Ch. 7 Southwest Asia and North Africa



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Ch. 7 - Southwest Asia and North Africa

  • Rowntree et. al.
  • Modified by
  • Joe Naumann, UMSL

Chapter 7: Southwest Asia & North Africa (Fig. 7.1)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

Learning Objectives

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Learn about Southwest Asia and North Africa
  • Understand the role of Islam in shaping the history and current political situation in this region
  • Understand role of oil and water in shaping this region
  • Become familiar with the physical, demographic, cultural, political, and economic characteristics of Southwest Asia & North Africa (SW Asia & N Africa)
  • Appreciate region’s historic & current relative location.
  • Understand these concepts and models:
  • -Exotic rivers
  • -Green Line
  • -Hajj
  • -Islamic fundamentalism
  • -Monotheism
  • -OPEC
  • -Levant
  • -Maghreb
  • -Pastoral nomadism
  • -Transhumance

Introduction

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • SW Asia and N Africa extend 4,000 miles
  • This region is a culture hearth – a region that witnesses many cultural innovations that subsequently diffuse to other parts of world
  • Development of petroleum industry has had large impact on the region
    • OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) – member countries profoundly influence global prices and production targets for petroleum
  • Islamic fundamentalism – this aspect of Islam that advocates return to more traditional practices, calls for merger of civil and religious authority, and challenges encroachment of global popular culture

Relative Location: A Crossroads

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Physical
    • Trade
    • Migration
  • Cultural
  • Religious
  • Enhanced by human actions
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • PIVOTAL LOCATION

Prominent Transition Zone in Africa

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • TRANSITION ZONE

GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REALM (largest type of region)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Physical
    • ARIDITY
    • OIL
  • Cultural
    • CULTURE HEARTHS
    • WORLD RELIGIONS
    • CONFLICT

Life in a Fragile World

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
      • A long history of human settlement in SW Asia and N Africa has left its mark on the environment
  • Regional Landforms
    • SW Asia is more mountainous than N Africa
    • North Africa
      • Maghreb (“West Island”) –includes Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia; dominated by the Atlas Mountains
    • Southwest Asia
      • Levant – eastern Mediterranean region of Southwest Asia has mountains and highlands
      • Anatolia – peninsula of Turkey (“Asia Minor”) is a geologically active plateau
      • Mesopotamia –Iraq between the Tigris & Euphrates

Physical Subdivisions of the Realm

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • ATLAS MTS.
  • CAUCASUS MTS
  • ZAGROS
  • MTS
  • ANATOLIAN
  • PLATEAU
  • IRANIAN
  • PLATEAU

MORE REGIONAL TERMS

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • MAGHREB
  • ANATOLIA
  • MESOPOTAMIA
  • LEVANT

Physical Geography of Southwest Asia & North Africa (Fig. 7.4)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

Environmental Geography: Life in a Fragile World (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Patterns of Climate
      • Complex climate region because of altitude & latitude
      • Large portions of the region are arid
        • Deserts stretch from Atlantic coast across Africa, through the Arabian Peninsula, and into central and eastern Iran
      • Mediterranean climates in Atlas Mountains and the Levant coastline caused by altitude and latitude
  • Legacies of a Vulnerable Landscape
      • Lengthy human settlement has led to environmental problems
    • Deforestation and Overgrazing
      • Human activities and natural conditions have reduced most of the forests to grass and scrub
      • Caused by overgrazing, fires; vulnerable to fire

Climate Map of Southwest Asia & N Africa (Fig. 7.7)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • NEGEV DESERT

Legacies of a Vulnerable Landscape (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Legacies of a Vulnerable Landscape (cont.)
    • Salinization
      • Buildup of toxic salts in the soil from centuries of irrigation
      • Hundreds of 1000s of acres of farmland degraded
    • Managing Water
      • Availability of water a problem throughout the region
      • Qanat system – Iranian process of tapping into groundwater by a series of gently sloping tunnels
      • Egypt built Aswan High Dam to store water, generate energy, but it has created environmental problems
      • Libya’s “Great Man-made River” draws underground fossil water 600 miles to irrigate crops in the north of the country
      • Hydropolitics – interplay of water resource issues and politics

WATER - A RENEWABLE OR FINITE RESOURCE?

