Cambridge ielts 3 test 4 reading reading passage 1



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CAMBRIDGE IELTS 3 - TEST 4 - READING

READING PASSAGE 1
Question 1-5:
1. Los Angeles (para B, line 2-3: “ment and innovative technology. In Los Angeles, state regulations are forcing manufacturers to try to sell ever cleaner cars their first of the cleanest, titled Zero Emission)
2. London (para B, line 5-6: of sales in 1997. Local authorities in London are campaigning to be allowed to enforce antipollution laws themselves at present only the police have the power to)
3. Singapore (para Blast lines do so, but they tend to be busy elsewhere. ln Singapore, renting out road space to users is the way of the future)
4. London (para D, first 3 lines As part of a European Union environmental programme, a London council is testing an infrared spectrometer from the University of Denver in Colorado. It gauges the pollution from a passing vehicle - more useful than the annual stationary test that is the)
5. Los Angeles (para E, line 2-4: tendency to drive them more. Los Angeles has some of the world's cleanest cars — far better than those of Europe — but the total number of miles those cars drive continues to grow. One solution is carpooling, an arrangement in which a number of people) Question 6-10:
6. YES (para C, first 2 lines When Britain's Royal Automobile Club monitored the exhausts of 610,000 vehicles, it found that 12 percent of them produced more than half the total pollution. Older)
7. YES (para D, line 2-3: an infrared spectrometer from the University of Denver in Colorado. It gauges the pollution from a passing vehicle - more useful than the annual stationary test that is the)
8. NO (para E, first 4 lines The effort to cleanup cars may do little to cut pollution if nothing is done about the tendency to drive them more. Los Angeles has some of the world's cleanest cars — far better than those of Europe — but the total number of miles those cars drive continues to grow. One solution is carpooling, an arrangement in which a number of people)
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2 9. NO (para E, line 4-7: to grow. One solution is carpooling, an arrangement in which a number of people who share the same destination share the use of one car. However, the average number of people in a car on the freeway in Los Angeles, which is 1.3, has been falling steadily. Increasing it would bean effective way of reducing emissions as well)
10. NO (para F, last 5 lines Singapore is advancing in this direction, with a citywide network of transmitters to collect information and charge drivers as they pass certain points. Such road-pricing, however, can be controversial. When the local government in Cambridge, England, considered introducing Singaporean techniques, it faced vocal and ultimately successful opposition) Question 11-13:
11. Apart two, para 1, last 5 lines Environmental Programme and the World Health
Organisation (WHO) concluded that all of a sample of twenty megacities — places likely to have more than ten million inhabitants in the year 2000 - already exceeded the level the WHO deems healthy in at least one major pollutant. Two-thirds of them exceeded the guidelines for two, seven for three or more)
12. D (part two, para 2, last 4 lines most attention from health researchers. PM1O, a subcategory of particulate matter measuring ten-millionths of a metre across, has been implicated in thousands of deaths a year in Britain alone. Research being conducted in two counties of Southern California is reaching similarly disturbing conclusions concerning this little-understood pollutant)
13. C (part two, para 3, line 3-4: polluted air offer further evidence of its destructive power. The old and ill, however, are the most vulnerable to the acute effects of heavily polluted stagnant air. It can actually)
READING PASSAGE 2

