Chapter 02 Early Societies in Southwest Asia and the Indo-European Migrations



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Chapter 02

Early Societies in Southwest Asia and the Indo-European Migrations

 

 




Multiple Choice Questions
 

1. (p. 27) Gilgamesh was associated with what city? 


A. Jerusalem
B. Kish
C. Uruk
D. Lagash
E. Ur

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

2. (p. 27) The earliest urban societies known so far emerged in the 


A. first millennium B.C.E.
B. third millennium B.C.E.
C. sixth millennium B.C.E.
D. second millennium B.C.E.
E. fourth millennium B.C.E.

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

3. (p. 28) With few precedents to guide them, the population of Mesopotamia adapted and created 


A. social organization.
B. writing.
C. agricultural cultivation.
D. the development of religion.
E. competition amongst different groups.

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

4. (p. 28) The word Mesopotamia means 


A. the "pure land."
B. the "land of the strong."
C. "the blood of Gilgamesh."
D. "wedge-shaped."
E. "the land between the rivers."

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

5. (p. 28-29) Which of the following is NOT a Semitic language? 


A. Hebrew
B. Phoenician
C. Aramaic
D. Sumerian
E. Akkadian

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

6. (p. 28) The first complex society was developed in the southern Mesopotamian land of 


A. Akkad.
B. Assyria.
C. Sumer.
D. Babylonia.
E. Palestine.

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

7. (p. 29) Eridu, Ur, Uruk, Lagash, Nippur, and Kish were all associated with 


A. Egypt.
B. Nubia.
C. Phoenicia.
D. Mesopotamia.
E. Jerusalem.

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

8. (p. 29) A Mesopotamian stepped pyramid is known as a 


A. coptic.
B. eridu.
C. lugal.
D. lex talionis.
E. ziggurat.

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

9. (p. 30) After 3000 B.C.E. all Sumerian cities were ruled by what form of government? 


A. monarchy
B. councils of elders
C. dictators
D. assemblies of citizens
E. military governors

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

10. (p. 31) The creator of the first empire in Mesopotamia was 


A. Hammurabi.
B. Moses.
C. Sargon of Akkad.
D. Gilgamesh.
E. Nebuchadnezzar.

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

11. (p. 31) What individual believed that the gods had chosen him to "promote the welfare of the people . . . [and] to cause justice to prevail in the land"? 


A. Moses
B. Nebuchadnezzar
C. Hammurabi
D. Sargon of Akkad
E. Gilgamesh

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

12. (p. 32) While Hammurabi's code was based on the concept of lex talionis, it was also shaped by 


A. social standing.
B. the will of the Mesopotamian gods as expressed by the priestly class.
C. the language spoken by the accused perpetrator.
D. the age of the accused perpetrator.
E. the religion of the victim.

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

13. (p. 32) The Babylonians eventually fell in 1595 B.C.E. to the 


A. Egyptians.
B. Hittites.
C. Sumerians.
D. Hebrews.
E. Akkadians.

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

14. (p. 33-34) The later Mesopotamian people who built a large empire based on a powerful army with iron weapons and the use of professional officers were the 


A. Hittites.
B. Hyksos.
C. Assyrians.
D. Babylonians.
E. Hebrews.

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

15. (p. 34-35) A Babylonian resurgence of power was led in the sixth century B.C.E. by 


A. Nebuchadnezzar.
B. Ashurbanipal.
C. Solomon.
D. Sargon.
E. Hammurabi.

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

16. (p. 33) Mesopotamian metalworkers discovered that if they alloyed copper and tin they could produce 


A. obsidian.
B. steel.
C. iron.
D. silver.
E. bronze.

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
 

17. (p. 35) Iron metallurgy came to Mesopotamia from the 


A. Hebrews.
B. Hittites.
C. Phoenicians.
D. Egyptians.
E. Assyrians.

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
 

18. (p. 35) The first people in the world to use wheeled vehicles were the 


A. Sumerians.
B. Assyrians.
C. Egyptians.
D. Phoenicians.
E. Hebrews.

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
 

19. (p. 35) Evidence shows that the Mesopotamians 


A. traded extensively with peoples as far away as Anatolia, Egypt, and India.
B. lived an isolated existence and did not trade.
C. traded exclusively with the Egyptians.
D. traded extensively until the time of the Assyrians, when trade dropped to nothing.
E. traded exclusively with the Phoenicians.

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
 

20. (p. 37) In Mesopotamia, prisoners of war, convicted criminals, and heavily indebted individuals were the three main sources for 


A. slaves.
B. indentured servants.
C. dependent clients.
D. mercenary soldiers.
E. indentured priests.

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
 

21. (p. 37) Mesopotamia developed into a 


A. strict patriarchal society.
B. society where the sexes enjoyed relative equality.
C. predominantly matriarchal society.
D. society with few social distinctions.
E. society dominated by a growing mercantile middle class.

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
 

22. (p. 38) Conditions for women in Mesopotamia 


A. increased dramatically over the centuries.
B. reached their high point during the time of the Assyrians.
C. grew increasingly worse over time.
D. improved dramatically when women were allowed to do away with the veil.
E. were always very good; women had tremendous personal freedoms.

