Brief Introduction of Traditional Chinese Medicine



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Brief Introduction of Traditional Chinese Medicine

  • — Dr. Mei Zhi-gang
  • Department of TCM, Medical College of CTGU.
  • How many people of you have heard of TCM?
  • Are you familiar with these images ?
  • TCM is a culture or technic?
  • or both of them?
  • Traditional Chinese Medicial Science is one of the quintessences of our country.It mainly study humanbody’sphyology,pathology,disease diagnosis prevention and cure.

Contents

  • The Course of Development of TCM
  • Overview of TCM
  • Stories of Chinese Famous Doctors or Physicians

The origin of traditional Chinese medicine and pharmacology can be traced back to primitive society.

  • The origin of traditional Chinese medicine and pharmacology can be traced back to primitive society.
  • In the course of food gathering, they found that some food items could alleviate the symptoms or cure diseases. That was the origin of TCM.
  • When the ancient Chinese lit fires to warm themselves, they found that heated stones and sand wrapped in animal skin or bark could reduce pain. Through repeated practice and improvement, moxibustion methods were gradually developed.
  • In the process of using stone instruments they found that when a part of the body was hit by something, pain in some other part of the body might be relieved, so stone or bone acupuncture needles were invented. After a long period of development, the theory of collateral channels took shape, and the technique of acupuncture treatment was perfected.

classical works

  • Huangdi's Classic on Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing )
  • Basic Questions ( Su Wen )
  • Miraculous Pivot( Ling Shu )

Huang Di Nei Jing

  • This is the earliest book dealing with the basic theories of the science of formulas, such as the principle of formulating a formula, some dosage forms and their usages.
  • The book has laid a solid foundation for the formation and the development of the science of formulas.

Classic on Medical Problems ( Nan Jing )

The book deals mainly with the basic theory of TCM, such as physiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and so on. It supplemented what Huangdi's Classic on Medicine lacked.

  • The book deals mainly with the basic theory of TCM, such as physiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and so on. It supplemented what Huangdi's Classic on Medicine lacked.

Discussion of Cold-induced Disorders and Miscellaneous Diseases (Shang Han Za Bing Lun)

Shang Han Za Bing Lun

  • The book is divided into two parts, Discussion of Cold-induced Disorders (Shang Han Lun) which includes 113 formulas and Essentials from the Golden Cabinet (Jin Gui Yao Lue) which covers 262 formulas.
  • Subtracting the duplicate formulas, the book includes 323 formulas with a rigorous combination, precise selection of drugs and remarkable therapeutic effect.
  • The book has been honoured as the "forerunner of formula books" by all the later physicians.

Divine Husbandman’s Classic of the Materia Medica

  • Shen Nong's Herbal ( Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing )

It is the earliest book on materia medica in China, which appeared in about the Qin-Han Period.

  • It is the earliest book on materia medica in China, which appeared in about the Qin-Han Period.
  • Not only does it list 365 medicinal item —among which 252 are herbs, 67 are animals, and 46 are minerals, but also divides them into three grades according to their different properties and effects. The book also gives a brief account of pharmacological theories—principal (jun ), adjuvant (chen ), assistant ( zuo ) and guide (shi ); harmony in seven emotions ( qi qing he he ), four properties of medicinal herbs ( si qi ) and five tastes of medicinal herbs ( wu wei ).

Main points in TCM

  • Basic Theory
  • Diagnostics
  • Science of Chinese Materia Medica(Herbology)
  • Science of Foumulas
  • Acpuncture and Moxibustion

Basic Theories of TCM

  • Diseases and healthy are explained in terms of energy, Qi, Spirit, Yin and Yang, five elements, internal organs, blood circulations, meridian(jingluo) - passages through which vital energy circulates, regulating bodily functions.
  • Qi is very active and in constant motion. Qi is also extremely fine and invisible.The classic Chinese philosophy believes that the primary state of the universe is qi, the constant movement of which produces all the things in the universe, including life. Thus people in ancient China thought that the accumulation of Qi would produce life while the dispersion of Qi would put an end to life.

