Camerata Hungarica – Instrumental ensemble, founded in 1969 by the recorder artist László Czidra, who became its first artistic director. The ensemble specializes in Renaissance and early Baroque secular instrumental music from Hungary and Transylvania of the 16th to 17th centuries. The repertoire is played mainly at concerts abroad; its first concert tour was in Italy in 1973, followed by concerts overseas, from Mexico to Japan and from Sweden to Sicily. The ensemble presented mediaeval music on a number of CD records on the Hungaroton label, including the Vietoris Tablature, Collection of Bártfa (now Bardejov, Slovakia); The Gems of Renaissance Music; Danserye (dances from the Susato Collection), and Music to Entertain the Kings of Hungary 1490-1526. They feature also Polish, Czech and Western European mediaeval music, as well as Baroque chamber music, recorded in the medieval atmosphere of Buda Castle in Hungary’s Capital. Medieval ensembles use contemporary keyboard instruments, like the virginal and spinet, widespread in Northern Hungary (Upland, Felvidék, now Slovakia) and Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania) in the 17th century. One of the records, the double album of the Vietoris Tablature, was awarded the Grand Prix of the Paris Academy in 1975. During the 1990s Czidra was also engaged in teaching, as well as in publishing of music scores, including those for his beloved instrument, the recorder, played in groups and in consort, as in the 16th and 17th centuries, using different varieties of the instrument, like the tenor, treble and bass recorder. The ensemble received very favorable critique in music magazines in the West. In the 1970s similar ensembles were formed, such as the Musica Historica (1974) and the Musica Antiqua Hungarica (1977). – B: 1068, 1927, 7456, T: 7456.→Czidra, László; Musica Historica; Musica Antiqua Hungarica; Schola Hungarica.
Campagna, Axe with Runic Inscription – The axe (held in a case) estimated to be more than 3,000 years old with runic writing, belived to be of Scythian origin was found in a field in Campagna, Italy. It was kept in the Jesuit Museum in Rome but disappeared during World War II. Sir John W. Lubbock (1865), an English statesman and scientist, noted in his book “Prehistoric Times” that it was made in the Carpathian Basin, an opinion shared by many scholar, among them Sándor (Alexander) Forrai, who examined it later. Lubbock was unable to decipher the inscription. Debreczeny and Pataky have given two different Hungarian readings. According to Debreczeny, in modern Hungarian it reads: “segít is, üt is, ró is” (it also helps, also hits and carves), while Pataky’s reading: “ékesit is, üt is, ró is” (it also decorates, also hits and carves). – B: 1174, 1020, T: 7669.→Hungarian Runic Script; Forrai, Sándor.
Campaigning Era (Hungarian) - In the history of Hungary this era represents the establishment of the Hungarian State in Central Europe that lasted from 862 to 955. During this period some Magyar military units “raided” Western European countries and Byzantium, as it has been briefly referred to in western sources for centuries. First they appeared in smaller detachments, in alliance with the Avars still living in the Carpathian Basin, and later alone. From 892 to 894, they invaded Moravia and Pannonia (Transdanubia, Dunántúl) gaining important knowledge about their future homeland. During 894-895, three Magyar (Hungarian) forces were already operating in the Carpathian Basin: one in the south against the Bulgars in alliance with Byzantium, one in the west against the Moravians, allied with the Franks, and the third main force, the invading one, conquering from the east, led by Khagan (Prince) Árpád through the Verecke Pass of the Eastern Carpathians, followed by the whole nation into their new homeland. After the occupation of the Carpathian Basin (895-900), the armies of two tribes, usually the westernmost ones, had the task of defending the western borders, while the bulk of the nation started to settle down. While they were settling down in the new homeland in 899, Magyar forces launched their first expedition against the rest of Europe and continued to do so during the following decades. One explanation for these raids or sorties is that, in most cases, the Magyars were in alliance with one or another belligerent western ruler against their opponents. Other reasons were to keep the unfriendly and even hostile western nations fragmented (e.g. in 908, 913, 910. 911), in order to defend the new borders of Hungary in the Carpathian Basin (e.g. in 907, 949, 950). There were some large-scale preventive wars and raids to collect taxes, while a few of the raids were of an adventurous nature. There were apparently some campaigns to recover the Avar treasures taken away by the victorious Franks as booty after Charlemagne finally defeated the Avar political state (the Avar Empire) in 797. Hungarians regarded the Avars as their kinsfolk; therefore they were legal owners of the former Avar treasures. Their raiders reached southern Italy, France, Spain, northern Germany, Greece, and even the gates of Constantinople. However, the raids against Western Europe ended when, in 955, the Hungarians suffered a disastrous defeat at Lechfeld, near Augsburg in Bavaria against a coalition force headed by the Holy Roman Emperor, Otto II. Hungarian raids against Southern Europe ended by 890. - B: 1221, 1528, T: 7456.→Brenta Battle; Botond; Lechfeldt (Augsburg), Battle of; Bulcsu; Lehel, Horn of; Lehel Legend.
