Biology h chapters 4, 5 True/False



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Biology H Chapters 4, 5
True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
____ 1. Robert Hooke observed cork cells under a microscope.
____ 2. Anton van Leeuwenhoek concluded that all plants are composed of cells.
____ 3. All living things are composed of many cells.
____ 4. A cell is the smallest unit that can carry on all the processes of life.
____ 5. As a cell gets larger, its volume increases at a faster rate than its surface area.
____ 6. Inside smaller cells, materials and information can be transported more quickly.
____ 7. The long extensions on nerve cells enable them to form a rigid scaffolding that gives brain tissue its structure.
____ 8. Most living prokaryotes are multicellular protists.
____ 9. The cells of animals are prokaryotes.
____ 10. All living things that are not bacteria are eukaryotes.
____ 11. Cell surface proteins float on top of phospholipid bilayers.

____ 12. Refer to the illustration above. The diagram shows the lipid bilayer that forms the framework of the cell membrane.
____ 13. Membranes are selectively permeable if they allow only certain substances to diffuse across them.
____ 14. Organelles enable eukaryotic cells to specialize.
____ 15. Lysosomes carry on cellular respiration.
____ 16. DNA stores information that directs the activities of a cell.
____ 17. Microtubules and microfilaments form the cytoskeleton of cells.
____ 18. The only difference between a plant cell and an animal cell is that plant cells have chloroplasts.
____ 19. Colonial organisms differ from single-celled organisms in that each cell cannot support its own existence.
____ 20. Diffusion is an active process that requires a cell to expend a great deal of energy.
____ 21. During diffusion, molecules diffuse from a region where their concentration is low to a region where their concentration is higher until they are evenly dispersed.
____ 22. A cell placed in a strong salt solution would probably burst because of an increase in osmotic pressure.
____ 23. When the concentration of solutes outside the cell is equal to the concentration of solutes inside the cell, the cell solution is isotonic relative to its environment.
____ 24. Diffusion occurs only in living systems.
____ 25. The transport of specific particles through a membrane by carrier proteins is known as facilitated diffusion.
____ 26. Ion channels are usually able to transport only one type of ion.
____ 27. Facilitated diffusion moves molecules and ions in one direction only, while active transport moves them in two directions.
____ 28. In active transport, energy is required to move a substance across a cell membrane.
____ 29. Both the sodium-potassium pump and the proton pump require energy to move particles across the cell membrane.
____ 30. The sodium-potassium pump moves sodium and potassium ions against the concentration gradient.
____ 31. Exocytosis helps the cell rid itself of wastes.
____ 32. During the process of exocytosis, the cell membrane extends to engulf substances that are too big to pass through the cell membrane.
Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 33. Hooke’s discovery of cells was made observing

a.

living algal cells.

c.

dead plant cells.

b.

living human blood cells.

d.

dead protist cells.

____ 34. The smallest units of life in all living things are



a.

cells.

c.

cytoplasm.

b.

mitochondria.

d.

Golgi apparatus.

____ 35. When the volume of a cell increases, its surface area



a.

increases at the same rate.

c.

increases at a faster rate.

b.

remains the same.

d.

increases at a slower rate.

____ 36. Surface area is an important factor in limiting cell growth because



a.

the cell can burst if the membrane becomes too large.

b.

materials cannot enter the cell if it is too large.

c.

the cell may become too large to take in enough food and to remove enough wastes.

d.

waste products cannot leave the cell if it is too small.

____ 37. The size to which a cell can grow is limited by its



a.

location.

c.

function.

b.

structure.

d.

surface area.

____ 38. A cell that can change its shape would be well suited for



a.

receiving and transmitting nerve impulses.

b.

covering the body surface.

c.

moving to different tissues through narrow openings.

d.

All of the above

____ 39. One difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that



a.

nucleic acids are found only in prokaryotes.

b.

mitochondria are found in larger quantities in eukaryotes.

c.

Golgi vesicles are found only in prokaryotes.

d.

prokaryotes have no nuclear membrane.

____ 40. Which of the following is characteristic of prokaryotes?



a.

They have a nucleus.

b.

They were found on Earth before eukaryotes.

c.

The organelles in their cytoplasm are surrounded by membranes.

d.

None of the above

____ 41. Which of the following is an example of a prokaryotic cell?



a.

amoeba

c.

bacterium

b.

virus

d.

liver cell

____ 42. Only eukaryotic cells have



a.

DNA.

c.

ribosomes.

b.

membrane-bound organelles.

d.

cytoplasm.

____ 43. Studying a picture of a cell taken with an electron microscope, you find that the cell has no nucleus and no mitochondria, but it does have a cell membrane and a cell wall. You conclude that the cell is probably from a(n)



a.

animal.

c.

prokaryote.

b.

plant.

d.

now extinct organism.

____ 44. Cell membranes



a.

are only found on a small number of cells.

b.

contain genes.

c.

are made of DNA.

d.

are thin coverings that surround cells.