The theory of yin and yang

  • The theory of yin and yang holds that the development and changes of everything in the universe result from the unity and opposition between yin and yang.
  • Yin and yang are Opposing
  • Yin and yang are mutually rooted
  • Yin and yang mutually transform
  • Yin and yang mutually wax and wane
  • The treatment of disease in traditional Chinese medicine is in fact the de-termination of the therapeutic principle in the light of the relative predominance or decline of yin and yang.

Five elements (Wu Xing) theory

  • According to the theory of the five elements,the "transmission and change" may follow either the inter-promoting cycle or inter-restricting order.

Characters of Five Elements

  • In TCM,natural phenomena can be classified into the Wu xing or the Five Phases,usually translated as five elements,five movements or five steps
  • Wood parts Earth, Earth absorbs Water, Water quenches Fire, Fire melts Metal, Metal chops Wood.
  • The cycle might also be called “controls”,“restrains” or “fathers”

Four Diagnosis

  • Observation
  • Tongue inspection
  • Interrogation
  • Auscultation and olfaction
  • Palpation
  • Pulse-taking
  • There is a combined use of the four diagnostic methods
  • inspection,auscaltation and olfaction,inquiry,pulse-feeling and palpation.

Herbs

  • Herbs are a vital part of Chinese healing.
  • Each ingredient has unique characteristics.
  • The ingredients work in harmony to help a person’s body.
  • Herbs can help boost Qi and balance Yin/Yang.
  • Some Chinese herbs can be purchased in the US.

Si jun zi tang

Si wu tang and modifications

Acupuncture

  • One of the oldest forms of Chinese Medicine
  • Acupuncture involves the stimulation of anatomical points on the body with thin needled.
  • Contrary to what you might think, acupuncture patients usually feel little to no pain.
  • Acupuncture needles are hair-thin and are manipulated either by hand or electricity.
  • Needles are placed at “Yin/Yang Meridian points”

Massage

  • Chinese massage is known as Tui Na
  • Uses wave-like motions to loosen joints and nourish muscles.
  • Brings awareness back to a person’s body, making it a first step in the healing process.
  • Stimulates the flow of Qi, blood and body fluids
  • Can be used to treat pain, stress or digestion problems.

Qigong

  • Qigong is a Chinese form of exercise.
  • It regulates the mind and breathing to promote the flow of Qi.
  • Qigong is often used to treat diseases.
  • External Qigong is performed on a person by a Qigong master
  • Internal Qigong is practiced by oneself.

Meditation

  • Meditation has been practiced for thousands of years.
  • It involves focusing on one thing, such as breathing patterns, while clearing all other thoughts from the mind.
  • Meditation is used to replenish the flow of Qi, which helps to ward off illnesses.
  • People may experience various feelings during meditation. Some people may begin to feel overjoyed, while others may experience extreme sadness, and even cry.
  • Meditation is also popularly practiced in western countries as a means of stress relief.
  • Study showed that Acupuncture may help increase IVF success rates by 65%!

The therapy function of acupuncture and moxibustion

  • Inverted fetus map represented on the auricle ( Nogier’s theory,1957)
  • 1993.5.1我国开始实施的《中华人民共和国国家标准GB/T13734-92耳穴名称与部位》,简称《耳穴国标》)National standard of ear acupoint
  • Era-acupuncture
  • Cherie Blair has turned to a little needle therapy to "boost her energy and help deal with stress levels".
  • 英国首相夫人切丽为了减压,已经在耳朵上插针10年;而当年戴妃为治忧郁症,左耳最多时竟然同时插了4根针!
  • Abramovich uses acupuncture to stablilse weight
  • 现年39岁的俄首富阿布拉莫维奇目前旅居英国,是英超切尔西足球俱乐部老板,家产超过110亿英镑,从小深受肥胖之苦的他却有一块心病,那便是随时可能发胖走形的体形。为了减肥,日前他接受了古老的中医疗法———耳针
  • Ear acupuncture is the latest celebrity fad  !