Campaign of the Hungarian Red Army (1919) – After World War I, during the rule of the Council (Soviet) Republic of Hungary (Tanácsköztársaság, 21 March 1919 - 1 August 1919, a total of 133 days) with French endorsement, Czech and Romanian forces launched a combined attack on the demilitarized Hungarian state. The Hungarian Communist Government’s plea for help to the Soviet Union was to no avail. The Romanian army began its offensive on 16 April, the Czech forces began their incursion from the north on 27 April, and captured the town of Miskolc, aiming for the heavy-industrial town of Salgótarján, and even planned to take the capital, Budapest. The hastily organized Hungarian Red Army, composed of young workers, professional and reserve veteran soldiers, was more than willing to fight under either a red or a white flag, to preserve the integrity of even the newly truncated Hungary, let alone Historic Hungary, which covered the entire Carpathian Basin. Three talented military leaders emerged and organized an army almost overnight to face the intruding Czech and Romanian forces: Colonel Aurél Stromfeld (1878-1927), former member of the Habsburg Monarchy’s army staff, who was made Commander-in-Chief; Jenő (Eugene) Landler (1875-1928), an anti-war leader and a Communist jurist; and Vilmos (William) Böhm (1880-1949), a leader of the workers. By 1 May the Romanian troops were halted at Szolnok, and the Czechoslovak forces were soon stopped at Miskolc, averting the threat to Salgótarján, as a result of the heroic defense by weak army units, armed miners and workers. As early as 20 May, the Red Army was strong enough to launch its counter-offensive, which for a while scored success after success. On 21 May, Landler’s Division 1 of the IIIrd army corps (made up of workers from Budapest) entered Miskolc after fierce resistance by the Czechs. When Tiszalúc was taken on 1 June, the connection between the Czech and the Romanian forces had been cut. Soon it became clear that the expected attack from the south of Hungary would not occur, in spite of the fact that the best divisions were present there, while Divisions 4 and 6 had been transferred to Northern Hungary. On 6 June the largely Magyar-populated Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia) was taken; then on 9 June, Eperjes (now Prešov) was reached, where a Slovak Council Republic was proclaimed. The Hungarian Red Army surged as far northeast as Bártfa (now Bardejov) by 10 June, hoping to link up with Soviet troops, though that did not materialize. Within three weeks the strengthened forces of the Red Army had taken the towns of Érsekújvár (Nové Zámky, Slovakia), Aranyosmarót (now Zlaté Moravce, Slovakia), Léva (now Levice, Slovakia), Zólyom (now Zvolen, Slovakia), Losonc (now Lučenec, Slovakia) and Rozsnyó (now Rožňava, Slovakia), in addition to Kassa and Eperjes. Most of the central and northeastern part of Northern Hungary (now Slovakia) was liberated as far north as the famous mining town of Selmecbánya (now Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia). The Czechoslovak interventionist army had been seriously defeated. The Entente Powers, seeing the success of the Hungarian Red Army and embarrassed by the failure of the Czechs and Romanians to overthrow the Hungarian Council (Soviet) Republic, used diplomatic means to stop the Red Army’s push toward the historic Hungarian borders in the north. French Prime Minister Clemenceau, in the name of the Versailles-Trianon Peace Conference and in full knowledge of the newly planned borders of a truncated Hungary, but fearing that the Red Army might frustrate the peace-dictate of the Conference, issued a note demanding the withdrawal of the Red Army from the “occupied” areas behind the new northern and eastern borders marked out by the dictate of the Peace Conference. The Red Army Command obliged and ordered the withdrawal of the Hungarian forces from the Northern Hungary area on 30 June 1919. However, Romanian interventionist army units did not withdraw behind the newly marked-out eastern borders of truncated Hungary. The Red Army, with some 50,000 men crossed the River Tisza (main force at Szolnok, smaller forces at Tokaj and Csongrád) in mid-July and successfully advanced east toward Nagykároly (now Carei, Romania) until 23 July, though it was facing much larger, better equipped and rested Romanian forces. The spearhead of the Red Army became nearly encircled by the counter-attacking Romanian forces on 24 July, and was forced to hastily retreat. On 29 July the first Romanian army units crossed the River Tisza. By then the Red Army was not able to prevent the much stronger Romanian army’s push against Budapest, eventually occupying and looting it disgracefully. By the end of July, the Hungarian Red Army, as well as the Council (Soviet) Republic of Hungary, disintegrated and handed over the government to the Peidl cabinet. – B: 1031, 1138, T: 7103, 7456.→Council (Soviet) Republic of Hungary; Soviet Republic in Hungary; Lenin Boys; Clemenceau, George; Peidl, Gyula; Hungary, History of.