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Water is critical for life, food production, and industrial processes.
  • 9 out of 14 Southwest Asian states face water-short conditions (the most concentrated region of scarcity in the world).
  • The North African states all have rates of natural increase above 2.0%, increasing the stress on water sources.

Environmental Issues in SW Asia & N Africa (Fig. 7.10)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

Population and Settlement: Patterns

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
      • Dry areas are scarcely settled, while moist lands may be overpopulated
  • The Geography of Population
      • More than 400 million people in the region
      • Physiological densities among Earth’s highest
      • Physiological densities – a statistic that relates the number of people to the amount of arable land
      • Two dominant population clusters:
        • Maghreb: moister areas of Atlas Mountains and coastal regions
        • Egypt’s Nile River valley: 70 million live within 10 miles of the river

Population Map of SW Asia & N Africa (Fig. 7.13)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

Settlement: Patterns in an Arid Land

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Water and Life: Rural Settlement Patterns
      • Region is early hearth of agricultural domestication
        • Domestication – process in which plants and animals were purposefully selected and bred for their desirable characteristics; it began in this region 10,000 years ago
        • Fertile Crescent – ecologically diverse zone that stretches from Levant inland through the fertile hill country of northern Syria into Iraq
    • Pastoral Nomadism
      • Traditional form of subsistence agriculture based on seasonal movement of livestock
        • Transhumance – seasonal movement of livestock from winter to summer pastures

Water and Life: Rural Settlement Patterns

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Water and Life: Rural Settlement Patterns
    • Oasis Life
      • Areas where high groundwater or deep-water wells provide reliable moisture
        • Small agricultural settlements
        • Serve as trading centers as well
      • Exotic rivers – a river that comes from a humid area and flows into a dry area that otherwise lacks streams, can support irrigation
        • Kibbutzes – collectively worked settlements that produce grain, vegetable, and orchard crops irrigated by the Jordan River and feeder canals
    • The Challenge of Dryland Agriculture
      • Depends on seasonal moisture (associated with Mediterranean regions)
      • Includes tree crops, livestock, grains, and illegal hashish

Agricultural Regions of SW Asia & N Africa (Fig. 7.14)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

Water and Life: Rural Settlement Patterns

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Water and Life: Rural Settlement Patterns
    • Many-Layered Landscapes: The Urban Imprint
      • Some of the world’s oldest urban areas are in this region
    • A Long Urban Legacy
      • City life began in Mesopotamia (Eridu & Ur 3500 B.C.), and Egypt (Memphis & Thebes 3000 B.C.)
      • Rise of trade centers around 2000 B.C.
      • Centers of Islamic religious administration and education
        • Examples: Baghdad, Cairo
        • The original urban core of a traditional Islamic city is called a medina, has central mosque, bazaar
      • Colonialism left European influence
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • SIMILAR PATTERN IN FORMER SOVIET CENTRAL ASIA

Population and Settlement: Patterns in an Arid Land (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Water and Life: Rural Settlement Patterns
    • Signatures of Globalization
      • Urban centers have become focal points of economic growth (Ex: Cairo, Algiers, Istanbul)
      • Oil wealth added modern element to traditional cities
    • A Region on the Move
      • Migration streams
        • Rural-to-urban migration
        • Migration of low-wage workers from other regions to SW Asia and N Africa
        • Migration of workers from the regions to other places (ex.: Turkish guestworkers to Germany)

Population and Settlement: Patterns in an Arid Land (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Shifting Demographic Patterns
      • Population growth rates vary within the region
      • Women in Tunisia, Iran, and Turkey are having fewer children
        • Causes include delayed marriage, family planning initiatives, greater urbanization
      • High rates of natural increase in West Bank, Gaza, and Libya
      • Increasing population will strain cities, water supplies, public services
      • Jobs will be needed for the people added to the population

