Binet and Simon designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to



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1.

Binet and Simon designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to:

A)

provide a quantitative estimate of inherited intellectual potential.

B)

distinguish between academic and practical intelligence.

C)

identify children likely to have difficulty learning in school.

D)

assess general capacity for goaldirected adaptive behavior.



2.

Binet and Simon assumed that intellectually bright children:

A)

can be identified at a very young age by measuring their physical coordination and sensory skills.

B)

have a mental age that is completely unrelated to their chronological age.

C)

are just as likely to have difficulty in regular classes as slow learners.

D)

are as intellectually developed as average children who are older than they.



3.

To assess mental age, Binet and Simon measured children's:

A)

head size.

B)

reasoning skills.

C)

muscular power.

D)

sensory acuity.

E)

all of the above.



4.

Five-year-old Wilbur performs on an intelligence test at a level characteristic of an average 4-year-old. Wilbur's mental age is:

A)

4.

B)

4.5.

C)

5.

D)

80.

E)

125.



5.

Who would have been the least enthusiastic about a reliance on eugenics for the improvement of human intellectual functioning?

A)

Plato

B)

Binet

C)

Terman

D)

Darwin



6.

Binet and Terman would have been most likely to disagree about the:

A)

extent to which intelligence is determined by heredity.

B)

need to standardize intelligence tests.

C)

possibility of predicting people's academic success from intelligence test scores.

D)

extent to which individuals differ in their intellectual abilities.



7.

For the original version of the Stanford-Binet, IQ was defined as:

A)

mental age multiplied by 100.

B)

chronological age subtracted from mental age and multiplied by 100.

C)

chronological age divided by mental age and multiplied by 100.

D)

mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.



8.

A 12-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9-year-old was said to have an IQ of:

A)

75.

B)

85.

C)

115.

D)

125.

E)

133.



9.

Twelve-year-old Benjy has an IQ of 75 on the original version of the Stanford-Binet. His mental age is:

A)

8.

B)

9.

C)

10.

D)

12.

E)

16.



10.

The eugenics movement would have been most likely to encourage:

A)

selective breeding of highly intelligent people.

B)

creation of special education programs for intellectually inferior children.

C)

construction of culturally and racially unbiased tests of intelligence.

D)

use of factor analysis for identification of various types of intelligence.



11.

During the World War I era, the U.S. government developed intelligence tests to evaluate newly arriving immigrants. For most proponents of the eugenics movement, inferior test scores were viewed as reflecting the immigrants':

A)

educational background.

B)

ignorance of American culture.

C)

innate mental abilities.

D)

unfamiliarity with intelligence test questions.

E)

socioeconomic status.



12.

Joni claims that she is intellectually gifted because she “possesses” an IQ of 145. She is most clearly committing the error known as:

A)

heritability.

B)

the Flynn effect.

C)

reification.

D)

the naturalistic fallacy.

E)

savant syndrome.



13.

In considering the nature of intelligence, experts would be most likely to agree that intelligence is a(n):

A)

inborn ability to perform well on standard intelligence tests.

B)

ability to learn from experience.

C)

general trait that underlies success on nearly any task.

D)

multiple array of completely independent adaptive traits.



14.

Factor analysis is a statistical procedure used to:

A)

derive IQ scores by comparing mental age with chronological age.

B)

evaluate how accurately test items predict a criterion behavior.

C)

extract test norms from a standardization sample.

D)

identify clusters of closely related test items.

E)

provide a quantitative estimate of heritability.



15.

In order to assess whether intelligence is a single trait or a collection of several distinct abilities, psychologists have made extensive use of:

A)

the normal distribution.

B)

criterion-based validation.

C)

standardization.

D)

reliability assessment.

E)

factor analysis.



16.

Spearman's g factor refers to:

A)

the internal consistency of an intelligence test.

B)

the genetic contribution to intelligence.

C)

a general intelligence that underlies success on a wide variety of tasks.

D)

a highly developed skill or talent possessed by an otherwise retarded person.

E)

the ability to understand and regulate emotions.



17.

Who would have been most enthusiastic about the value of a single intelligence test score as an index of an individual's mental capacities?

A)

Thurstone

B)

Spearman

C)

Gardner

D)

Sternberg



18.

Twenty-five-year-old Alexandra is mentally handicapped and can neither read nor write. However, after hearing lengthy, unfamiliar, and complex musical selections just once, she can reproduce them precisely on the piano. It is likely that Alexandra is:

A)

gifted with a high level of Spearman's g factor.

B)

gifted with a high level of emotional intelligence.

