Biology 206 Jeff Young Janice Lapsansky Lab Page Jeff's Page Grading



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Biology 206

  • Jeff Young
  • Janice Lapsansky
  • Lab Page
  • Jeff's Page

Grading

  • Grades will be assigned on the basis of your performance on frequent quizzes and two exams in each of the two portions of the course (animal biology and plant biology), and your laboratory work, as follows:
  • Lecture exams and quizzes will consist of a mixture of multiple true/false and short essay questions,
    • you write the essay questions (start thinking about questions now).
    • quizzes may be taken with a partner.
  • Weeks ~1-5 (JY)
  • Lecture notes and reading assignments are subject to change.
  • The assigned reading is considered the minimum required. Students should plan on using the Glossary and the Index in Freeman.
  • Students are further encouraged to consult other sources when assigned material is not clear.

Broad Course Goals

  • Integrate knowledge gained in Biology 204 and 205,
    • Ecology, Evolution and Diversity (204),
    • Cell Biology (205).
  • Understand how organisms are organized at the molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, whole organism, and mutualistic levels,
    • Literate in the field (writing, listening, speaking)
    • Study skills,
    • Laboratory skills,
    • Other?

Jeff Young, Botanist young@biol.wwu.edu x3638 Office: BI412

  • Arabidopsis thaliana
  • Genome-based study of plant physiology and environmental responses.
  • Office Hours
  • MWF:1-2 am
  • …by appointment.

Success is Easy …if you work hard.

  • Do the reading assignments before class,
  • Attend lectures,
  • Listen to the lectures, look at the examples, think.
  • Know the material,
    • it’s easier to just learn it, than it is to try to guess or divine your instructors intentions.

Overview

  • Growth &
  • Development
  • Assimilation
  • Reproduction
  • Transport
  • Photosynthesis
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Water
  • Solutes
  • Carbohydrates
  • Gas Exchange
  • Sexual
  • Asexual

Datura stramonium

  • Datura stramonium
  • Jimson Weed
  • Dicotyledonous
  • Venation
  • Plant Secondary Metabolite
  • "blind as a bat, mad as a hatter, red as a beet, hot as a hare, dry as a bone, the
  • bowel and bladder lose their tone, and the heart runs alone."
  • To Know
  • tropane alkaloid

Dose Response Curves

  • Dose (Datura)
  • Hallucinations
  • Etc.
  • threshold
  • saturation
  • poison
  • Think about this.
  • dead

The Plant Body

  • One that plants thorns must never expect to gather roses.
        • - English Proverb

Today

  • What are the major organ systems that make up the plant body?
    • what are the major functions of these organs?
  • What are the three major tissues that make up plant organs?
    • what cell types comprise these tissues?
    • what are some functions of these cells?

The Plant Family

  • Dicot
  • Monocot
  • Cotyledons (embyonic leaves)
  • Angiosperms
  • flowering plants
  • 99.5% of extant species
  • 80% of living plants

Dicots / Monocots

  • Study this figure and pay attention in lab and lecture.

Organ Systems

  • Leaf
  • Stem
  • Root
  • Organs: a specialized center of body function composed of several types of tissues (an integrated group of cells with common structure and function).
  • Floral

Organ Systems Major Functions

  • Stem
  • Root
  • Leaves
  • Photosynthesis;
    • - synthesis and storage of carbohydrates,
  • Synthesis and storage and other materials.

Photosynthesis

  • We can describe photosynthesis with this reaction:
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O + light ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
  • atmospheric
  • oxygen
  • Fixed Carbon primary metabolism

Fixed Carbon primary metabolites

  • Grains: i.e. wheat, barley, corn, and rice,
  • Starches: tubers and roots such as potatoes and poi, and stems such as in yams,
  • In other species the carbohydrate is converted to fats;
    • Oils: soybean, corn, peanut, palm, coconut, sunflower, olive, safflower, and many others.
  • Fruits: grapes, figs, olives, dates, apples, mulberries, bananas, oranges, mangoes, etc.
  • Sugar: is stored in stems (sugarcane) or roots (sugar beets),
  • Proteins: plants convert carbohydrate into nitrogen-containing proteins as well. Plant foods high in protein include beans and many other vegetables,
  • Fibers: dietary, also, flax, cotton, etc.
      • we cannot digest fiber, it is nevertheless very useful in our diets….
  • Regardless of how we think of plant contributions to our diet, plants are also the foods of animals, which we also consume as food.

