Chapter 01 Crime and Justice in the United States Multiple Choice Questions



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Chapter 01 - Crime and Justice in the United States

Chapter 01

Crime and Justice in the United States

 

 




Multiple Choice Questions
 

1. According to a 2006 ABCNEWS.com survey, approximately what percentage of Americans who perceive a crime problem nationally say their belief is based on crime reports they have seen on the news? 


A. 20%
B. 40%
C. 60%
D. 80%

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: Crime in the United States
 

2. As discussed in your textbook, the list of calls for police service in Long Beach, California, shows which call for service to be most common? 


A. burglar alarms
B. parking violations
C. violent offenses
D. disturbances

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Level: Basic
Topic: Crime in the United States
 

3. Approximately how many hours a day does the average American spend in front of the television, according to a 2009 study by Ball State University's Center for Media Design? 


A. 2
B. 5
C. 8
D. 12

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: Crime in the United States
 

4. Critics of the American media argue that the news media have a dual obligation to 


A. present news that reflects a higher focus on international crime than on domestic crime and maintain their presentation of sensational crimes.
B. present news that reflects a more balanced picture of the overall crime problem and increase their presentation of sensational crimes.
C. present news that reflects a more balanced picture of the overall crime problem and reduce their presentation of sensational crimes.
D. present news that reflects a higher focus on international crime than on domestic crime and reduce their presentation of sensational crimes.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Moderate
Topic: Crime in the United States
 

5. Like the family, schools, organized religion, the media, and the law, criminal justice is a(n) 


A. institution of social control.
B. private response to crime.
C. informal method of social control.
D. subtle social control.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: An Institution of Social Control
 

6. According to a 2010 public opinion poll, approximately what percentage of Americans responded that they had a "great deal" or "quite a lot" of confidence in the criminal justice system? 


A. 5%
B. 25%
C. 50%
D. 75%

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: Criminal Justice: An Institution of Social Control
 

7. American criminal justice consists of three main agencies. Which of the following is NOT one of those three main agencies? 


A. corrections
B. prisons
C. police
D. courts

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

8. Approximately how many agencies of federal, state, and local governments comprise criminal justice in the United States? 


A. 50
B. 500
C. 5,000
D. 50,000

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

9. The term jurisdiction, as used in your text, means 


A. the specific location in which a court is located.
B. the loose confederation of prisons and jails around the country.
C. a politically defined geographical area.
D. the system of rank and hierarchy within police agencies.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

10. Often, an arrest supported by ________ and ________ is sufficient to close a case, especially with a less serious crime. 


A. witness statements; crime scene evidence
B. media coverage; jurisdiction
C. crime scene evidence; media coverage
D. witness statements; jurisdiction

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Moderate
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

11. After an arrest has been made, the suspect is brought to the police station to be 


A. incarcerated.
B. booked.
C. interrogated.
D. tried.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

12. There are three types of charging documents. Which of the following is NOT one of the three types of charging documents described in your text? 


A. an information
B. a misdemeanant
C. a complaint
D. a grand jury indictment

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

13. The booking process typically involves 


A. entering the suspect's charge in the police blotter.
B. entering the suspect's name in the police blotter.
C. perhaps entering the suspect's fingerprints or photograph in the police blotter.
D. All these answers are correct.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

14. A(n) ________ is a charging document specifying that an offense has been committed by a person or persons named or described. 


A. information
B. grand jury indictment
C. complaint
D. All these answers are correct.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

15. A(n) ________ outlines the formal charge or charges, the law or laws that have been violated, and the evidence to support the charge or charges. 


A. information
B. grand jury indictment
C. complaint
D. ordinance violation

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

16. A suspect becomes a defendant after 


A. an information has been made.
B. a complaint has been made.
C. arrest.
D. charges have been filed.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

17. In the case of a misdemeanor or an ordinance violation, a(n) ________ may be held. 


A. summary trial
B. information
C. arrest warrant
D. grand jury

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Evaluation
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

18. The purpose of the ________ is for a judge to determine whether there is probable cause to believe that the defendant committed the crime or crimes with which he or she is charged. 


A. preliminary hearing
B. indictment
C. arraignment
D. initial appearance

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

19. The primary purpose of the ________ is to hear the formal information or indictment and to allow the defendant to enter a plea. 


A. preliminary hearing
B. indictment
C. arraignment
D. initial appearance

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

20. About ________ of criminal defendants plead guilty to the charges against them, in an arrangement called plea bargaining. 