Cultural Coherence, Diversity, and Complexity

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Patterns of Religion
    • Hearth of the Judeo-Christian Tradition
      • Jews & Christians trace roots to East Mediterranean
      • Monotheism – belief in one God
    • The Emergence of Islam
      • Originated in Southwest Asia in A.D. 622
      • In the Judeo-Christian Tradition, sharing many of the same prophets, including Abraham, Moses, & Jesus
      • Quran – Koran; believed by Muslims to be a book of revelations received by Muhammad from Allah (God), representing God’s highest religious and moral revelations
      • Islam means “submission to the will of God”
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • DIFFUSION OF RELIGION
  • North
  • America
  • Middle
  • America
  • South
  • America
  • CHRISTIANITY
  • ISLAM
  • HINDUISM
  • BUDHISM
  • JUDAISM?????????????????
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • DOME OF THE ROCK
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • CHURCH OF THE NATIVITY

Modern Religions (Fig. 7.21)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

Patterns of Religion (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Patterns of Religion (cont.)
    • The Emergence of Islam (cont.)
        • Five pillars
          • Repeat the basic creed to accept Islam (“There is no God but God, and Muhammad is his prophet”)
          • Pray five times daily facing Makkah (Mecca)
          • Give charitable contributions
          • Fast during month of Ramadan
          • Make at least one religious pilgrimage (Hajj) to Makkah
      • Theocratic state – one in which religious leaders (ayatollahs) guide policy; Iran is an example

The Emergence of Islam (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
    • The Emergence of Islam (cont.)
      • Early major religious split divided Islam - still exists
        • Shiites – current name of group that favored passing power on within Muhammad’s own family
        • Sunnis – current name of group that favored passing power through established clergy; emerged victorious
      • Ottoman Empire – vast empire (Turks; included southeastern Europe and most of Southwest Asia and North Africa, circa 1453)
    • Modern Religious Diversity
      • Muslims majority, except for in Israel and Cyprus
        • Sunni (73%); Shiites (23%) dominant in Iran, southern Iraq, Lebanon, Sudan, and Bahrain
      • Sufism in region’s margins, and Druze of Lebanon

Diffusion of Islam (Fig. 7.19)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • WHERE ARE THE MUSLIMS ?
  • Millions
  • # of
  • Muslims
  • 168.3
  • 128.8
  • 125
  • 104
  • 62
  • 61.7
  • 57.1
  • 18.2
  • 0
  • 20
  • 40
  • 60
  • 80
  • 100
  • 120
  • 140
  • 160
  • 180
  • # of
  • Muslims
  • Indonesia
  • India
  • Pakistan
  • Bangladesh
  • Turkey
  • Iran
  • Egypt
  • Saudi Arabia
  • HOW ABOUT
  • THAT?
  • THEY ARE OUTSIDE THE REALM!

Cultural Signatures of Complexity (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Geographies of Language
    • Semites and Berbers
      • Semite languages: Arabic and Hebrew
      • Berber – older Afro-Asiatic language
        • Found in Atlas Mountains and Sahara region
    • Persians and Kurds
      • Both groups speak Indo-European languages
      • Persian dominates the Iranian Plateau
      • Kurdish in northern Iraq, northwest Iran, and eastern Turkey
    • The Turkish Imprint
      • Part of Altaic family

Modern Languages (Fig. 7.23)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Persians
  • Azerbijianis
  • Kurds
  • Turks
  • Arabs
  • Bakhtiari
  • Lur

Cultural Signatures of Complexity (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Regional Cultures in Global Context
    • Islamic Internationalism
      • Islamic communities well-established in central China, European Russia, central Africa, southern Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, elsewhere
      • Muslim congregations expanding in urban areas of western Europe and North America
    • Globalization and Cultural Change
      • Global economy is having impact on traditional cultural values
        • Fundamentalism a reaction
      • Access to satellite TV, cell phones, the internet brings global culture to the region

A Region of Persisting Tensions

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • The Colonial Legacy
      • European colonialism came late to the region
        • Dominance of Ottoman Empire
        • Widespread European colonialism after WWI
        • Many political boundaries set by colonial powers
  • Imposing European Power
      • French in Algeria since 1800, later in Tunisia, Morocco, Syria and Lebanon
      • Britain in Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf by 1900
        • Suez Canal – British-engineered canal linking Mediterranean and Red seas in 1869
        • European banks influenced Egyptian economy
        • British instrumental in establishing Saudi Arabia
      • Italians in Libya, Spanish in Morocco
      • Turkey, Iran (Persia) never occupied

