Biology: Concepts and Connections, 6e (Campbell) Chapter 17



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D)



the tendency of pollinators to avoid visiting the same type of flower more than once, in case its nectar is toxic.

E)



the fact that each species of pollinator typically visits flowers of one and only one plant species.

Answer:



C

Topic:



17.12-Evolution Connection

Skill:



Conceptual Understanding

43)




Many flower traits are specifically attractive to a certain type of pollinator. For example, the scent of rotting flesh is attractive to certain flies and beetles, but not to most other pollinators. What adaptive purpose is served by this kind of "niche marketing" of flowers to specific pollinators?

A)



This adaptation works to reduce pollinator traffic at a flower. Therefore flowers do not have to produce as much nectar to feed big crowds of pollinators.

B)



This adaptation reduces pollinator traffic so that flowers have a chance to develop their pollen fully before it is spread.

C)



This targeting is done because the wrong kind of pollinator might eat all the pollen instead of delivering it to another flower.

D)



This is favored by natural selection because otherwise certain pollinators would starve and die. Specific flowers evolve to give these pollinators a steady, reserved food source to help them survive.

E)



This adaptation helps to assure that pollen will be delivered to another flower of the same species. If less specialized pollinators are used, the odds are greater that pollen will wind up on the stigma of a different species.

Answer:



E

Topic:



17.12-Evolution Connection

Skill:



Conceptual Understanding

44)



More than ________ of prescription drugs are extracted from plants.

A)



5%

B)



10%

C)



15%

D)



25%

E)



50%

Answer:



D

Topic:



17.13

Skill:



Factual Recall

45)



In the southeastern United States, almost all of the mature forest had been cleared at least once by 1910. Since then, there has been a dramatic increase in forest cover, largely through the establishment of pine plantations as a source of lumber and pulp for paper making. Compared to the forests they replace, these forests are generally

A)



just as biologically diverse, but made up of smaller trees.

B)



more hardy and resilient because the trees are younger.

C)



less biologically diverse and less hardy and resilient.

D)



composed of bigger, healthier trees because the trees are planted in evenly spaced rows and fertilized.

E)



more likely to contain a great deal of genetic diversity within a given tree species.

Answer:



C

Topic:



17.13

Skill:



Conceptual Understanding

46)



Generally, forest conservation efforts are designed to

A)



stop the cutting of trees entirely so that humans and forests can live in harmony.

B)



make sure that all remaining forest are protected from any kind of human use.

C)



transform natural forests to more-productive tree plantations that can also be used to reverse global warming.

D)



better manage forests so that our uses of trees and other forest products are compatible with the long-term maintenance of forest cover and biological diversity.

E)



set the use of trees and other forest products to a level that meets or exceeds the rapid natural regeneration rate.

Answer:



D

Topic:



17.13

Skill:



Conceptual Understanding

47)



Heterotrophic eukaryotes that digest their food externally and absorb the small molecules are referred to as

A)



bacteria.

B)



protozoans.

C)



fungi.

D)



plants.

E)



multicellular algae.

Answer:



C

Topic:



17.14

Skill:



Factual Recall

48)



Fungi are found associated with the earliest plant fossils. Fungi may have helped plants become terrestrial by

A)



forming mycorrhizal associations with plants and by decomposing organic matter.

B)



forming lichen-like associations with ancestral plants.

C)



stocking the soil with organic matter.

D)



providing simple organic compounds in return for sugars.

E)



killing the bacterial enemies of plants.

Answer:



A

Topic:



17.14

Skill:



Factual Recall

49)



Threadlike fungal filaments are called

A)



mycelia.

B)



hyphae.

C)



sporangia.

D)



root hairs.

E)



mold.

Answer:



B

Topic:



17.14

Skill:



Factual Recall

50)



A mushroom

A)



is composed of many threadlike filaments called mycorrhizae.

B)



is specialized to obtain most of the nutrients for the fungal mycelium.

C)



is an independent stage in the alternation of generations of the fungal life cycle.

D)



is not actually part of a fungus, but is a member of a related group.

E)



is an above-ground fruiting body connected to a mycelium.

Answer:



E

Topic:



17.14

Skill:



Factual Recall

51)



Fungi

A)



are similar to bacteria because fungi are composed of prokaryotic cells.

B)



are similar to bacteria because fungi use extracellular digestion to obtain their nutrients.

C)



are similar to green plants because fungi produce chlorophyll.

D)



differ from members of the animal kingdom because fungi are autotrophic.

E)



and green plants have cells that are surrounded by a cell wall made of cellulose.