Campaign, Prolonged – This lasted during the reign of King Ulászló I (Wladislas, 1440-1444). In 1395, the Turks occupied County Bánát. The united Polish and Hungarian forces, led by János (John) Hunyadi (1408-1456), were victorious in several battles and repulsed the enemy beyond the mountain passes of the Balkans. The campaign was the first, and for centuries the last and deepest thrust into Turkish territory. The Sultan was forced to negotiate and to sign the Peace Treaty of Szeged in 1444. Its conditions favored the Hungarians. The six-month-long winter warfare, resulting in extraordinary accomplishments, was the first phase of the three-hundred-and-twenty years of Hungarian warfare against the invading Turks. However, later this region fell under Turkish rule. Finally, Prince Eugene of Savoy took it back in 1716 in the last phase of Hungary’s liberation from Turkish rule. – B: 1138, 1020, T: 7677.→Ulászló I, King; Hunyadi, János.
Canada, Hungarians in – Although Hungarians lived and were scattered all over Canada, the Canadian Government has kept records of Hungarian ethnic groups of immigrants only since 1886, the year when the first Hungarian settlement of Kaposvár, Saskatchewan was established. Immigrants arrived in several waves. The first wave was led by Pál (Paul) Esterházy and Lord Stephen Mount, who arrived to the western Canadian province of Saskatchewan with 35 families. Those and others who followed them arrived from the industrial districts of the United States. They came to the lands bordering the Canadian Pacific Railway to do pioneer agricultural work, forestry and mining. To commemorate the name of the founder, they called the town Esterházy. One of the oldest Canadian Hungarian settlements is Békevár (Castle of Peace). Slowly, a loose network of settlements with Hungarian names referring to the old country came into existence: Mátyásföld, Szent László, Hunsvalley, Otthon, Székelyföld. In time, most of them lost their Hungarian identity and their name but, in some, the ethnic life flourished. In 1911 there were 11,648 Hungarian immigrants in Canada on record.
Hungarians of the second wave settled during the 1920s after World War I. They were refugees from the huge territories, ceded from the Historic Kingdomof Hungary by the Versailles-Trianon Peace Treaty on 4 June 1920 to the neighboring states: Transylvania (Erdély) to Romania; Upper Hungary or Uppland (Felvidék, and Sub-Carpathia, Kárpátalja) to Czechoslovakia; Vojvodina and Croatia (Délvidék and Horvátország) to Serbia. Altogether 2/3rd of the territory of historic Hungary were taken away and every third ethnic Hungarian fell under the authority of the newly created successor states, inevitably maltreated. When the USA decided to limit the number of refugees, 28,000 new Hungarian refugees arrived in Canada. In most of the Hungarian settlements, churches and societies were established in order to satisfy the social, cultural and spiritual needs of these people. These communal organizations did a great service to the immigrant Hungarians. English language courses were started, also Hungarian schools and libraries were established. In 1941 there were more than 40,000 Hungarians in Canada, and their number grew in the 1940s to more than 80,000, according to estimates.
The third wave arrived after World War II in 1945-1950, when more than 10,000 Hungarian refugees chose Canada as their new country. Among them, no one represented the agricultural (farm) laborers because the majority was high-school educated and university graduates.
The fourth wave arrived after the suppression of the Hungarian Revolution and Freedom Fight of 1956, when Canada accepted 37,565 political refugees. Canada surpassed all other countries with its $25-million-dollar support for these refugees. According to J.W. Pickersgill, the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, these people were the most valuable of all refugee groups. By a Hungarian journal’s estimate the number of Hungarian inhabitants of Canada was 97,358 in 1961. In 1969, the number reached 100,000, according to reports of Hungary’s Department of Statistics. In 1986, according to Canadian statistical data of Census Canada, 189,000 people stated that they were of Hungarian origin.