C)

suffering from Down syndrome.

D)

someone with savant syndrome.



19.

The characteristics of savant syndrome most directly suggest that intelligence is:

A)

a diverse set of distinct abilities.

B)

largely unpredictable and unmeasurable.

C)

a culturally constructed concept.

D)

dependent upon the speed of cognitive processing.



20.

Those who define intelligence as academic aptitude are most likely to criticize:

A)

Terman's concept of innate intelligence.

B)

Spearman's concept of general intelligence.

C)

Binet's concept of mental age.

D)

Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences.

E)

Stern's concept of intelligence quotient.



21.

Howard Gardner is most likely to agree that the concept of intelligence includes:

A)

minimizing one's negative emotions.

B)

spatially analyzing visual input.

C)

experiencing positive self-esteem.

D)

behaving morally.



22.

Which of the following persons best illustrates Sternberg and Wagner's concept of practical intelligence?

A)

Jamal, a college student who quickly recognizes the correct answers to multiple-choice test questions

B)

Gareth, a graduate student who generates many creative research ideas

C)

Shelley, a newspaper reporter who has a knack for making connections with very important people

D)

Cindy, a young mother who prefers playing with her children to cleaning her house



23.

The ability to control one's impulses and delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long-term goals is most clearly a characteristic of:

A)

emotional intelligence.

B)

heritability.

C)

mental age.

D)

savant syndrome.

E)

the g factor.



24.

Although Nicole scored well above average on the SAT, she frequently loses her temper and needlessly antagonizes even her best friends. Her behavior best illustrates an inadequate level of:

A)

heritability.

B)

predictive validity.

C)

the g factor.

D)

mental age.

E)

emotional intelligence.



25.

The correlation between intelligence test scores and creativity test scores is ________ among those whose intelligence score is ________ than 120.

A)

negative; greater than

B)

positive; less than

C)

negative; less than

D)

positive; greater than



26.

Which of the following suggestions would be least helpful to a young performing artist who wants to become a highly creative ballet dancer?

A)

“Study the performances of the world's best ballet artists.”

B)

“Develop friendly and supportive relationships with fellow ballet dancers.”

C)

“Win competitive performances that will lead to performance arts scholarship offers.”

D)

“Take time for those practice drills that you find most enjoyable.”



27.

Intrinsic motivation is an important component of:

A)

the intelligence quotient.

B)

creativity.

C)

the Flynn effect.

D)

savant syndrome.

E)

the g factor.



28.

Scientists are most likely to be creative if they:

A)

investigate issues about which they have very little previous knowledge.

B)

approach problems they find intrinsically interesting and satisfying to study.

C)

think about the benefits to themselves and society that might result from their work.

D)

do all of the above.



29.

There is a ________ correlation between head size and intelligence and a ________ correlation between brain size and intelligence.

A)

slightly negative; slightly positive

B)

slightly positive; slightly negative

C)

moderately positive; slightly positive

D)

slightly positive; moderately positive



30.

Brain size (adjusted for body size) is ________ correlated with intelligence, and the speed of taking in perceptual information is ________ correlated with intelligence.

A)

positively; negatively

B)

negatively; positively

C)

positively; positively

D)

negatively; negatively



31.

Precocious college students with unusually high levels of verbal intelligence are most likely to:

A)

retrieve information from memory at an unusually rapid speed.

B)

perform at only an average level on tests of mathematical aptitude.

C)

experience less loneliness and achieve happier marriages than the average college student.

D)

demonstrate unusually high levels of the practical managerial intelligence common to successful business executives.



32.

Studies suggest that there is a positive correlation between intelligence and the brain's:

A)

rate of glucose consumption.

B)

production of endorphins.

C)

neural processing speed.

D)

ability to process language in the right rather than the left hemisphere.



33.

Tests designed to predict ability to learn new skills are called ________ tests.

A)

achievement

B)

interest

C)

reliability

D)

standardized

E)

aptitude



34.

A test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a(n) ________ test.

A)

reliability

B)

interest

C)

achievement

D)

aptitude

E)

intelligence



35.

Achievement tests are designed to:

A)

measure desire and potential capacity to successfully meet challenges.

B)

assess ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.

C)

compare an individual's personality with those of highly successful people.

D)

assess learned knowledge or skills.



36.

The written exam for a driver's license would most likely be considered a(n) ________ test.

A)

achievement

B)

reliability

C)

interest

D)

aptitude

E)

intelligence



37.

Aptitude tests are to ________ as achievement tests are to ________.

