Cahsee handbook English 10 2014-2015 Table of Contents



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Introducing Quotations
X states, “_____________.” – (you may replace “states” with any verb from list above)

According to X, “_____________.”

X himself writes, “________________.”

In the article/book/text/poem/document, (title), X maintains that, “________.”

X agrees/disagrees when he/she writes, “__________.”

X complicates matters further when he/she writes, “____________.”


Introducing General Ideas
Americans today tend to believe that ________.

Conventional wisdom has it that ________.

Common sense seems to dictate that ________.

The standard way of thinking about topic X has it that ________.

It is often said that ________.

My whole life I have heard it said that ________.

You would think that ________.

Many people assume that ________.


Elaboration
Basically, X is saying (explain quote here)… -- (you may replace “saying” with any verb from list above by adding –ing)

In other words, X believes (explain quote here)…

In making this comment, X urges us to (explain quote here)…

X’s point is that (explain quote here)…

The essence of X’s argument is that (explain quote here)…

To put it another way (explain quote here)…

To put it succinctly (explain quote here)…

In short, (explain quote here)…



Establishing Why Your Claims/Points Matter
X matters/is important because ___________.

Although X may seem trivial, it is in fact crucial in terms of today’s concern over ___________.

Ultimately, what is at stake here is ___________.

These findings have important consequences for the broader domain of ___________.



This discussion of (topic/claim/point) is in fact addressing the larger matter of ___________.
Although (topic/claim/point) may seem of concern to only a small group of people, it should in fact concern anyone who cares about ___________.
Other Basic Transition Words
Addition
Also, and, besides, equally important, finally, furthermore, in addition, in fact, indeed, moreover, so too, what’s more
To Show Sequence
First, second, third, etc… Next, then, following this, at this time, now, at this point, afterward, subsequently, finally, consequently, simultaneously, concurrently, thus, therefore, next, and then, soon
Evidence
After all, as an illustration, consider, for example, for instance, specifically
Comparison
Along the same lines, in the same way, likewise, similarly
Contrast
Although, but, by contrast conversely, despite, even though, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, regardless, whereas, however, in contrast, while, yet
Counterargument
Admittedly, although it is true that, I concede that, of course, naturally, to be sure

To Repeat
In brief, as I have said, as I have noted, as has been noted
Conclusion
As a result it is clear that, consequently, in brief, in conclusion then, in short, in sum then, it follows then, so, summing up, the upshot of all this is that, therefore, thus, to sum up, to summarize


SECTION 6: Writing Conventions
Capitalization Rules
Rule #1: Capitalize the first letter of every sentence.

Example: She had no intention of telling the truth.
Rule #2: Capitalize Proper Nouns

Examples: San Diego, Mayor Martinez, Harvard University
Rule #3: Capitalize all nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in titles of texts.

Examples: The Cather and the Rye, Of Mice and Men
Comma Rules
Rule #4: Use a comma to join two independent clauses (sentences).

Example: Chris cooked the meal, and Jane ate it.
Rule #5: Use a comma to list items in a series.

Example: Cookies, brownies, and pies are my favorite desserts.
Rule #6: Use a comma to set off adverbs (furthermore, moreover, nevertheless, however, fortunately, in fact) at the beginning or middle of a sentence.

Example: Furthermore, he didn’t turn in his homework.
Rule #7: Use commas to set off information that is not essential.

Example: Ms. Holland, my favorite teacher, teaches geography.
P” Rules
Rule #8: Plural: When you have more than one.

Example: Snakes, witches, books
Rule #9: Possessive: demonstrates ownership of something

Example: Snake’s skin. Witch’s broom. Witches’ spells.
Rule #10: Parallel Structure: using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance.

Examples:

Incorrect – Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to run.



Correct – Mary likes hiking, swimming, and running.


Homophones


Word

Definition

Hear

Listen

Here

At this point and time







Its

Shows ownership

It’s

It is







Lose

Misplace, Be defeated

Loose

Moveable, Unattached







No

Nope

Know

Be aware of

Now

At this moment







Principle

A belief

Principal

Person in charge







Quiet

Not loud

Quite

Really, actually







Than

Conjunction used to compare

Then

At the time, next






Their

Belonging to them

There

Place

They’re

They are







To

Toward

Too

Also






Whose

Pronoun

Who’s

Who is







Your

Belonging to “you”

You’re

You are



SECTION 7: Word Analysis

Strategies for Deducing the Meaning of a Word

Strategy A: Break it down

1. Read the sentence and determine the subject and the verb/action

2. Determine how the unfamiliar word is connected to the subject or the action

3. Determine if it is a positive or negative connection

4. Review your answer choices and write in synonyms for the words you know

5. Eliminate the choices you know are wrong and choose the best remaining answer



Example:

Tragically, many tropical rain forests are so threatened by overdevelopment that they may be completely eradicated by the end of the century.

A. isolated

B. destroyed

C. rejuvenated

D. expanded



Strategy B: Look for words that explain the meaning of the word.