The fifth wave arrived after the collapse of the Communist systems in East-Central Europe around 1989. Hungarians from Hungary and its successor states (Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine and Yugoslavia, where they suffered discrimination) arrived in a steady flow to Canada.
According to the 2001 Canadian census, the number of Hungarians in Canada was 267,255. Their distribution among provinces and territories is as follows: Newfoundland and Labrador: 245; Prince Edward Island: 225; New Bruswick: 860; Ontario: 128,575; Manitoba: 8,900; Saskatchewan: 24,340; Alberta: 41,535; British Columbia: 43,515; Yukon: 345; North West Territory: 210; Nunavut: 35. Two provinces, Quebec and Nova Scotia, did not provide numbers but, based on an earlier data, the estimated number of Hungarians in Quebec is around 15,000 and in Nova Sotia 1,500. The majority of Hungarians live in and around Toronto and southern Ontario, and in provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia. – B: 1134, 1222, T: 7684.→Parmenius, István of Buda; Trianon Peace Treaty; Paris Peace Treaty; Atrocites against Hungarians; Freedom Fight of 1956.
Canadian Hungarian Bibliography – This work goes back more than half a century. There are English compilations (Canadiana) and other book reviews, such as Canadian Periodical Index, University of Toronto Quarterly, and Canadian Ethnic Studies, preceded by some Hungarian publications. Among them The History of Canadian Hungarians (A kanadai magyarság története) (1942) is noteworthy, written by Rev. Jenő (Eugene) Ruzsa, a Lutheran Pastor of Hamilton, Ontario. The booklets of Iván Halász de Béky were published early in the 1960s, tallying the Hungarian collection of the John Robarts Research Library of the University of Toronto. These booklets also list some well-known Hungarian literary and historical persons, such as Endre Ady, János Arany, Lajos Kassák, Lajos Kossuth, István Széchenyi, and they give important details of some historical subjects, e.g. historiography, information on denominations, sociography, etc. and József Teleki’s History of Hungary and Hungarians 1848-1977, in two volumes based on the University of Toronto’s library collection as well. Its more than 10 thousand citations include all related literature in different languages. The first complex special review is the Canadian Studies on Hungarians (1987) authored by János Miska. He itemized subjects related to Hungarian publications, monographs, studies, dissertations, criticism and literary works, including history, sociography, immigration, demography, religious denominations, and school-related chronicles under 30 headings. It includes the Hungarian contents of Canadian archives, and the list of all Canadian-Hungarian periodicals and associations. Many books, e.g. Nandor F. Dreisziger’s Struggle and Hope, George Bisztray’s Hungarian-Canadian Literature also have useful bibliographies. Some other publications about Canada’s many languages embody a special bibliography, e.g János (John) Miska’s Ethnic and Native Canadian Literature, Judy Young’s Some Thoughts about the Present State of Bibliography. – B: 0892, T: 3240.→Ady, Endre; Arany, János; Kossuth, Lajos; Széchenyi, István; Kassák, Lajos; Béky-Halász, Iván; Bisztray, George; Dreisziger, Nándor; Miska, János.
Canadian-Hungarian Folk Music – Hungarian folk music in Canada, although geographically at a great distance from Hungary, could be considered as identical with that of Hungary. Its beginning reaches back to 1885, coinciding with the time of the first Canadian Hungarian settlements. Its occurrence appears to be three-fold: (1) Traditional vocal and instrumental form. (2) Form to be used in school and church education, (3) Collections.
(1) At Church-festivals, during the wake, led by the best singers. These church songs were still around as the last musical activity of the older generation. During the years at the turn of the 19th century the harvesters’ song could still be heard on the western prairies; and in the 1930s the worksong on the tobacco farms in southern Ontario Province. They live today only in the memories of older people. During communal or family events, out of consideration for those who don’t understand Hungarian anymore, the songs of Canadian Hungarians are gradually being phased out of the life ofthese people. Folk choirs have been active in the past as well as today in many places.
(2) Children’s games, songs referring to customs, choral works, folk dancing and songs in folk plays, taught by qualified instructors in Hungarian schools, churches and cultural institutions have an educational and entertaining purpose.