A Region of Persisting Tensions (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Imposing European Power (cont.)
    • Decolonization and Independence
      • Europeans began to withdraw before WWII
        • By 1950 most countries independent
        • Algeria independent in 1962
  • Modern Geopolitical Issues
    • The Arab-Israeli Conflict
      • Creation of Israel in 1948
      • 3 wars: 1956, 1967 (Israel gained most land), 1973
      • Intifada (1987) – Palestinian uprisings protesting Jewish settlements
      • Ongoing conflict between Israelis and Palestinians

A Region of Persisting Tensions (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Modern Geopolitical Issues (cont.)
    • Troubled Iraq
      • Born in colonial era, carved from British Empire in 1932
        • Many different groups: Shiites, Sunnis, Kurds, Marsh Arabs
      • U.S. has troops in Iraq, conflict continues
    • Politics of Fundamentalism
      • Originated in Iran, 1978–1979
        • Shiite clerics (Khomeni) overthrew Shah
      • Sudanese fundamentalists overthrew democracy in 1989

Geopolitical Issues in SW Asia & N Africa (Fig. 7.25)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

A Region of Persisting Tensions (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Modern Geopolitical Issues (cont.)
    • Conflicts Within States
      • Lebanon – conflict among Sunni and Shiite Muslims and Christians
        • Result of spread of Palestinian refugees to region
      • Cyprus – conflict between Greece and Turkey
        • Green Line – demarcation set up by UN peacekeepers that divides the capital of Nicosia in Cyprus
    • An Uncertain Political Future
      • International political relations remain complex
      • Israel, Turkey are U.S. allies; Iran, Syria oppose U.S.
      • Oil plays a role

THE IMPACT OF OIL

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • HIGH INCOMES
  • MODERNIZATION
  • INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • REGIONAL DISPARITIES
  • FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN THIS REALM
  • INVESTMENT IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES

Lands of Wealth and Poverty

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • The Geography of Fossil Fuels
      • Oil unevenly distributed in the area
        • Saudi Arabia, Iran, U.A.E., Libya, Algeria contribute significantly to oil production, while Morocco & Sudan have few developed reserves
        • Region has 7% of the world’s population; holds 68% of the world’s proven petroleum reserves
  • Regional Economic Patterns
    • Higher-Income Oil Exporters
        • Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, U.A.E.
        • Cultural landscape reshaped because of oil wealth
        • Not all benefit – rural Shiite Muslims and foreign workers

Lands of Wealth and Poverty (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Regional Economic Patterns (cont.)
    • Lower-Income Oil Exporters
      • Algeria: oil and natural gas are its top exports; but political instability remains a problem
      • Iran: huge oil reserves, but long war with Iraq (1980-90), & fundamentalist government withdrawal from world trade under have lowered living standards
    • Prospering Without Oil
      • Israel has highest living standard in the region
      • Turkey has a diversified economy; has seen growth
      • Economic reforms in Tunisia
      • Lebanon has potential for prosperity through tourism & telecommunications

Lands of Wealth and Poverty (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Regional Economic Patterns (cont.)
    • Regional Patterns of Poverty
      • Sudan’s economy ruined by civil war
      • Morocco is poorer than Algeria or Tunisia and suffers from brain drain
        • Brain drain – phenomenon in which some of brightest young people leave for better jobs in Western Europe
      • Egypt’s prospects unclear, with growth in 1990s, but large gaps between rich and poor
      • Yemen is poorest country in the Arabian Peninsula

Lands of Wealth and Poverty (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Issues of Social Development
    • Varied Regional Patterns
      • Israel has high living standard; but Jewish majority doing much better than Muslim minority
      • Saudi Arabia has lower figures of social well-being than might be expected
    • A Woman’s Changing World
      • World’s lowest female workforce participation
        • In some countries of the region, women not allowed to work outside of the home or drive
      • In Iran, women’s roles changing
      • Libya sees modernizing women’s role as a high priority