A. 95%
B. 75%
C. 50%
D. 25%

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

21. Cases that are not resolved through plea bargaining or by a jury trial are decided by a judge in a 


A. grand jury.
B. indictment.
C. bench trial.
D. arraignment.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

22. The vast majority of criminal cases in the United States are disposed of through which of the following processes? 


A. jury trials
B. plea bargaining
C. bench trials
D. vigilantism

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

23. Currently, five general types of punishment are in use in the United States. Which of the following is NOT one of these punishments in use in the United States? 


A. probation
B. transportation
C. intermediate punishments
D. death

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

24. Defendants can appeal their convictions on legal grounds. Which of the following is NOT one of the legal grounds described in your textbook? 


A. mistaken interpretations of law
B. defects in jury selection
C. improper admission of evidence at trial
D. illegal search and seizure

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Moderate
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

25. Defendants can appeal their convictions on constitutional grounds. Which of the following is NOT one of the constitutional grounds described in your textbook? 


A. freedom of speech and public assembly
B. incompetent assistance of counsel
C. improper questioning of the defendant by the police
D. identification of the defendant through a defective police lineup

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Moderate
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

26. Because there is considerable conflict and confusion between different agencies of criminal justice, an accurate way of defining American criminal justice may be to call it 


A. a system.
B. a nonsystem.
C. extremely uniform.
D. smoothly operating.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Evaluation
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The Nonsystem
 

27. Criminal justice officials frequently complained that their jobs were made ________ because of the practice, once common in many states, of sealing juvenile court records. 


A. less complicated
B. more difficult
C. easier
D. more interesting

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Evaluation
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The Nonsystem
 

28. When politically conservative values are dominant in society, the principles and policies of ________ seem to dominate the operation of criminal justice. 


A. the crime control model
B. obstacle-course justice
C. fact-finding processes
D. the due process model

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

29. The ultimate goal of the crime control model is 


A. due process.
B. punishment.
C. the control of crime.
D. human rights.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

30. If defendants ask for something special, such as a trial, the criminal justice assembly line is 


A. enhanced.
B. taken to its full potential.
C. essentially no different.
D. slowed down.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Evaluation
Level: Basic
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

31. If defendants are not satisfied with the outcome of their trials, they have the right to 


A. declare a mistrial.
B. appeal.
C. demand a retrial.
D. request new counsel.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Level: Basic
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

32. Which of the following are used to increase efficiency—meaning speed and finality—in the crime control model? 


A. mistrials
B. plea bargains
C. appeals
D. bench trials

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

33. A major problem with the crime control model is that a presumption of guilt goes against one of the oldest and most cherished principles of American criminal justice. What is this principle? 


A. Defendants have the right to counsel, even if indigent.
B. Defendants have the right to a jury of their peers.
C. Defendants are considered innocent until proven guilty
D. Defendants are protected against compelled self-incrimination.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

34. Herbert Packer characterizes the due process model as 


A. "assembly-line justice."
B. focused on speed and efficiency.
C. more concerned with guilt than with innocence.
D. "obstacle-course justice."

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

35. On which of the following doctrines is the due process model based? 


A. legal guilt
B. factual guilt
C. presumptive guilt
D. legal innocence

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Level: Basic
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

36. Due process advocates recognize that there can be no equal justice where the kind of trial a person gets, or whether he or she gets a trial at all, depends substantially on 


A. how much money that person has.
B. the region of the country in which he or she lives.
C. the demands of the court's caseload.
D. the personal beliefs of his or her counsel.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Evaluation
Level: Basic
Topic: Costs of Criminal Justice
 

37. In 2009, a total of ________ was spent on civil and criminal justice. 


A. $258 billion
B. $2.58 trillion
C. $258 million
D. $2.58 billion

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Level: Moderate
Topic: Costs of Criminal Justice
 

38. In 2009, approximately how much did criminal and civil justice cost every resident of the United States (if the costs were divided evenly among all U.S. residents)? 