____ 45. The structure that regulates what enters and leaves the cell is called



a.

the nucleus.

c.

the nuclear membrane.

b.

the cell wall.

d.

the cell membrane.

____ 46. A protein that fits into the cell membrane



a.

has two polar end sections that bond with water.

b.

floats in the cell membrane.

c.

has a nonpolar middle section.

d.

All of the above

____ 47. Cell membranes



a.

are only found on a small number of cells.

b.

contain genes.

c.

are made of DNA.

d.

are thin coverings that surround cells.

____ 48. The cell membrane



a.

encloses the contents of a cell.

b.

allows material to enter and leave the cell.

c.

is selectively permeable.

d.

All of the above

____ 49. The shape of a protein is determined by



a.

the type and order of its amino acids.

c.

its cell location.

b.

its size.

d.

None of the above

____ 50. A structure within a cell that performs a specific function is called a(n)



a.

organelle.

c.

tissue.

b.

organ tissue.

d.

biocenter.

____ 51. A particularly active cell might contain large numbers of



a.

chromosomes.

c.

mitochondria.

b.

vacuoles.

d.

walls.

____ 52. Golgi apparatus are organelles that



a.

receive proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum.

b.

label the molecules made in the endoplasmic reticulum with tags that specify their destination.

c.

release molecules in vesicles.

d.

All of the above

____ 53. One important organelle that helps maintain homeostasis by moving supplies from one part of the cell to the other is the



a.

endoplasmic reticulum.

c.

Golgi apparatus.

b.

mitochondrion.

d.

cytoplasm.

____ 54. In which of the following organelles is a cell’s ATP produced?



a.

mitochondrion

c.

Golgi apparatus

b.

endoplasmic reticulum

d.

lysosome

____ 55. Numerous threadlike organelles that protrude from the surface of a cell and are packed in tight rows are called



a.

flagella.

c.

actin filaments.

b.

microtubules.

d.

cilia.

____ 56. Proteins are made in cells on the



a.

mitochondria.

c.

nucleus.

b.

ribosomes.

d.

cell membrane.

____ 57. The packaging and distribution center of the cell is the



a.

nucleus.

c.

central vacuole.

b.

Golgi apparatus.

d.

nuclear envelope.

____ 58. The double membrane surrounding the nucleus is called the



a.

nucleolus.

c.

nucleoplasm.

b.

nuclear wall.

d.

nuclear envelope.

____ 59. All cells have



a.

a covering called a membrane that surrounds the cell and controls what information and materials enter and leave it.

b.

an internal fluid that gives shape to the cell and supports the other things within it.

c.

a central zone or nucleus that contains the cell's genes.

d.

All of the above

____ 60. cell : cell membrane ::



a.

nucleus : chromosome

c.

chromosome : DNA

b.

nucleus : nuclear envelope

d.

cell : DNA



____ 61. Refer to the illustration above. Which structure immediately identifies this cell as a eukaryote?

a.

structure “1”

c.

structure “3”

b.

structure “2”

d.

structure “4”

____ 62. Refer to the illustration above. The cell uses structure “3”



a.

to transport material from one part of the cell to the other.

b.

to package proteins so they can be stored by the cell.

c.

as a receptor.

d.

to produce energy.

____ 63. Refer to the illustration above. Structure “1” is



a.

the endoplasmic reticulum.

c.

a mitochondrion.

b.

a Golgi apparatus.

d.

the nucleus.

____ 64. Refer to the illustration above. In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are found in



a.

structure “1.”

c.

structure “3.”

b.

structure “2.”

d.

structure “5.”

____ 65. Refer to the illustration above. The cell shown is probably an animal cell because



a.

it has mitochondria.

c.

it has a cell membrane.

b.

it does not have a cell wall.

d.

it does not have a nucleus.

____ 66. All the following are found in both plant and animal cells, except



a.

a cell wall.

c.

mitochondria.

b.

a cell membrane.

d.

the endoplasmic reticulum.

____ 67. How are chloroplasts like mitochondria?



a.

They can both use energy from sunlight.

b.

They look alike.

c.

They both manufacture food and release energy.

d.

They are both found in animal cells.

____ 68. The organelles associated with photosynthesis are the



a.

mitochondria.

c.

Golgi apparatus.

b.

chloroplasts.

d.

vacuoles.

____ 69. The organelles in plant cells that contain a green pigment are the



a.

mitochondria.

c.

chloroplasts.

b.

bilayer lipids.

d.

Golgi apparatus.

____ 70. Plant cells have large membrane-bound spaces in which water, waste products, and nutrients are stored. These places are known as



a.

mitochondria.

c.

Golgi apparatus.

b.

chloroplasts.

d.

vacuoles.