Lands of Wealth and Poverty (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Global Economic Relationships
    • Changing Global Linkages
      • Oil is the major export of the region
        • Oil makes up 70% of region’s exports
      • OPEC still influences cost & availability of petroleum
      • Turkey exports textiles, food products, and manufactured goods
      • Israeli exports include cut diamonds, electronics, machinery parts
      • Tourism - religious, historical sites, & other activities
    • Regional Connections
      • Relationships with EU are critical; Turkey asks in EU
      • Arab League formed in 1945
      • Arab Free-Trade Area (1998)

Crude Petroleum & Natural Gas Production and Reserves (Fig. 7.31)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

Lands of Wealth and Poverty (cont.)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Global Economic Relationships
    • The Geography of Tourism
      • Ancient historical sites and globally significant religious localities are a large draw
      • Tourist hotels and condos on the Mediterranean
      • Ecotourism
      • Tourism is a large part of the regional economy in Turkey, Israel, and Egypt
      • Impacts to visual landscape, physical environment, and archeological sites

SELECTED COUNTRIES

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Taking a closer look!
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • EGYPT AND THE LOWER NILE BASIN
  • CONTINUOUS CIVILIZATION > 5,000 YEARS
  • WATER HAS BEEN THE KEY TO ITS DEVELOPMENT
  • 95% OF EGYPT’S 71 MILLION PEOPLE LIVE WITHIN 12 MILES OF THE NILE
  • BASIN IRRIGATION
  • PERENNIAL IRRIGATION - MID 1800s
  • ASWAN HIGH DAM - 1968
    • INCREASED AGRICULTURAL LAND BY 50%
    • PROVIDES 40% OF ELECTRICITY
    • ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • PROBLEMS WITH ASWAN
  • LAKE NASSER FLOODED LARGE AREAS
  • SILTING OF LAKE NASSER
  • NATURAL SILTING OF FARM LAND WAS STOPPED
  • ERODING OF THE NILE DELTA
    • LOSS OF HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE LAND
  • HARMED FISHING INDUSTRY IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • EGYPT
  • Strategic Situation
  • Cairo – Primate City
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • THE MAGHREB AND LIBYA
  • Atlas Mountains
  • - Fertile Coastline
  • - Rain Shadow Effect
  • French Colonialism
  • Oil-Rich Libya
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • AFRICAN TRANSITION ZONE
  • SAHEL - ARABIC WORD FOR BORDER OR MARGIN – VERY MARGINAL AGRICULTURAL LAND
  • A ZONE WHERE PEOPLE ARE ETHNICALLY AFRICAN BUT CULTURALLY ARAB
  • DESERTIFICATION - PRINCIPAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM
  • CULTURAL AND POLITICAL INSTABILITY
  • NORTH VERSUS SOUTH - MUSLIM VERSUS NON-MUSLIM PATTERNS
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Roots of the Arab/Israeli Problem
  • Original home & religious hearth of Jews
  • 70 AD Romans destroy Temple & Jews flee
  • 312 CE, Christianity dominant in Roman Empire
  • Around 700 CE Muslims conquered Islam becomes the dominant religion – Jews are minority people there
  • World War I – Allies offered independence to the Arabs if they revolted against the Turks AND the British promise a national homeland to the Jews in the Balfour Declaration
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • ISRAEL
  • BORN AND SUSTAINED IN CONFLICT – AND WAR!
    • 1948
    • 1956
    • 1967
    • 1973
    • Late 1990s, hopes for peace were raised
    • Undeclared war 2002 - 2005
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT
  • THE GOLAN HEIGHTS- RETURN TO SYRIA?
  • THE SECURITY ZONE- RETURN TO LEBANON?
  • JERUSALEM- HOLY CITY FOR WHO? A MAJOR “STICKING POINT.”
  • THE WEST BANK- PALESTINIAN HOMELAND?
  • THE PALESTINIANS- REFUGEE PROBLEM LED TO THE P.L.O. WHICH LED TO TERRORISM
  • ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS IN THE WEST BANK
  • ARAB/ISLAMIC DISRUPTION- IMPACT OF EXTREMIST GROUPS – BOTH SIDES CAN BE SEEN AS TERRORISTS!
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • ARABIAN
  • PENINSULA
  • SOME OF THE MOST ARID LAND IN THE WORLD
  • BIRTH PLACE OF ISLAM – SITE OF THE KAABA
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Natural
  • Gas
  • Oil
  • Deposits
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • ARABIAN PENINSULA
  • SAUDI ARABIA, KUWAIT, BAHRAIN, QATAR, UAE, OMAN, YEMEM
  • OIL, DESERT, & STRATEGIC LOCATION
  • SAUDI ARABIA- 22.9 MILLION PEOPLE WITH THE WORLD’S GREATEST OIL RESERVES –
    • VERY CONSERVATIVE PRACTICE OF ISLAM
    • MONARCHY WALKS CULTURAL “THIN LINE”
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • TURKEY
  • TURKISH OTTOMAN EMPIRE
    • NOMADIC PEOPLES FROM THE STEPPES AND FORESTS OF SIBERIA
    • 6TH CENTURY- ESTABLISHED AN EMPIRE STRETCHING FROM MONGOLIA TO THE BLACK SEA
    • SPREAD THE TURKIC LANGUAGE FAR AND WIDE
    • DECLINED IN EARLY 1900s
  • MUSTAFA KEMAL (ATATURK)
    • FATHER OF MODERN TURKEY
    • MOVED CAPITAL FROM CONSTANTINOPLE TO ANKARA
    • WESTERNIZED TURKEY AND BROKE FREE FROM THE ARAB WORLD
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • TURKEY(CONTINUED)
  • WESTERNIZATION
    • ISLAM LOST OFFICIAL STATUS
    • ROMAN ALPHABET REPLACED ARABIC
    • ISLAMIC LAW REPLACED BY WESTERN CODE
    • MONOGAMY BECAME LAW
    • WOMEN GAINED RIGHTS
    • TURKEY SEPARATED FROM ARAB WORLD
    • FUNADMENTAL ISLAM GROWING THREAT
  • KURDISH POPULATION
    • 14 MILLION- 1/5 OF TURKEY’S 67 MILLION
    • SOUTHEAST TURKEY (IRAQ, IRAN & SYRIA) – PERSECUTED MINORITY
    • SADDAM HUSSEIN TRIED GENOCIDE