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
 

23. (p. 38) The Mesopotamian style of writing was known as 


A. demotic.
B. cuneiform.
C. hieroglyphs.
D. Coptic.
E. alphabetic.

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
 

24. (p. 27, 39) Enkidu 


A. was the Sumerian god of wisdom.
B. was a leading Sumerian city-state.
C. was the most powerful Babylonian king.
D. was Gilgamesh's friend.
E. is the Hebrew word for "holy."

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
 

25. (p. 40-41) After 1300 B.C.E, ethical monotheism was in the tradition of the 


A. Mesopotamians.
B. Egyptians.
C. Assyrians.
D. Hebrews.
E. Phoenicians.

 


Topic: Mesopotamian Influence
 

26. (p. 40) Hebrew monotheism has its origins with 


A. Abraham.
B. Moses.
C. Joseph.
D. David.
E. Solomon.

 


Topic: Mesopotamian Influence
 

27. (p. 44) The first simplified alphabet, containing only twenty-two letters, was created by the 


A. Mesopotamians.
B. Assyrians.
C. Hebrews.
D. Phoenicians.
E. Babylonians.

 


Topic: Mesopotamian Influence
 

28. (p. 44) Which of the following languages is NOT of Indo-European origin? 


A. Egyptian
B. Farsi
C. Hindi
D. Greek
E. Italic

 


Topic: Indo-European Migrations
 

29. (p. 45) The original homeland of the Indo-European speakers was 


A. Mesopotamia.
B. northern Germany.
C. southern Russia.
D. India.
E. Egypt.

 


Topic: Indo-European Migrations
 

30. (p. 45) Some of the most influential ancient Indo-European migrants into southwest Asia, migrating to central Anatolia around 1900 B.C.E., were the 


A. Assyrians.
B. Aryans.
C. Hebrews.
D. Babylonians.
E. Hittites.

 


Topic: Indo-European Migrations
 

31. (p. 46) Horse-drawn chariots were first invented by the 


A. Egyptians.
B. Assyrians.
C. Hittites.
D. Babylonians.
E. Hyksos.

 


Topic: Indo-European Migrations
 

 


True / False Questions
 

32. (p. 40) The Hebrew god was known as Yahweh. 


TRUE

 


Topic: Mesopotamian Influence
 

33. (p. 46) The Phoenicians invented the horse-drawn chariot. 


FALSE

 


Topic: Indo-European Migrations
 

34. (p. 31) Nebuchadnezzar was the first conqueror to unite all of Mesopotamia. 


FALSE

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

35. (p. 31-32) Lex talionis was a legal principle, the "law of retaliation." 


TRUE

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

36. (p. 44) The first alphabet was created by the Phoenicians. 


TRUE

 


Topic: Mesopotamian Influence
 

37. (p. 34) At its high point, which empire controlled not only Mesopotamia but also Syria, Palestine, much of Anatolia, and most of Egypt? 


TRUE

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

38. (p. 33) Gilgamesh is the hero of the oldest known epic. 


TRUE

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

39. (p. 31-32) The powerful Babylonian king who formulated a sophisticated law code was Hammurabi. 


TRUE

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

 


Essay Questions
 

40. Are there drawbacks to the rise of complex societies? In other words, is every aspect of civilization good? Are there still problems today that stretch back to the rise of civilization? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
Topic: Mesopotamian Influence
Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

41. What aspects of Mesopotamia as a region encouraged the formation of the first complex societies? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

42. Examine the history of the Hebrews. Why did they have so much trouble uniting into a powerful political force? How did their wanderings and misfortune affect the development of their form of monotheism? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Mesopotamian Influence
 

43. Examine the rise of the Mesopotamians. What were the political and cultural foundations of their society? Who were the most important leaders? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

44. Examine the reign of Hammurabi. In what ways was his reign the high point of Mesopotamian history? Explain the significance of his code. 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

45. What role did the Indo-Europeans play in history? What were their main contributions? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Indo-European Migrations
 

46. Examine the social structure of the Mesopotamians. Were there great divisions between the different social classes? How had the social distinctions changed since the period of prehistory? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
 

47. What role did technological innovations and trade play in the rise of the Mesopotamians? What innovations led to turning points in the histories of these societies? How widely did they trade? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
 

48. What were the major achievements of the Mesopotamians? How did these achievements influence later societies? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
Topic: Mesopotamian Influence
Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

49. Examine the creation of early methods of writing. How did this innovation influence the lives of the peoples of the ancient world? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
Topic: Indo-European Migrations
Topic: Mesopotamian Influence
 

50. What does the Epic of Gilgamesh tell us about the worldview of the Mesopotamians? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

51. Compare and contrast the religious beliefs of the early Mesopotamians and the Hebrews. What do the differences tell us about these societies? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
Topic: Mesopotamian Influence
Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

52. Examine the question of monotheism. Why was it such an unusual religious view in the ancient world? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Mesopotamian Influence
 

53. How did the role of women evolve during the growth and maturation of complex societies in Mesopotamia? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
 

54. What was the significance of the need for irrigation to the political development of Mesopotamia? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

55. What were the underlying principles of Hammurabi's code of laws and what does the law code tell us about the kind of society that existed in Mesopotamia at the time? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

56. Why were the Assyrians such formidable conquerors? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: The Early Quest for Order
 

57. What were the social strata in ancient Mesopotamia? How were slaves acquired and used? 

Answers will vary

 


Topic: Forming Societies and Cultural Traditions in Southwest Asia
 

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