____ 71. Which of the following pairs contains unrelated items?



a.

eukaryote–amoeba

c.

cell wall–animal cell

b.

ribosomes–protein

d.

mitochondria–energy

____ 72. Plant cells



a.

do not contain mitochondria.

b.

have a cell wall instead of a cell membrane.

c.

have a large vacuole instead of a Golgi apparatus.

d.

have chloroplasts and a cell wall.

____ 73. Which of the following is the correct order of organization of structures in living things, from simplest to most complex?



a.

organ systems, organs, tissues, cells

b.

tissues, cells, organs, organ systems

c.

cells, tissues, organ systems, organs

d.

cells, tissues, organs, organ systems

____ 74. Which of the following associations between a type of animal tissue and its primary function is incorrect?



a.

connective tissue—transport of substances around the body

b.

epithelial tissue—protective surface coverings

c.

muscle tissue—contraction

d.

nervous tissue—receiving and transmitting messages

____ 75. Which of the following is not a specialized activity found in cells of Volvox colonies?



a.

photosynthesis

c.

movement

b.

transmission of messages

d.

reproduction

____ 76. As a result of diffusion, the concentration of many types of substances



a.

always remains greater inside a membrane.

b.

eventually becomes balanced on both sides of a membrane.

c.

always remains greater on the outside of a membrane.

d.

becomes imbalanced on both sides of a membrane.

____ 77. Diffusion takes place



a.

only through a lipid bilayer membrane.

b.

from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.

c.

only in liquids.

d.

from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Concentration of Water and Solutes in Four Adjacent Cells




____ 78. Refer to the illustration above. Which cell is most likely to lose both water molecules and solute molecules as the system approaches equilibrium?

a.

cell “A”

c.

cell “C”

b.

cell “B”

d.

cell “D”

____ 79. Refer to the illustration above. In this system, solute molecules in cell “B” are most likely to



a.

remain in cell “B.”

c.

diffuse into cell “A.”

b.

adhere to cell “B's” membrane.

d.

diffuse into cell “D”

____ 80. Refer to the illustration above. In this system, water molecules are most likely to diffuse in which direction?



a.

from “A” to “B”

c.

from “D” to “C”

b.

from “B” to “D”

d.

from “C” to “A”

____ 81. The dispersal of ink in a beaker of water is an example of



a.

diffusion.

c.

active transport.

b.

osmosis.

d.

endocytosis.

____ 82. heavy rains : flooding ::



a.

osmosis : proton pumping

b.

high solute concentration : isotonic solution

c.

active transport : ATP

d.

concentration difference : osmosis

____ 83. Sugar molecules can enter cells through the process of



a.

exocytosis.

c.

osmosis.

b.

facilitated diffusion.

d.

ion pumps.

____ 84. Channels utilizing facilitated diffusion



a.

work in two directions.

b.

require an electrical signal to function.

c.

Both a and b

d.

None of the above

____ 85. Which of the following is not characteristic of facilitated diffusion?



a.

It requires a carrier protein.

b.

It moves substances against a concentration gradient.

c.

It requires no energy input.

d.

It involves a change in the shape of its carrier.

____ 86. Which of the following is true of ions and their transport across cell membranes?



a.

The “gates” for ion channels are always open.

b.

Ions are very small and thus can cross cell membranes readily.

c.

Electrical or chemical signals may control the movement of ions across cell membranes.

d.

Because they are charged particles, the movement of ions across cell membranes requires energy input.

____ 87. Which of the following does not expend energy?



a.

diffusion

c.

active transport

b.

chemiosmosis

d.

a sodium-potassium pump

____ 88. Which of the following enters a cell by active transport?



a.

glucose

c.

sodium ion

b.

water

d.

potassium ion

____ 89. The process by which water passes into or out of a cell is called



a.

solubility.

c.

selective transport.

b.

osmosis.

d.

endocytosis.



____ 90. Refer to the illustration above. The process shown is called

a.

osmosis.

c.

active transport.

b.

facilitated diffusion.

d.

diffusion.

____ 91. The sodium-potassium pump usually pumps



a.

potassium out of the cell.

b.

sodium into the cell.

c.

potassium into the cell.

d.

only a potassium and sugar molecule together.

____ 92. proton pump : protons ::



a.

ATP : protons

c.

sodium-potassium pump : ATP

b.

channel : protons

d.

sodium-potassium pump : sodium

____ 93. Ridding the cell of material by discharging it from sacs at the cell surface is called



a.

chemiosmosis.

c.

exocytosis.

b.

exorcism.

d.

endocytosis.

____ 94. Molecules that are too large to be moved across a cell membrane can be removed from the cell by



a.

diffusion.

c.

lipid carriers.

b.

exocytosis.

d.

osmosis.

____ 95. Molecules that are too large to be moved through the membrane can be transported into the cell by



a.

osmosis.

c.

lipid carriers.

b.

endocytosis.

d.

diffusion.

____ 96. endocytosis : exocytosis ::



a.

phagocytosis : bacteria

c.

cold : hot

b.

secrete : exocytosis

d.

white blood cell : bacteria


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