Click on the map to see the video

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • KURDS – STATELESS NATION - POTENTIAL FOR CONFLICTS
  • Click on the map to see the video
  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Population is Persian & speaks Farsi
  • Imperialistic Period – buffer state
  • Shah of Iran & oil wealth
    • Absolute ruler (dictator)
    • Introduced western ideas
  • Ayatollah Khomeini – religious reactionary
  • US hostages
  • Exporting Islamic fundamentalism
  • War with Iraq 1980-1988

Iranian propaganda to support war with Iraq

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Click the picture to see the video

The “Arab Spring” – Down with dictators & up with democracy?

  • Change of government - 2012
    • Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen,
      • Democracies leaning toward becoming theocracies
  • 2012-13 Rebels fighting Assad dictatorship in Syria
    • Assad will fall, but what comes next is unclear
  • 2013 France assisting Mali in driving out fundamentalist Islamists from the north
  • 2011 – 20-year civil war in Sudan ended – South Sudan became an independent country
  • 2012-13 Protests in Bahrain

U.S. involvement (often related to oil)

  • 1991 Desert Storm – attacked Iraq to drive it out of Kuwait & established a “no-fly zone” to protect Kurds in the north
  • 2002 – Present – troops in Afghanistan – “mixed results” – President Obama plans to have most troops out by 2014 – remaining troops to advise and instruct, not fight
  • 2003 – 2012 Invasion of Iraq and removal of Saddam Hussein – “Mixed Results” – Pres. Obama ended US fighting role
  • 2012 – provided air support & “no-fly zone” in Libya.
  • 2013 – humanitarian aid to rebels in Syria – not certain what we should or will do in that conflict.
  • Decades of tension with Iran over its nuclear program

TURKESTAN (a group of countries)

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

Conclusions

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
  • Southwest Asia and North Africa played critical role in world history and globalization
  • Important culture hearth and religious center
  • Oil plays world role
  • Political conflicts disrupt economic development
  • Tension between modern ways and fundamentalist traditions
  • End of Chapter 7: Southwest Asia & North Africa


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