Question 14-15:
14. C (para 2, line 7-16: nationwide image. By doing so, it became one of the first groups to project a corporate identity, and it is this advanced marketing strategy, along with the other organisational and commercial achievements of the WSPU, to which the exhibition is devoted)
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3 15. D (para 4, line 1-7: With their slogan Deeds not words, and the introduction of the colour scheme, the WSPU soon brought the movement the cohesion and focus it had previously lacked) Question 16:
16. DE (para 13, line 1-10: Although the exhibition officially charts the years 1906 to
1914, graphic display boards outlining the bills of enfranchisement of 1918 and 1928, which gave the adult female populace of Britain the vote, show what was achieved. It demonstrates) Question 17-19:
17. (selling) advertising (space) (para 6, line 1-10: Equally importantly fora rising political group, the newspaper returned a profit. This was partly, because advertising space was bought in the paper by large department stores such as Selfridges, and jewellers such as
Mappin & Webb. These two)
18. colour scheme/(three) colours/purple, white, green (para 7, line 6-12: exploit. The group began to sell playing cards, board games, Christmas and greeting cards, and countless other goods, all in the purple, white and green colours. In 1906 such)
19. (the) Woman‟s Exhibition (para 8, line 7-12: numerous other fund- raising activities combined toll the coffers of the war chest. The most notable of these was the
Woman‟s Exhibition, which took) Question 20-26:
20. NO (para 3, line 1-13: Formed in 1903 by the political campaigner Mrs Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters Christabel and Sylvia, the WSPU began an educated campaign to put women‟s suffrage on the political agenda. New Zealand, Australia and parts of the United States had already enfranchised women, and)
21. YES (para 5, last 5 lines The newspapers produced by the WSPU, first Votes for Women and later The Suffragette, played a vital role in this communication)
22. NO (para 5, line 6-7: Both were sold throughout the country and proved an)
23. NO (para 5, last 6 lines invaluable way of informing members of meetings, marches, fund- raising events and the latest news and views on the movement)
24. NOT GIVEN
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4 25. YES (para 9: The Museum of London‟s exhibition is largely visual, with a huge number of items on show. Against a quiet background hum of street sounds, copies of The Suffragette, campaign banners and photographs are all on display, together)
26. YES (para 11, line 8-14: “programme begins with a short film devised by the antis — those opposed to women having the vote — depicting a suffragette as a fierce harridan bullying her poor, abused husband) Question 27:
27. D (para 13, line 10-11: achieved. It demonstrates how advanced the
Para 13, line 17: also conveys a sense of the
Para 13, line 21: equality. And it illustrates)
READING PASSAGE 3

Question 28-30:
28. A (para 1: There is clear-cut evidence that, fora period of at least one year, supervision which increases the direct pressure for productivity can achieve significant increases in production. However, such short-term increases are obtained only at a substantial and serious cost to the organisation.”)
29. C (para 3: The study covered 500 clerical employees in four parallel divisions. Each division was organised inexactly the same way, used the same technology, did exactly the same kind of work, and had employees of comparable aptitudes)
30. C (para 6, first 2 lines The experiment at the clerical level lasted for one year. Beforehand, several months were devoted to planning, and there was also a training period of approximately six months. Productivity was) Question 31-36:
31. „supervision/leadership/management‟ (para 5, last 3 lines division that had been below average in productivity. No attempt was made to place a division in the programme that would best tits habitual methods of supervision used by the manager, assistant managers, supervisors and assistant supervisors)
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5 32. productivity (para 6, line 2-3: to planning, and there was also a training period of approximately six months. Productivity was measured continuously and computed weekly throughout the year. The attitudes of employees)
33. „reduced/cut/decreased‟ (para 7, first 3 lines Turning now to the heart of the study, in two divisions an attempt was made to change the supervision so that the decision levels were pushed down and detailed supervision of the workers reduced. More general supervision of the clerks and their supervisors was introduced. In addition)
34. (group method of) leadership (para 7, line 4-5: the managers, assistant managers, supervisors and assistant supervisors of these two divisions were trained in group methods of leadership, which they endeavoured to use as much as their)
35. overstaffed (para 8, line 5-6: was to have the jobs timed and to have standard times computed. This showed that these divisions were overstaffed by about 30%. The general manager then ordered the managers of these)
36. „reduced/cut/decreased‟ (para 8, line 6-7: “sions were overstaffed by about 30%. The general manager then ordered the managers of these two divisions to cut staff by 25%. This was done by transfers without replacing the persons who) Question 37-40:
37. C (changes in productivity, para 1, first 2 lines Figure 1 shows the changes in salary costs per unit of work, which reflect the change in productivity that occurred in the divisions. As will be observed, the hierarchically controlled pro)
38. D (changes in attitudes, para 2, first 2 lines For example, Figure 2 shows that when more general supervision and increased participation were provided, the employees feeling of responsibility to see that the work got done increased)
39. G (changes in attitudes, para 3, first 2 lines As Figure 3 shows, the employees in the participative programme at the end of the year felt that their manager and assistant manager were closer to them than at the beginning of the year)
40. F (changes in attitudes, para 3, last 4 lines The opposite was true in the hierarchical programme. Moreover, as Figure 4 shows, employees in the participative programme felt that their supervisors were more likely to pull for them, or for the company and them, and not be solely interested in the company, while in the hierarchically controlled programme, the opposite trend occurred)


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