Causes of the Civil War 1820 1860
Causes of the Civil War 1820 - 1860
THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE (1820)
- There was a great debate over where slavery would be allowed and where it would not. A debate occurred and finally a compromise was reached. It stated:
- 1.) Missouri entered as a slave state
- 2.) Maine entered as a free state.
- 3.) The 36’ 30’’ line is drawn. This line was suppose to decide whether slavery would be allowed in certain territories or not.
- This compromise was effective for a number of years – almost thirty! However, after about 1850, problems began to occur and the compromise was less and less effective.
WILMOT PROVISO (1846)
- This was a plan presented by David Wilmot, a Congressman from Pennsylvania, to stop the spread of slavery into the territories won from Mexico.
- His plan PASSED the House but FAILED in the Senate.
- His plan showed the power of the North.
- His plan also made the South suspicious of the North’s intentions.
FREE SOIL PARTY (1848)
- This was a NEW political party formed in Buffalo, New York.
- It was formed by Northerners who wanted to DISCUSS the issue of slavery.
- This was the FIRST party formed that was a “sectional party” and they picked Martin Van Buren as their first candidate for President.
- “Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men”
- Endorsed the Wilmot Proviso
COMPROMISE OF 1850
- COMPROMISE AGAIN!
- This time it includes 5 parts!
- 1.) California enters as a FREE state.
- 2.) Area from Mexican Cession divided into Utah and New Mexico. Slavery issue to be decided by POPULAR SOVEREIGNTRY.
- 3.) ENDED slave trade in
- Washington D.C.
- 4.) Made a STRICT Fugitive Slave Law
- 5.) Settled boarder problems between New Mexico and Texas.
- Again, problems better for a short period of time and then became worse.
FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW (1850)
- This law was part of the compromise of 1850.
- It was a law that REQUIRED citizens to catch runaway slaves.
- If a person did not comply, they cold be fined up to $1000 or put in jail for SIX months.
- Judges received $10 if they returned a slave and $5 if they freed them.
- MANY blacks who were free were captured and sent back into slavery.
- Northerners HATED this law because it forced them to become a part of the system of slavery.
UNCLE TOM’S CABIN (1852)
- This was a NOVEL written by Harriett Beecher Stowe.
- It was written to show the EVILS of slavery by telling the story of an older slave who was whipped to death by his owner.
- After reading it, MANY Northerners began to change their view of slavery.
- Southerners said the book was full of LIES!
KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT (1854)
- Divides lands into Kansas and Nebraska territories.
- Decided that SLAVERY issue would be decided by POPULAR SOVREIGNTY.
- Led to violence in the Senate. Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner.
- Pro-slavery and Anti-slavery settlers in ONE AREA and this leads to conflict!
- Northerners believe this REPEALS the Missouri Compromise.
- Bleeding Kansas – Gov.John Geary sends out 1,300 federal troops to stop violence
- Democratic senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois sponsored this bill.
POTTAWATOMIE CREEK KILLINGS (1856)
- Because of the violence going on in Kansas, John Brown and four of his sons, decide to take the law into their own hands.
- They ride into a small town named Pottawatomie Creek and pull five pro-slavery men out of their beds in the middle of the night.
- The men are murdered. John Brown believes he is doing what “GOD has told him to do”.
- Many Northerners, while they don’t believe in slavery, are appalled at what he did.
DRED SCOTT DECISION (1857)
- Dred Scott was a slave.
- He had lived in a free territory with his owner.
- His owner moved back into a slave state.
- While there, the owner died.
- Scott had ABOLITIONIST attorneys file a law suit for him.
- It went to the Supreme Court but he LOST.
- The Court ruled he was NOT a citizen but RATHER property and therefore he could not file a lawsuit.
- Also, they ruled that Congress could NOT ban slavery in any of the territories.
- This REPEALED the Missouri Compromise.
- Southerners LOVED the ruling while Northerners HATED it. It meant slavery could spread into all the territories!
LINCOLN-DOUGLASS DEBATE (1858)
- Lincoln and Douglas debated!
- Douglass believed in deciding slavery by popular sovereignty.
- Lincoln believed that slavery should NOT be allowed to spread into the territories.
- Lincoln ALSO believed the Nation could not survive if the fighting continued to rip the Union apart with the slavery issue.
RAID ON HARPER’S FERRY (1859)
- John Brown was at it again!
- This time, he led five blacks and thirteen whites into Harper’s Ferry.
- They planned to raid an arsenal and start a slave revolt.
- Problem: No slaves “rose” to help.
- A number of his men died and Brown was arrested by Robert E. Lee.
- Brown was tried and found guilty of murder and treason. He was later hanged.
- Some Northerners thought of him as a “Martyr” (someone who dies for his beliefs.)
ELECTION OF 1860
- Lincoln ran against Douglass in the Presidential Election of 1860.
- The Southern states did not like Lincoln or what he believed in. They overwhelmingly supported Douglass yet Lincoln STILL got elected.
- Southerners grew very angry. Said this showed it did not matter what their opinions were, the North had to much power!
- Many Southerners talked of SECEDING from the Union.
- December 20, 1860 - South Carolina voted to succeed from the Union.
- Senator John Crittenden(Kentucky) ties to extend the Missouri Compromise line to the West. (Fails)
- February 1861 - Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia.
- February 4th, 1861 - Montgomery, Alabama the Confederate States of America is formed.
- Jefferson Davis - Selected to a 6 year term as President of the United States. (State Rights)
- The Confederate forces start to seize Federal Forts.
- April 12, 1861 - The attack begins in Charleston Harbor at 4:30 A.M.
- P.G.T. Beauregard leads the attack against Robert Anderson.
- Anderson is forced to surrender the Fort. (Yankee Doodle) April 14th, 1861
- Daniel Hough - Is the first man to die in the Civil War.
- Union Flag is re-raised on April 14, 1865.
Lincoln Calls For Volunteers
- After news of the attack and capture of Ft. Sumter Lincoln Calls for 75,000 volunteers.
- Many people North and South rush out to volunteer for military service.
- Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas vote to join the Confederacy.
- The Civil War officially had begun.
- POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY –
- A VOTE where the people decide on an issue. (I.E. – slavery)
- COMPROMISE –
- An agreement reached between two sides where both sides have to “give up” something,.
MORE VOCAB. -
- ABOLITIONIST –
- A person who works to bring an end to or believes in NO slavery. Often they try and help slaves to freedom.
- SECTIONALISM –
- The belief that your part of the country is the BEST. You put your part of the country’s needs in front of what is best for the WHOLE nation.
- FUGITIVE –
- A person who has gone against or broken the law and is on the loose.
- SECEDE -
- To remove or break away as the Southern states did from the Union.
- ARSENAL –
- A warehouse that stores guns and ammunition.
- MARTYR –
- A person who is willing to die for their beliefs. I.E. – John Brown
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