A)

current interests; past competence

B)

past competence; current interests

C)

current competence; future performance

D)

future performance; current competence



38.

The WAIS consists of separate ________ subtests.

A)

intelligence and creativity

B)

aptitude and achievement

C)

validity and reliability

D)

verbal and performance



39.

Object assembly, picture arrangement, and block design are three subtests of the:

A)

WAIS.

B)

MEIS.

C)

Stanford-Binet.

D)

GRE.



40.

If a test is standardized, this means that:

A)

it accurately measures what it is intended to measure.

B)

a person's test performance can be compared with that of a pretested group.

C)

most test scores will cluster near the average.

D)

the test will yield consistent results when administered on different occasions.



41.

When Brandon was told that he correctly answered 80 percent of the items on a mathematical achievement test, he asked how his performance compared with that of the average test taker. Brandon's concern was directly related to the issue of:

A)

standardization.

B)

predictive validity.

C)

reliability.

D)

content validity.



42.

Unlike today's most widely used intelligence tests, the original Stanford-Binet can be most clearly criticized with respect to its:

A)

standardization sample.

B)

reliability.

C)

factor analysis.

D)

predictive validity.

E)

heritability.



43.

The bell-shaped pattern that represents the frequency of occurrence of intelligence test scores in the general population is called a:

A)

standardization sample.

B)

reliability coefficient.

C)

factor analysis.

D)

normal curve.

E)

savant syndrome.



44.

About ________ percent of WAIS scores fall between 85 and 115.

A)

30

B)

50

C)

68

D)

96



45.

The normal curve would represent the distribution of:

A)

the American population in terms of gender.

B)

American schoolchildren in terms of their ages.

C)

American women in terms of their physical heights.

D)

all of the above.



46.

Comparing the average performance of the initial WAIS standardization sample with the average performance of the most recent WAIS standardization sample provides convincing evidence of:

A)

heritability.

B)

the g factor.

C)

the Flynn effect.

D)

emotional intelligence.

E)

savant syndrome.



47.

During the 1960s and 1970s, performance on the WAIS ________ and performance on college entrance aptitude tests ________.

A)

declined; declined

B)

improved; declined

C)

declined; improved

D)

improved; improved



48.

The decline in college aptitude test scores during the 1960s and 1970s was due in part to:

A)

the increasing academic diversity of students taking these tests.

B)

the standardization of college aptitude tests on more representative samples of the population.

C)

the introduction of new and increasingly difficult aptitude test questions.

D)

today's students' inexperience with standardized tests.



49.

It would be most reasonable to suggest that the Flynn effect is due in part to:

A)

the deteriorating quality of parental involvement in children's education.

B)

increasingly improved childhood health and nutrition.

C)

the decreasing reliance on a single test score as an index of mental aptitudes.

D)

the failure to restandardize existing intelligence tests.



50.

If a test yields consistent results every time it is used, it has a high degree of:

A)

standardization.

B)

predictive validity.

C)

reliability.

D)

content validity.

E)

heritability.



51.

Melinda completed the Computer Programming Aptitude Test when she applied for a position with Beta Electronics. Six months later, she took the same test when she applied for a position with another company. The fact that her scores were almost identical on the two occasions suggests that the test has a high degree of:

A)

content validity.

B)

reliability.

C)

predictive validity.

D)

standardization.



52.

Researchers assess the correlation between scores obtained on two halves of a single test in order to measure the ________ of a test.

A)

validity

B)

reliability

C)

standardization

D)

normal distribution

E)

factor analysis



53.

Validity is to reliability as ________ is to ________.

A)

causation; correlation

B)

accuracy; consistency

C)

stability; change

D)

aptitude; achievement

E)

academic intelligence; emotional intelligence



54.

A measure of intelligence based on head size is likely to have a ________ level of reliability and a ________ level of validity.

A)

low; low

B)

low; high

C)

high; low

D)

high; high



55.

A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of:

A)

validity.

B)

standardization.

C)

reliability.

D)

normality.



56.

Your psychology professor has announced that the next test will assess your understanding of sensation and perception. When you receive the test, however, you find that very few questions actually relate to these topics. In this instance, you would be most concerned about the ________ of the test.

A)

reliability

B)

factor analysis

C)

standardization

D)

validity

E)

normal distribution



57.

If both depressed and nondepressed individuals receive similar scores on a diagnostic test for depression, it is said that the test:

A)

has not been standardized.

B)

is not valid.

C)

is not reliable.

D)

has not been factor-analyzed.

E)

does not produce scores that form a normal distribution.