Example: I feel completely satiated; in fact, I am so full that I could not possibly eat another morsel of food.

Example: The children huddle around their teacher, like baby chicks around a mother hen.

Strategy C: Word Association

Determine if there is a similar word you know

Examples: Differential: different, differ

Nutrient: nutrition, nutritious



Strategy D: Deconstruct the Word

Determine the root word and any prefixes or suffixes

Example: independently: in = not / dependent = reliant on / ly = in a manner that is

SECTION 8: Genre


Genre

Features of the Text

Example

Poem

Stanzas, figurative language

“Dreams” by Langston Hughes
Hold fast to dreams

For if dreams die

Life is a broken-winged bird

That cannot fly.


Hold fast to dreams

For when dreams go

Life is a barren field

Frozen with snow



Letter

Greeting, Closing, Purpose

Dear Mr. Robertson:
My name is Laura Limon and I am a student at San Ysidro High School. We recently began publishing a newspaper at our school titled “The Paw Print.” As a co-editor of the newspaper,…
Sincerely,

Laura Limon



Play

Acts, Scenes, characters,

Gray Matter: Act I Scene I
1RUSSELL: I saw that.

MARGE: Excuse me?

RUSSELL: I caught you.

MARGE: I don’t know you.



5RUSSELL: When I walked in, you moved your bag.

MARGE: Please. I don’t want any trouble.

RUSSELL: I’m not –


Autobiography/

Narrative/

Memoir


A true account of the author’s own life

Many who today hear me somewhere in person, or on television, or those who read something I’ve said, will think I went to school far beyond the eighth grade. This impression is due entirely to prison studies.

It had really begun back in the Charlestown Prison, when Bimbi first made me feel envy of his stock of knowledge. Bimbi had always taken charge of any conversation he was in, and I tried to emulate him. But every book I picked up had few sentences which didn’t contain anywhere from one to nearly all of the words that might as well have been in Chinese. When I just skipped those words, of course, I really ended up with little idea of what the book said. So I had come to the Norfolk Prison Colony still going through only book-reading motions. Pretty soon, I would have quit even these motions, unless I had received the motivation that I did.



Biography

A true account not about the author

Abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass was born into slavery in Talbot County, Maryland. He became one of the most famous intellectuals of his time, advising presidents and lecturing to thousands on a range of causes, including women’s rights and Irish home rule. Among Douglass’ writings are several autobiographies eloquently describing his experiences in slavery and his life after the Civil War.

Speech

Greeting, Audience, Purpose,

Lincoln, Abraham. “Gettysburg Address.” (1863)
Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We are met to dedicate a portion of it as the final resting-place of those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

Article

Neutral information, facts

“Globalization and Sports: NBA Expansion Into Europe” by Nicholas Pardini

Globalization has taken the hold of America's major sport, but no league has had more success or a more involved future with the international market than the NBA.

Seventy-six of the NBA's 360 active roster players are international players from thirty-eight different countries. Yao Ming regularly breaks the record for the most votes to the All-Star team, Steve Nash and Dirk Nowitzki (both born outside of the US) won three of the last four MVP awards, and the San Antonio Spurs have won three championships in the past five years with a primarily foreign core of star players…


Editorial


Newspaper article, represents opinion of publisher or editor

“Facebook’s New Geotagging Ability Brings Potential for Abuse”

By Niesha Lofing


Facebook, the website where millions of teens, ‟tweens and adults socialize, now allows users to tell their circle of “friends” exactly where they are when sending updates or photos.

Anticipated for months, the launch of Facebook Places last week has brought geotagging to the masses, 500 million strong. With geotagging, a geographic ID — a “geolocation” of latitude and longitude — can also magically become an address on a photo, video, websites and tweets…



©2010, The Sacramento Bee (Sacramento, Calif.), 09-02-10.

Novel


Long, fictional characters and events, multiple chapters

Of Mice and Men - Chapter 2
…The wooden latch raised. The door opened and a tall, stoop shouldered old man came in. He was dressed in blue jeans and he carried a big push-broom in his left hand. Behind him came George, and behind George, Lennie.

“The boss was expectin’ you last night,” the old man said. “He was sore as hell when you wasn’t here to go out this morning.”...



Short Story


Fictional characters and event, generally don’t have chapters

“In the Shadow of War” by Ben Okri
That afternoon three soldiers came to the village. They scattered goats and chickens. They went to the palm-frond bar and ordered a calabash of palm wine. They drank amidst the flies.

Omovo watched them from the window as he waited for his father to go out. They both listened to the radio. His father had bought it from a family who moved away because of the war…



Essay


Author’s point of view on a subject, can explain or give opinions

…The factors that most contribute to school pride are sports clubs and overall high test scores.

First, when it comes to athletics, supporting your school is school pride. Imagine if at every home game you had the whole school go and supported the team that will show that you are proud enough to go and cheer on your school. Also it will show you are very proud of your school and not afraid to show it. It will give your school athletes spirit and encourage them to win the game.





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