By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley hs chappaqua, ny
- By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
- of Islam
- Muslims are strict monotheists.
- They believe in the Judeo- Christian God, which they call Allah.
- Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Qur’an, is the word of God.
- The Qur'an:
- God's Last
- The Origins of the Qur’an
- Muhammad received his first revelation from the angel Gabriel in the Cave of Hira in 610.
- 622 Hijrah Muhammed flees Mecca for Medina. * The beginning of the Muslim calendar (1 A.H.)
- Muhammad’s revelations were compiled into the Qur’an after his death.
- Muslims believe it contains the word of God.
- 114 suras (chapters).
- In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful.
- Written in Arabic.
- Five Pillars
- The testimony.
- The declaration of faith:
- There is no god worthy of worship except God, and Muhammad is His Messenger [or Prophet].
- The mandatory prayers performed 5 times a day: * dawn * noon * late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed
- Wash before praying.
- Face Mecca and use a prayer rug.
- The call to prayer by the muezzin in the minaret.
- Pray in the mosque on Friday.
- Almsgiving (charitable donations).
- Muslims believe that all things belong to God.
- Zakat means both “purification” and “growth.”
- About 2.5% of your income.
- Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan.
- Considered a method of self- purification.
- No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan.
- End of the Ramadan holiday.
- The pilgrimage to Mecca.
- Must be done at least once in a Muslim’s lifetime.
- 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year.
- Other Islamic Religious Practices
- Up to four wives allowed at once.
- No alcohol or pork.
- No gambling.
- Sharia body of Islamic law to regulate daily living.
- Three holiest cities in Islam: * Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem.
- Easy to learn and practice.
- No priesthood.
- Teaches equality.
- Non-Muslims, who were “Peoples of the Book,” were allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes.
- Easily “portable” nomads & trade routes.
- Jihad (“Holy War”) against pagans and other non-believers (“infidels”).
- Explain the way Islam began to fragment along two separate paths (sects). What were these paths, and how were their beliefs different?
- Explain how Islam was able to spread from Spain to India in a relatively short amount of time, dominating a wide range of territories and societies.
- What were the major reasons for the decline of both the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates? What role did the umma play in this?
- What was the status of Muslim women? Compare the status of women at the beginning of Islam to their status during the Abbasid Caliphate.
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