Different kinds of moxibustion

Stories of Chinese Famous Doctors or Physicians

Bian Que(扁鹊),who lived in Qi State at the start of the Warring States period, learned with diligence and formally became apprentice to Master Chang Sang, an eminent doctor of the day. He had an open mind and acquired a wide scope of the techniques concerned, notably pulse acquired a wide scope of the techniques concerned, notably pulse feeling. He used to travel around the different kingdoms and formulated a set of diagnostic methods (four procedures: observation, hearing, interrogation and pulse feeling), making a great contribution to Chinese medicine. These methods are still followed by the modern Chinese doctors. He cured his patients quickly so he was very famous. In the Zhao Kingdom someone attributed to him the name of Bian Que, a legendary famous doctor in the reign of the Yellow Emperor. People remembered him by this attributed name, but forgot his real name.

Hua Tuo(华佗),who born in Qiao County (modern Bozhou of Anhui province) of Pei prefecture in the Eastern Han Dynasty, was good at all aspects of medicine, particularly at surgical operations. He was venerated by the later generations as the “Holy Surgeon” and the “Founder of Surgery”. Hua Tuo’s greatest achievement was in surgery. He invented the anesthetic herb solution, which was a general anesthetic. The procedure he took was as follows: At first the patient was told to swallow the anesthetic solution along with wine; when the patient lost his sense as a drunken person, he cut open the patient’s abdomen. If he found a tumor he cut it off. If it was an impaired intestine or stomach, he cut off the impaired part, cleaned the part, sewed up the part and applied on the part an ointment. About a week later it would heal up, and about a month later the patient would recover fully. Hua Tuo invented general anesthesia in the second or third century A.D., earlier by more than 1,600 years than when the Western surgeons used ether or nitrous oxide to affect general anesthesia. He was not only the first surgeon in China but also the first surgeon in the world to perform an abdomen operation with general anesthesia.

Sun Simiao(孙思邈) The preeminent pharmacist in the Tang Dynasty Sun Simiao was highly gifted. He could read a 1,000-character essay daily at the age of seven, and was versed in all classics at the age of twenty. He was known as a child prodigy. As he was weak and sick in his youth, his family had to spend all the property to pay for doctors and medicines for him. Hence, he made up his mind to study medicine to cure sick people. He was so studious that he was versed in medicine even when he was young, and patients flocked to him from near and far. He studied diligently the ancient classics on medicine, such as “Plain Queries”, “Crux of Medicine”, “Canon of Acupuncture and Moxibustion”, “Canon of Medical Herbs”, “Treatment of Typhoid”, “Canon of Pulse”, etc. He did not “stop studying even when he got old.” He also studied foreign medicine at the time, such as the Indian medicine. Sun Simiao had a high proficiency in medicine. But in “the vast ocean of the classics and recipes”, it was difficult to retrieve a recipe for an acute disease, so he was resolved to compile a medical work to make the retrieval easy. After decades of hard work, he completed in 652 A. D. his masterpiece “essential Recipes in Emergency”. After he died he was honored as “Pharmaceutical King” and Mount Wutai where he stayed was renamed Mount Pharmaceutical King. On the mount, a memorial temple and his statue were built in honor of his great contributions and his lofty personality.

Summary

  • Chinese medicine and pharmacology are important component parts of China’s splendid national culture.
  • Chinese medicine and pharmacology have made tremendous contributions to China’s prosperity throughout the country’s history of several thousand years.
  • They are noted worldwide for their outstanding curative effects, strong national character, unique method of diagnosis and treatment, systemic theories and vast accumulation of historical records and materials.

Thank you! Any questions?

  • Thank you! Any questions?
  • My E-mail: meizhigang@gmail.com



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