(3) Besides songbooks of folk music in manuscript form, Hungarian song collections emerged. The collections containing Hungarian folk music material in the National Museum of Canada were recorded in 1963-1975 in Saskatchewan and those from the southern part of the province of Ontario were recorded in 1971. The recordings of the 1980s were collected in Quebec and southern Ontario. These recordings were based on the collections of individuals including Linda Gergely and George Demmer. – B: 7688, 1356, T: 7646.→Demmer, George.
Canadian Hungarian Literature – In 1988 there were roughly 50-60 Hungarian writers living in Canada, who were actively publishing in national and other periodicals. Hungarians hold an important place in Canadian ethnic bibliography. Between 1960 and 1980 they published more than 200 poems, novels, short stories and plays. Due to the Hungarian writers’ active participation in literary and cultural events, they often become the focus of their host country’s interest. There are more and more Hungarian-related poems and novels in English and French anthologies and prestigious periodicals. Most of the Hungarian authors’ works will stand up to the test of the time. Although influences of the new environment are evident in many of their literary works, nevertheless the Canadian Hungarian writers are part of the global Hungarian literature.
There are three literary periods: the pioneer period of the 1930s, the activities after the World Wars, and the group of 1956. The second generation, along with many of the first generation with their familiarity in English or French, was absorbed by the host country’s literature. János (John) Égly, Kálmán (Colman) Kováchi, Béni (Bernie) Szakács and János Szatmári recorded the history of the first Hungarian immigrant farmers of the prairies in prose and naïve epics in the 1930s. Following World War II, Hungarian writers in Canada represent the urban literature. The poets Ferenc (Francis) Fáy and Béla Irsa, also prose writers Imre (Emeric) Naphegyi, Imre Székely-Molnár and László (Ladislas) Szilvássy, wrote about the era’s soul-stirring events. The poet group of 1956: György (George) Jónás, László Kemenes-Géfin, Ödön (Edmund) Kiss, Ernő (Ernest) Németh, Ilona (Helen) Szitha, Tamás (Thomas) Tűz, György (George) Vitéz, Róbert Zend; and prosaists Sándor (Alexander) Domokos, József (Joseph) Juhász, János (John) Miska, Lajos (Louis) Simon, Gábor (Gabriel) Szohner, István (Stephen) Vizinczey and others became the new blood of Canadian literature. Since Canadians embraced this generation with open arms, new periodicals, newspapers and radio broadcasts in Hungarian were established. Tamás Hajós, Szabolcs Sajgó, Éva Sárvári, János Szanyi and Éva Kossuth followed and further enriched the Canadian Hungarian literature with new artistic creations. The Canadian Hungarian Writers’ Association was established in Ottawa in 1968, their anthology series already published seven Hungarian and two English volumes. Most of the Canadian Hungarian writers are obliged to finance their own publications. – B: 0892, 1020, T: 3240.→Domokos, Sándor; Fáy, Ferenc; Hajós, Tamás; Kossuth, Éva; Miska, János; Tűz, Tamás.
Cancionale – The title of Gáspár Heltai’s work published in 1574. It is a collection of secular epic songs. – B: 1150, T: 7659.→Heltai, Gáspár.
Cantate – title of the work by István Kázmér (Stephen Casimir) Greksa (1864-1920). It is a collection of ancient Hungarian and classical prayers and sacred hymns based on his studies of original codices and other sources. They were harmonized by music teacher Ernő (Ernest) Lányi. (1861-1923) – B: 1078, T: 7659.
Cantio de Militibus Pulchra (Song about the Handsome Soldiers) – A chronicle in verse form by an unknown author from the 1560s. Its topic is one of the battle adventures of the soldiers of Gyula, a town in southeastern (truncated) Hungary. Their captain, László (Ladislas) Kerecsényi accused them of cowardice. Wounded in their pride, the 150 soldiers mounted their horses, crossed the River Tisza and joined in the battle against a Turkish force four times their number, at Bugac Puszta (steppe). They then returned to Gyula with the dead, and a captured voivode, whom they presented to their captain on a cart, strongly reproaching him for his greed. The only reason for shedding their blood, they said, was to prove how wrong their captain had been. This typical Hungarian border fortress story is an epic song reminiscent of folk songs presented in a lively and in some ways naïve manner, placing it among the most beautiful poetic works of the 16th century. The text is known only from a copy of a manuscript dated to 1621. It is probable that, from the time of its completion to the time it was recorded, the verbal presentation of the text became somewhat modified; what began as an epic song became metamorphosed into the form of a Ballad. – B: 1136, 1020, T: 7659.