 1. Most substances in the universe and on our planet exist as mixtures.
  • Goals of a chemist are to analyze mixture composition and to develop new techniques for the separation of mixture components into pure substances.
  • supplemental HO 6
  • supplemental HO 6
  • Section 3.1- Classification of Matter
  • Matter is everything that has density, mass and occupies a volume.
  • Density is the ratio of mass per volume where mass is an amount given in grams and volume is given in milliliters.
  • Matter can be organized into two broad classes; pure or impure.
  • Pure matter, which are elements and compounds, is always homogeneous and has a fixed composition.
  • Impure matter exists as a mixture of substances which can appear either homogeneous or heterogeneous and can have variable compostion.
  • Homogeneous means substance composition is the same throughout. For example, a saline IV solution (salt water) used for IV intraveno therapy to replace electrolytes in a hospital setting.
  • Heterogeneous composition means two or more physically separated phases. For example, oil layered over water.
  • Mixtures can be physically separated into its individual components.
  • supplemental HO 6
  • Section 3.1- Classification of Matter
  • How do chemists classify whether a sample of matter is either pure or impure by using physical and chemical properties?
  • Pure matter is homogeneous as will be either elemental substance or compound. Impure matter will be a homogenous mixture or a heterogeneous mixture.
  • MOST substances exist as mixtures
  • Mixtures can be physically separated into individual components.
  • Pure matter exists as only one component thus its composition cannot be physically separated into individual components.
  • All pure matter is homogeneous, as either a pure element or compound.
  • If pure matter can be chemically broken down into its elemental components, then the substance is recognized as a compound.
  • Elements cannot be broken down chemically in new elements.

II. The Organization of Matter

  • same physical composition throughout
  • two or more physically separated phases
  • Chemistry deals
  • with
  • Is the composition
  • uniform?
  • yes
  • no
  • Can it be decomposed by
  • ordinary chemical means?
  • no
  • yes
  • no
  • Can it be separated
  • by physical means?
  • yes
  • Chemistry deals
  • with
  • supplemental HO 6
  • Section 3.1- Classification of Matter
  • All pure substances
  • are homogeneous
  • click here
  • Handout ()
  • Section 3.1- Classification of Matter
  • The concept of isotopes will be discussed
  • at the end of Chapter 3, Section 3.6
  • Study the physical properties in these box for each physical state.
  • NOTE: Plasma (gaseous hot ions) is our fourth physical state.
  • Classifying all matter into four basic categories
  • a. physical separations
  • b. physical changes
  • c. chemical separations
  • d. chemical changes
  • Chemistry deals with matter,
  • How do chemists classify whether a sample of matter is pure as a compound or as elemental substance or impure as a homogenous mixture, or a heterogeneous mixture, or using the matter organizational chart?
  • Section 3.1- Classification of Matter
  • Memorize this organizational chart

III. Separation techniques

  • A. Physical Methods
  • Example, the use of a separatory funnel
  • Paper Chromatography
  • B. Chemical Methods
  • Use of chemical reagents
  • Use of energy to cause a chemical change
  • supplemental HO 7

IV. Physical and Chemical States of Matter

  • A. Physical State (s, l, g) & Change,∆
  • (s) = solid
  • (l) = liquid
  • (g) = gas
  • B. a solution = solute + solvent
  • (aq) = solute dissolved in H2O solvent
  • for example: salt water
  • Know these symbolisms
  • supplemental HO 8; add symbolisms to your notes
  • melting point temperature
  • boiling point temperature
  • freezing point temperature
  • condensing point temperature
  • color
  • odor
  • density
  • supplemental HO 8
  • Count the total number of atoms on both sides of the arrow.
  • left side right side
  • (reactant side) (product side)
  • supplemental HO 8
  • melting
  • ------->
  • boiling
  • ------->
  • freezing
  • <------
  • condensing
  • <------
  • Sublimation (going directly from the solid state to the gas state)
  • Dynamic Equilibrium
  • melting and at the same time its freezing
  • boiling at the same time it is condensing
  • Commit these terms to memory
  • Changes in Physical State
  • supplemental HO 9
  • melting
  • ------->
  • boiling
  • ------->
  • freezing
  • <------
  • condensing
  • <------
  • The melting process is endothermic; heat absorbed
  • The boiling process is endothermic; heat absorbed
  • The freezing process is exothermic; heat released
  • The condensing process is exothermic; heat released
  • Energy Processes
  • supplemental HO 9; add processes to your notes
  • Chemical Change alters the chemical composition of the substance
  • supplemental HO 9

B. What is characteristic about each state?

  • solid
  • liquid
  • gas
  • supplemental HO 9
  • solid
  • supplemental HO 10
  • liquid
  • supplemental HO 10
  • gas
  • supplemental HO 10
  • supplemental HO 11
  • Look over the organizational
  • chart for matter and summarize
  • in your own words the characteristics
  • of a solid, liquid and gas.
  • Note: the fourth state of matter is
  • plasma.
  • P
  • C
  • P
  • C
  • C
  • P
  • P
  • P
  • P
  • P
  • P
  • P
  • C
  • heterogeneous
  • homogeneous
  • homogeneous
  • homogeneous
  • C
  • E
  • M
  • M
  • C
  • M
  • supplemental HO 11
  • Answer theses questions then check your work.
  • In an essay of required length, describe how you would experimentally determine whether a cup of an unknown liquid is:
  • 1) pure water or
  • 2) a sodium chloride water solution or
  • 3) pure ethanol

Now watch the powerpoint

  • The Scientific Method


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