A. $8.41
B. $84.10
C. $841.00
D. $8,410.00

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Level: Moderate
Topic: Costs of Criminal Justice
 

39. On which of the following components of criminal justice was the most money spent in 2009? 


A. police protection
B. judicial/legal services
C. corrections
D. reentry

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Moderate
Topic: Costs of Criminal Justice
 

40. In 2009, which level of government spent the most on police protection? 


A. federal
B. state
C. local
D. Expenses were equally divided among all levels of government.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Moderate
Topic: Costs of Criminal Justice
 

41. In 2009, which level of government spent the most on corrections? 


A. federal
B. state
C. local
D. Expenses were equally divided among all levels of government.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Moderate
Topic: Costs of Criminal Justice
 

42. In 2009, approximately what percentage of all government expenditures were spent on criminal justice? 


A. 4%
B. 8%
C. 16%
D. 27%

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Level: Moderate
Topic: Costs of Criminal Justice
 

43. How much did the state of Florida reportedly spend to administer justice to serial murderer Ted Bundy? 


A. $10,000
B. $100,000
C. $1,000,000
D. $10,000,000

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: Costs of Criminal Justice
 

44. How much did the federal government spend to execute mass murderer Timothy McVeigh (the cost of the entire process)? 


A. $1 million
B. $10 million
C. $100 million
D. $1 billion

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: Costs of Criminal Justice
 

45. In the Florida cocaine possession case described in the text, what criminal justice function cost the most? 


A. law enforcement
B. defense
C. prosecution and court
D. corrections

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: Costs of Criminal Justice
 

46. During the Middle Ages in Europe, people commonly believed that guilt or innocence could be determined through 


A. trial by ordeal.
B. hanging.
C. trial by jury.
D. people's courts.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Costs of Criminal Justice
 

 


True / False Questions
 

47. Sensational crime news stories provide a fairly accurate image of the types of crime by which the average citizen is victimized. 


FALSE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Crime in the United States
 

48. What the media present, for the most part, misleads the American public about the nature of crime. 


TRUE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Crime in the United States
 

49. Usually, society turns to criminal justice only after other institutions of social control have failed. 


TRUE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: An Institution of Social Control
 

50. The criminal justice response to crime usually begins when the police themselves discover that a crime has been committed. 


FALSE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

51. An arrest is the seizing and detaining of a person by lawful authority. 


TRUE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

52. A prosecutor always reviews a case before an arrest is made. 


FALSE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

53. An information is used for ordinance violation charges. 


FALSE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

54. Probable cause is a standard of proof that requires trustworthy evidence sufficient to make a reasonable person believe that, more likely than not, the proposed action is justified. 


TRUE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

55. A grand jury is a group of citizens who hear a criminal case during trial and decide upon the defendant's guilt. 


FALSE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

56. Judges are limited by statutory provisions when passing a sentence. 


TRUE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

57. Bail is the conditional release of prisoners before they have served their full sentences. 


FALSE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

58. From a political standpoint, the crime control model reflects traditional liberal values. 


FALSE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

59. To achieve "quick closure" in the processing of cases under the crime control model, a premium is placed on speed and finality. 


TRUE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

60. Plea bargaining is the perfect mechanism for achieving the primary focus of the due process model: efficiency. 


FALSE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

61. In the due process model, the factual guilt of suspects is not determined until the suspects have had a full opportunity to discredit the charges against them. 


TRUE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

62. In the due process model, factual guilt is enough for people to be found guilty of crimes. 


FALSE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

63. Neither the crime control model nor the due process model is likely to completely control criminal justice in the future. 


TRUE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Moderate
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

64. Criminal justice is primarily a state and local function. 


TRUE

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: Costs of Criminal Justice
 

 


Short Answer Questions
 

65. Assume that an arrest is made and the defendant is found guilty. Number the following steps in the order in which they occur in the criminal justice process. Numbers should be from 1 to 11.

____ Possible appeal
____ Either indictment by a grand jury followed by arraignment, or arraignment on an information
____ Formal charging of the suspect
____ Arrest
____ Preliminary hearing (for a felony)
____ Sentencing
____ Booking
____ Investigation
____ Initial appearance
____ Punishment
____ Either a plea bargain or a trial 

10, 7, 4, 2, 6, 9, 3, 1, 5, 11, 8

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Level: Basic
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

66. Identify the two ways described in your textbook in which criminal justice differs from other institutions of social control. 