Answer:



B

Topic:



17.14

Skill:



Conceptual Understanding

52)




Fungi contact and absorb food through the ________, a branching network of ________.

A)



mycelium . . . hyphae

B)



hyphae . . . mycelia

C)



mycorrhiza . . . mushrooms

D)



mycelium . . . chitin

E)



mushroom . . . hyphae

Answer:



A

Topic:



17.14

Skill:



Conceptual Understanding

53)



Which of the following structures is an essential part of most fungal reproductive systems?

A)



gametangia

B)



cellulose

C)



flowers

D)



seeds

E)



spores

Answer:



E

Topic:



17.15

Skill:



Factual Recall

54)



The heterokaryotic phase of a fungal life cycle is

A)



a stage in which the hyphae contain only one type of haploid nucleus.

B)



a stage in which hyphae contain two, genetically different, haploid nuclei.

C)



a stage in which hyphae contain two, genetically different, diploid nuclei.

D)



a stage that is diploid but functions as a gametophyte (like the body of an animal).

E)



a triploid stage formed by the fusion of a diploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of a compatible hypha.

Answer:



B

Topic:



17.15

Skill:



Factual Recall

55)



Which type of reproduction is typical in many fungi, particularly molds and yeast?

A)



sexual reproduction through mating of two diploid parent mycelia

B)



sexual reproduction through fusion of two haploid parent mycelia and subsequent production of haploid spores

C)



asexual reproduction through production of haploid spores by a diploid parent

D)



asexual reproduction through production of haploid spores by a haploid parent

E)



asexual reproduction through production of diploid spores by a haploid parent

Answer:



D

Topic:



17.15

Skill:



Conceptual Understanding

56)



The last common ancestor of animals and fungi was probably ________, like the spores of ________ fungi.

A)



flagellated . . . chytrid

B)



flagellated . . . zygote

C)



prokaryotic . . . glomeromycete

D)



multicellular . . . chytrid

E)



nonflagellated . . . chytrid

Answer:



A

Topic:



17.16

Skill:



Factual Recall

57)




About 90% of plants have mycorrhizae linking them to

A)



chytrids.

B)



glomeromycetes.

C)



ascomycetes (sac fungi).

D)



basidiomycetes (club fungi).

E)



zygote fungi.

Answer:



B

Topic:



17.16

Skill:



Factual Recall

58)



Most familiar types of mushrooms, along with puffballs and shelf fungi, are

A)



chytrids.

B)



ascomycetes (sac fungi).

C)



zygomycetes (zygote fungi).

D)



glomeromycetes.

E)



basidiomycetes (club fungi).

Answer:



E

Topic:



17.16

Skill:



Factual Recall

59)



Most zygomycetes and ascomycetes reproduce ________ when conditions are ________.

A)



sexually . . . constantly moist and food is abundant

B)



sexually . . . favorable, as in the spring of the year

C)



asexually . . . favorable, as in the spring of the year

D)



asexually . . . harsh, as in the fall of the year

E)



by spores . . . windy

Answer:



C

Topic:



17.17

Skill:



Factual Recall

60)



Which of the following occurs in a mushroom, that is, in the fruiting body of a basidiomycete?

A)



Hyphae of two different mating types fuse.

B)



Diploid nuclei form, undergo meiosis, and produce haploid spores.

C)



Heterokaryotic cells separate to re-create the original haploid hyphae.

D)



Spores germinate and form a haploid mycelium.

E)



Asexual reproduction takes place through basidiogenesis.

Answer:



B

Topic:



17.17

Skill:



Conceptual Understanding

61)



Fungal diseases common in ________ include ________ and ________.

A)



animals . . . smuts . . . rusts

B)



plants . . . smuts . . . rusts

C)



animals . . . smuts . . . chytrids

D)



plants . . . ringworm . . . coccidioidomycosis

E)



humans . . . rusts . . . vaginal yeast

Answer:



B

Topic:



17.18

Skill:



Factual Recall

62)




Gangrene, hallucinations, temporary insanity, and even death can result when humans consume grain infested with

A)



corn smut.

B)



chytrids.

C)



coccidioidomycosis.

D)



the yeast Candida albicans.

E)



ergots.

Answer:



E

Topic:



17.18

Skill:



Factual Recall

63)



What kind of entity is a lichen?

