By Rachel Meyer, Sam Fleming, Emily Gardiner



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  • A Response to Invasive Species in the Lake Champlain Basin

The presence of aquatic and terrestrial invasive species poses several concerns such as: - loss of native species -alteration of habitats, -over-exploitation of resources -competition for ecological niches *Economic and Ecological Consequences!

  • The Problem with Invasive Species
  • Invasive Species in the Lake Champlain Basin
  • -over 48 invasives in VT alone!
  • -lots of
  • research/data on these species in particular
  • -an effort to increase productivity with amount of time
  •    Invasive Highway

Purple Loosestrife  Lythrum salicaria

  •  
  • Purple Loosestrife
  • Lythrum salicaria
  • -herbaceous, perennial plant
  • -can grow up to 10 ft tall
  • -thrives in wetland areas
  • -populations have been spreading at a rate of 155,000 ha/year in U.S.
  • -costs up to $45 billion/year in U.S. for control methods and forage losses
  • -present mostly along CT River and within Champlain Basin
  • -1989, 1996, 2005 distributions in VT
  • Purple Loosestrife
  • Lythrum salicaria
  • -can  adapt easily to varied soil conditions
  • -can assimilate much higher amounts of carbon than other plants
  • -establishes in low-fertility soils
  • -competes for pollinators
  • -extensive seed dispersal
  • Purple Loosestrife
  • Lythrum salicaria
  • Control Efforts:
  • -invasive plant quarantine April 2002
  • -biological control: Galerucella spp.
  • -chemical control
  • -prevention
  • -education
  • -increased enforcement
  • Notes
  • Eurasian Watermilfoil
  • (Myriophyllum spicatum L.)
  • Eurasian Watermilfoil
  • Introduction
    • Native to parts of Europe, Asia, and northern Africa
    • Native types of milfoil rarely grow as fast
    • Stems can reach surface in up to 20 feet of water
    • Will readily grow in many lake substrates (i.e. silty, sandy, rocky)
    • Reproduce from fragments
  • Eurasian Watermilfoil
  • Ecology
    • Education
    • State laws and regulations
    • Bottom barriers
    • Diver operated suction harvesting
    • Hydrorake
    • Pulling by hand
    • Mechanical harvesters
    • Rotavating
    • Aquatic herbicides
    • Biotic controls
  • Eurasian Watermilfoil
  • Control
  • Alewife
  • (Alosa pseudoharengus)
    • Native to the Atlantic Ocean
    • Invaded the Great Lakes in 1931 and caused dramatic decline in native planktivore populations
    • First discovered in VT in Lake St. Catherine in 1997
    • First noted in Lake Champlain in Missiquoi Bay in 2003...population expanded rapidly in 2007 and 2008
  • Alewife
  • Introduction
    • Population grows relatively unchecked due to low predator populations
    • Experience seasonal die-offs because not well-adapted to fresh water environments
    • Outcompetes many native planktivorous fish
    • Feeds on eggs and larvae of important game fish
    • Predation on alewife results in Cayuga syndrome - increases fry mortality
  • Alewife
  • Ecology
    • Netting
    • Predation
    • Chemical - Retenone and Antimycin 
  • Alewife
  • Control
  • Water Chestnut
  •     Trapa natans L.
    • Forms dense surface mats 
    • Native plants can't compete
    • Planted intentionally in the late 19th century
    • Seen in Hudson river in 1920, LCP in 1940
    • 5.8 million spent to erradicate in LCP 1982-2004
  • Notes
  •      Water Chestnut Locations
    • dcvx
    •  
  •  Zebra Mussels
  • Dreissena polymorpha
    • Grow on any hard surface
    • Highly efficient filter feeders
    • Environmental impacts
      • Good and Bad
    • Economic impacts
      • $65K a year, over 2 million already spent.
      • Tourism
    • Good question...
      • Education
      • Fines ($500)
      • Observation
      • Preventative measures
      • Aquatic competition
  • What Can Be Done?
  • Species
  • Open Water <6’
  • Open Water
  • >6’
  • Rivers / Streams
  • Develop-ed
  • Forest
  • Herb-aceous
  • Ag
  • Wetlands
  • Alewife
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • E. Milfoil
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • Zebra Mussel
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0.5
  • Purple
  • Loose-strife
  • 0
  • 0
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • Water
  • Chest-nut
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 1
  • IS total
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • .5
  • .5
  • 1
  • Habitats and Rank: Effects Link (0, 0.5, 1.0)
  • Species
  • Open Water <6’
  • Open Water
  • >6’
  • Rivers / Streams
  • Develop-ed
  • Forest
  • Herb-aceous
  • Ag
  • Wetlands
  • Alewife
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • E. Milfoil
  • 2
  • 1
  • 1
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 1
  • Zebra Mussel
  • 2
  • 2
  • 1
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 1
  • Purple
  • Loose-strife
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 2
  • Water
  • Chest-nut
  • 2
  • 1
  • 1
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 2
  • IS total
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • .5
  • .5
  • .5
  • .5
  • 2
  • Habitats and Rank: Impacts Link (0, 0.5, 1, 2)
  • Ag
  • Urban
  • Roads
  • Forest
  • Fisher-ies
  • Marinas
  • Dams
  • Parks
  • Indust.
  • Ex.
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 0
  • 2
  • 0.5
  • 0.5
  • 0.5
  • 2
  • Sources and Stressors (0, 0.5, 1, 2)
  • *Total across the board instead of breaking into categories
  • Acknowledgements
  • A special thanks to Meg Modley and Ellen Marsden!


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