Fixed Carbon secondary metabolites

Modified Leaves

  • Tendrils
  • Spines
  • Bracts
  • Succulent

Organ Systems Major Functions

  • Leaf
  • Stem
  • Floral Organs
  • Root

Organ Systems Major Functions

  • Root
  • Floral Organs
  • Structural Support;
    • - leaves and flowers,
  • Transport and Communication;
    • - between roots and leaves,
  • Storage;
    • - carbohydrates and other materials.
  • Stems
  • Leaf

Structural Support

Transport and Communications

  • The tallest living tree today is the Mendocino Tree, a coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) found at Montgomery State Reserve near Ukiah, California, USA. 112 m, 1998.
  • A Eucalyptus regnans at Mt. Baw Baw, Victoria, Australian, was 143 m, 1885.
  • Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates
  • Hormones
  • Small molecules
  • Others...
  • Arabidopsis

Modified Stems

  • Rhizomes
  • Ginger, many grasses, some ferns...
  • Tubers Rhizomes: potatoes, yams*...
  • Bulbs
  • Onion, Daffodil, Tulip, Lilies...
  • Iris
  • Stolons

Organ Systems Major Functions

  • Floral Organs
  • Water Uptake,
  • Mineral Uptake,
  • Anchorage,
  • Storage,
  • Synthesis.
  • Leaf
  • Stem
  • Roots

Anchorage/Uptake

  • Blazing Star
  • Liatris punctata
  • wire grass
  • Aristida purpurea
  • Tap
  • Fibrous
  • Tap root systems can reach as deep as 50 meters,
    • - lateral (secondary) roots extend from the tap root.
  • Tap roots of fibrous-root plants typically perish ,
    • - adventitious roots (extending from the stem) densely fill the surrounding soil,
      • - root surface area of a 4 month old rye plant was measured as 639 M 2.
  • See Fig. 36.3

Today

  • What are the major organ systems that make up the plant body?
    • what are the major functions of these organs?
  • What are the three major tissues that make up plant organs?
    • what cell types comprise these tissues?
    • what are the functions of these cells?

Plant Tissues

  • Dermal
  • Ground
  • Vascular
  • In all organs.

Plant Tissues

  • Dermal (shoot)
  • Epidermal Cells
  • w/ Guard Cell
  • Cotton
  • Salt Bladder
  • Saltbush
  • Stigmatic
  • papillae
  • Trichomes
  • Arabidopsis
  • Remember: Cuticle

Plant Tissues

  • Dermal (roots)
  • Root Hairs
  • Radish Seedling

Plant Tissues

  • Vasculature
  • Organization differs in roots vs. stems vs. leaves.
  • Organization differs in dicots vs. monocots,
  • Please study Figs. 36.24, 37.7

Plant Tissues

  • Vasculature
  • xylem
  • H2O / nutrients
  • Esau
  • Anatomy of Seed Plants

Plant Tissues

  • Vasculature
  • phloem
  • carbohydrates/synthates
  • Companion Cell
  • Sieve Tube Member

Plant Tissues

  • Ground
  • Pith: “inside vascular system”
  • Cortex: “outside vascular system”
  • Leaves: not epidermis, not vasculature.

General Plant Cells

  • + unique to plant cells
  • - Plastids ;
    • - chloroplasts,
    • - amyloplasts,
    • - leucoplasts,
    • - etc.
  • - Large Central Vacuole;
  • Cellulose Based Cell Wall,
  • Plasmodesmata.

Cell Walls

Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Schlerenchyma

  • Study Figs. 36.22, 24, 25
  • Pay attention in lab.
  • Parenchyma:
  • Typically a not distinctively specialized cell with a nucleate protoplast concerned with one or more of the various physiological and biochemical activities in plants. Thin primary walls.
  • Collenchyma:
  • A supporting tissue composed of more or less elongated living cells with uneven thickened cell walls. Common in regions of growth.
  • Schlerenchyma:
  • Cell variable in form and size and having more or less thick, often lignified, secondary walls. Supporting cells that may or may not be devoid of protoplast at maturity.
  • …from Esau.

Plasmodesmata

Gap Junction vs. Plasmodesma

  • Gap Junction (animal)
  • protein lined
  • Plasmadesma (plant)
  • membrane lined

Apoplast / Symplast

  • Symplast
  • The interconnected protoplasts and their plasmodesmata.
  • Apoplast
  • The cell wall continuum of a plant. “Outside of the symplast.”

Today

  • What are the major organ systems that make up the plant body?
    • what are the major functions of these organs?
  • What are the three major tissues that make up plant organs?
    • which cell types comprise these tissues?
    • what are the functions of these cells?

Friday



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