Cause & Effect text Structure Another text structure



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Cause & Effect text Structure

Another text structure

  • Sometimes, a writer will want to explain how one event leads to another
  • This kind of text structure is called cause and effect

Cause and effect signal words

  • When authors write paragraphs to show causes and effects, they use words like cause, effect, as a result, consequently, and so

More Signal Words

  • Cause                                Effect
  • Because                        As a result
  • The reason for            Outcome
  • On account of              Finally
  • Bring about                  Consequently
  • Give rise to                  Therefore
  • Created by                   For this reason
  • Contributed by             Hence
  • Led to                          Effect
  • Due to                         Then
  • Since                           So

Can you find the signal words?

  • The night’s snowstorm had many effects. People were out shoveling snow from their sidewalks. The power lines were draped with ice. Snow plows drove down every street. Children were the happiest of all. The unexpected snow caused school to be cancelled!

Can you find the clue words?

  • The night’s snowstorm had many effects. People were out shoveling snow from their sidewalks. The power lines were draped with ice. Snow plows drove down every street. Children were the happiest of all. The unexpected snow caused school to be cancelled!

Use signal words to identify which is the cause and which is the effect.

  • Baby painted turtles spend all winter in their nests. They have special chemicals in their blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles can survive freezing temperatures!

More with cause and effect

  • Baby painted turtles spend all winter in their nests. They have special chemicals in their blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles can survive freezing temperatures!
  • This is the cause

Use the signal words to identify the cause and effect in this paragraph.

  • Baby painted turtles spend all winter in their nests. They have special chemicals in their blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles can survive freezing temperatures!

But sometimes it’s not so simple

  • Cause/Effect is not always written in the sequence format.
  • Cause and effect also analyzes why something happens.
  • Cause-and-effect essays examine causes, describe effects, or do both.
  • In the following passage from a New York Times column entitled "The Pump on the Well," Tom Wicker considers the effects of a technological advance on a village in India.

See if you can identify the Causes & Effects.

See if you can identify the Causes & Effects.

  • CAUSES: When a solar-powered water pump was provided for a well in India, the village headman took it over and sold the water, until stopped. The new liquid abundance attracted hordes of unwanted nomads. Village boys who had drawn water in buckets had nothing to do, and some became criminals. The gap between rich and poor widened, since the poor had no land to benefit from irrigation. Finally, village women broke the pump, so they could gather again around the well that had been the center of their social lives. Moral: technological advances have social, cultural sentence   and economic consequences, often unanticipated.

See if you can identify the Causes & Effects.

  • When a solar-powered water pump was provided for a well in India, the village headman took it over and sold the water, until stopped. The new liquid abundance attracted hordes of unwanted nomads. Village boys who had drawn water in buckets had nothing to do, and some became criminals. The gap between rich and poor widened, since the poor had no land to benefit from irrigation. Effects: Finally, village women broke the pump, so they could gather again around the well that had been the center of their social lives. Moral: technological advances have social, cultural, and economic consequences, often unanticipated.
  • Cause-and-effect analysis explains why something happened--or is happening---and it predicts what probably will happen.
  • Sometimes many different causes can be responsible for one effect.
  • Similarly, many different effects can be produced by a single cause.

For Example:

  • Many elements may contribute to an individual's decision to leave his or her native country and come to the United States.
  • Causes                                    Effect Political repression             Immigrants come to US Desire to join family members Desire for economic opportunity Desire for religious freedom
  • Immigration, for instance, has had a variety of effects on the United States.
  • Cause                                      Effects Immigrants come to                 Diverse culture the United States                     New goods and services                                                  Housing shortages                                                  Challenges to education                                                  New political agendas

Review

  • Which text structure tells about how things are similar and different?
  • Compare and contrast
  • Which text structure introduces a main idea and several supporting details?
  • Description
  • Which text structure discusses a problem and possible solutions?
  • Problem/Solution
  • What does the cause/effect text structure explain?

Reflection

  • How do you determine whether or not an article is an example of the cause/effect text structure?

This presentation was adapted from the Power Point presentation, “Understanding Text Structures,” by Emily Kissner.

  • This presentation was adapted from the Power Point presentation, “Understanding Text Structures,” by Emily Kissner.
  • Follow the links to find the original information:
  • http://www.slideshare.net/elkissn/understanding-text-structures
  • http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Understanding-Text-Structure-Powerpoint


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