A)



an association between a fungus and a brown alga

B)



an association between a multicellular protist related to the brown algae and a bacterium

C)



an association between a fungus and cyanobacteria or green algae

D)



an association between a bryophyte and a fungus

E)



an association between a bryophyte and a bacterium

Answer:



C

Topic:



17.19

Skill:



Factual Recall

64)



You enjoy learning about history by traveling throughout North America studying gravestones. You notice that gravestones from 1900 and earlier usually host many types of lichens. But in one cemetery, lichens are entirely absent, even from old gravestones. Given what is known about lichens, the cemetery without lichens probably

A)



has an unusually dry climate.

B)



is subject to extremely cold winter temperatures.

C)



gets a great deal of rain, which favors the growth of competing bacteria.

D)



has a high population of fungi that parasitize lichens.

E)



is close to a source of air pollution.

Answer:



E

Topic:



17.19

Skill:



Application

65)



Central American leaf-cutting ants

A)



eat leaves for nutrition.

B)



use the leaves to build their homes.

C)



lay their eggs in decomposing leaves.

D)



cultivate fungal gardens on the leaves.

E)



chew up the leaves and use them for fertilizer to promote the growth of other plants that they eat.

Answer:



D

Topic:



17.20

Skill:



Factual Recall

66)



Which of the following statements regarding fungi is false?

A)



Fungi are important decomposers in ecosystems.

B)



Fungi can only break down plant material.

C)



The distinctive flavor of certain cheeses is due to fungi.

D)



The first antibiotic discovered came from a fungus.

E)



Fungi are derived from a flagellated protistan ancestor.

Answer:



B

Topic:



17.21

Skill:



Factual Recall

67)



An experimental forest ecosystem is enclosed in a sealed greenhouse. The entire ecosystem, including the air and soil, is treated with an extremely potent fungicide that kills all fungal life stages including spores. What will probably happen next?

A)



Tree growth will increase because the dead fungi will act as a fertilizer.

B)



Plants will enjoy a long-term increase in growth and survival because of the removal of fungal pathogens.

C)



Dead organic matter will accumulate on the forest floor; plant growth will decline because of a lack of nutrients and the loss of mycorrhizal partners.

D)



All of the plants will die immediately when they are poisoned by the death of their mycorrhizal associates.

E)



A few animals will go extinct due to loss of their fungal food sources, but otherwise the forest will be largely unchanged.

Answer:



C

Topic:



17.21

Skill:



Application

Art Questions

1)




According to this figure, at what time in the evolutionary history of plants did vascular systems likely first evolve?



A)



475 mya

B)



460 mya

C)



425 mya

D)



360 mya

E)



50 mya

Answer:



C

Topic:



17.2

Skill:



Application

2)





Which part of this figure represents the anther?



A)



structure A

B)



structure B

C)



structure C

D)



structure D

E)



structure E

Answer:



A

Topic:



17.8

Skill:



Factual Recall

Scenario Questions

After reading the following paragraph, answer the question(s) below.
Scientists believe that a shift from pollination by insects to pollination by birds occurred several times over the course of angiosperm evolution. Two researchers designed an experiment to test this hypothesis using two species of monkey flower (Mimulus spp.). M. lewisii has violet-pink flowers and is pollinated by bumblebees. M. cardinalis has orange-red flowers and is pollinated by hummingbirds.
The researchers switched flower-color genes between the two species. As a result of the gene transfer, they produced a variation of M. cardinalis with dark pink flowers (instead of the original orange-red). The new variety of M. lewisiis had orange flowers (instead of the original violet-pink). Plants of both genetically altered varieties were placed in their original habitats and observed. The genetically altered variety of M. cardinalis was visited by bumblebees 74 times more often than plants with the original color flowers. The genetically altered variety of M. lewisii was visited by hummingbirds 68 times more often than plants with the original color flowers.



1)



Based on the results of this study, you can conclude that

A)



petal color won't contribute to speciation, since pollinators will select familiar plant species regardless of petal color.

B)



gene mutations that affect petal color will also affect nectar production.

C)



gene mutations that produce larger flowers will cause the species to become more attractive to bird pollinators.

D)



gene mutations affecting petal color can contribute to speciation through a shift in pollinator species.

E)



flower color doesn't appear to be an important factor in the speciation of flowering angiosperms.

Answer:



D

Topic:



17.12

Skill:



Application

2)



The evolution of easily modified flower colors that make plants attractive to animals was an important factor in angiosperm evolution because

A)



plants have no way to cross-pollinate without the intervention of animals.

B)



animals are more effective at delivering pollen to other flowers than is the wind.

C)



flower color attracts animals that can disperse the seeds of the plant.

D)



successful evolution requires interactions between plants and animals.

E)



pollination by animals prevents problems with inbreeding caused by self-pollination.

Answer:



B

Topic:



17.10, 17.12

Skill:



Factual Recall

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