The two ways are as follows: 1) The role of criminal justice is restricted officially to persuading people to abide by a limited range of social values: those whose violation constitutes crime. Behaviors are of no official concern to criminal justice unless they violate the criminal law. 2) Criminal justice is generally society's "last line of defense" against people who refuse to abide by dominant social values and commit crimes.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Moderate
Topic: Criminal Justice: An Institution of Social Control
 

67. List the three principal kinds of charging documents and describe for which type of offense each is used. 

The three principal kinds of charging documents are a complaint, an information, and a grand jury indictment. 1) A complaint in many jurisdictions is used if the offense is a misdemeanor (a less serious crime) or an ordinance violation (usually the violation of a law of a city or town). 2) An information is used in about half the states if the offense is a felony and the state does not use a grand jury. 3) A grand jury indictment is used in about half the states if the offense is a felony.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

68. Defendants can appeal their convictions either on legal grounds or on constitutional grounds. Your textbook identifies three examples of legal grounds and four examples of constitutional grounds. Name two of each. 

Answers can include any of the following:

Legal grounds: defects in jury selection, improper admission of evidence at trial, and mistaken interpretations of law


Constitutional grounds: illegal search and seizure, improper questioning of the defendant by the police, identification of the defendant through a defective police lineup, and incompetent assistance of counsel

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

69. What are the ways in which an appellate court can handle a case that has been appealed? 

The appellate court can affirm the verdict of the lower court and let it stand; modify the verdict of the lower court, without totally reversing it; reverse the verdict of the lower court, which requires no further court action; reverse the decision and remand, or return, the case to the court of original jurisdiction for either a retrial or resentencing.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Level: Moderate
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
 

70. Explain the two reasons the American criminal justice system is a nonsystem. 

The two reasons are: 1) There is no single system, but instead a loose confederation of more than 50,000 agencies on federal, state, and local levels. 2) Rather than being a smoothly operating set of arrangements and institutions, the agencies of the criminal justice system interact with one another but generally operate independently, often causing problems for one another.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Moderate
Topic: Criminal Justice: The Nonsystem
 

71. Explain the doctrine of legal guilt. 

According to the doctrine of legal guilt, people are not to be held guilty of crimes merely on a showing, based on reliable evidence, that in all probability they did in fact do what they are accused of doing. It is not enough that people are factually guilty; they must also be legally guilty. This means that the integrity of due-process rights must be maintained.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

72. Your textbook identifies nine due-process rights that affect the determination of legal guilt. Name five of them. 

Answers can include any of the following: protection against double jeopardy; protection against compelled self-incrimination; a speedy and public trial; an impartial jury of the state and district where the crime occurred; notice of the nature and cause of the accusation; the right to confront opposing witnesses; compulsory process for obtaining favorable witnesses; the right to counsel; the prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice

 

 




Essay Questions
 

73. Your neighbor realizes you are studying criminal justice and asks for your opinion regarding his cousin's recent encounter with the law. It seems that cousin Michael, a 25-year-old and a new homeowner, had a fight with his neighbor, Jack. Michael had just planted some new roses on what he thought was his property when Jack came outside and claimed the roses were on his property. At first, Michael tried to handle the situation calmly, but when Jack said he would pull out the roses, Michael and Jack started shouting loudly at one another. A friend called the police, who responded and warned both Michael and Jack that they needed to calm down or they could be charged with a misdemeanor for disturbing the peace. After the police left, Jack waited and then stole the roses from out of the ground and was observed by Michael's newly-installed video cameras as the culprit. Michael went to the police and signed a complaint for felony larceny due to the cost of the roses. Now, your neighbor wants to know what is likely to happen to Jack. Explain what is likely to occur by outlining the stages from arrest to the possible disposition of the case, using either the crime control or due process model. Assume this is Jack's first offense and that he fully admits to taking the roses. 

Answers will vary but should include a discussion of the police, courts and corrections. They should at least briefly identify the stages of the arrest, booking, preliminary hearing, arraignment, standard of proof and likelihood of plea bargaining. Corrective measures answers will vary depending on whether the student applies a due process or crime control model.

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Evaluation
Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Level: Moderate
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 

74. Using your local law enforcement jurisdiction as an example, gather the most recently published crime statistics, as well as a review of recent headlines, and prepare an answer to the following scenario:

Mary, charged with a felony burglary, has been indicted by a grand jury and is facing trial next month. Given the history of your jurisdiction's key players in the police department, court, and corrections, will she likely face a due process or crime control model? Why? How, if at all, will this vary from recent trends within the U.S.? 

Answers will vary according to jurisdictions but should include a discussion of liberalism and conservatism as reflected in each of the two models, and likelihood of how the current presidential administration will impact these models. Discussions of this are reflected in the text under "Crime Control versus Due Process."

 


Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Bloom's Taxonomy: Evaluation
Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Level: Difficult
Topic: Criminal Justice: The System
Topic: Two Models of Criminal Justice
 


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