58.

Psychologists measure the correlation between aptitude test scores and school grades in order to assess the ________ of the aptitude test.

A)

reliability

B)

standardization

C)

normal distribution

D)

factor analysis

E)

validity



59.

Intelligence test scores are most likely to predict accurately the academic success of ________ students.

A)

elementary school

B)

high school

C)

college

D)

graduate school



60.

Why does the predictive validity of general aptitude tests decrease as the educational level of the students who take them increases?

A)

More educated students have taken aptitude tests so frequently that for them such tests are no longer pure measures of aptitude.

B)

Comparisons of mental age with chronological age are inadequate for assessing the aptitude of older and more educated students.

C)

There is a relatively restricted range of aptitude test scores among students at higher educational levels.

D)

Among more educated students, motivation has a much greater effect on academic success than does aptitude.



61.

The correlation between academic success and intelligence test scores will be highest if computed for a group of individuals whose scores range between:

A)

55 and 100.

B)

85 and 115.

C)

100 and 145.

D)

70 and 130.



62.

The best indicator of infants' intellectual aptitude is their:

A)

readiness to crawl at an early age.

B)

capacity for imitating adult facial expressions.

C)

tendency to quickly shift their gaze from a familiar to a novel picture.

D)

ability to discriminate their mother's voice from that of a female stranger.

E)

head circumference at birth in relation to their total weight.



63.

In order for Mr. and Mrs. Goldberg to best predict their newborn daughter's future intellectual aptitude they should:

A)

carefully assess the infant's sensory and reflexive responses.

B)

observe their daughter's general level of emotional reactivity.

C)

obtain information about their own levels of intelligence.

D)

monitor the age at which their child first walks and talks.



64.

Intelligence scores are most likely to be stable over a one-year period for a ________ student whose intelligence test score is ________.

A)

preschool; 80

B)

second-grade; 125

C)

sixth-grade; 115

D)

tenth-grade; 95



65.

The highly positive correlations between scores received on comparable sections of the SAT and GRE provide evidence for the ________ of these test scores.

A)

reliability

B)

heritability

C)

content validity

D)

predictive validity

E)

normal distribution



66.

Mr. and Mrs. Linkletter are parents of a mentally retarded child. It is most likely that their child:

A)

is a female rather than a male.

B)

suffers obvious physical defects.

C)

was born with an extra chromosome.

D)

will have difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent adult life.



67.

Sasha is mildly mentally retarded. She has achieved the equivalent of a fifth-grade education and will soon begin vocational training so that she can earn a living. Sasha's intelligence score is most likely between:

A)

5 and 20.

B)

20 and 35.

C)

35 and 50.

D)

50 and 70.

E)

75 and 90.



68.

Individuals with Down syndrome are:

A)

unlikely to have difficulty in regular school classes.

B)

mentally retarded due to neglect during infancy.

C)

mentally retarded, except for one specific ability in which they excel.

D)

born with an extra chromosome.



69.

Grouping children in separate educational classes according to their level of intellectual aptitude tends to ________ their self-esteem and ________ their academic achievement.

A)

increase; increase

B)

increase; decrease

C)

decrease; decrease

D)

decrease; have little effect on

E)

increase; have little effect on



70.

“Gifted child” education programs are most likely to be criticized for:

A)

overemphasizing the genetic determinants of giftedness.

B)

limiting the concept of giftedness to superior academic aptitude.

C)

claiming that intelligence test scores can predict children's academic success.

D)

underestimating the extent to which a g factor underlies success in a wide variety of tasks.



71.

The similarity between the intelligence test scores of identical twins raised apart is:

A)

less than that between children and their biological parents.

B)

equal to that between identical twins reared together.

C)

equal to that between fraternal twins reared together.

D)

greater than that between ordinary siblings reared together.



72.

Which of the following observations provides the best evidence that intelligence test scores are influenced by heredity?

A)

Japanese children have higher average intelligence scores than American children.

B)

Fraternal twins are more similar in their intelligence scores than are ordinary siblings.

C)

The intelligence scores of children are positively correlated with the intelligence scores of their parents.

D)

Identical twins reared separately are more similar in their intelligence scores than fraternal twins reared together.



73.

Which pair of individuals is most likely to receive similar intelligence test scores?

A)

opposite-sex fraternal twins

B)

ordinary siblings of the same sex

C)

a mother and daughter

D)

a father and daughter



74.

The intelligence test scores of adopted children are least likely to be positively correlated with the scores of their adoptive siblings during:

A)

middle childhood.

B)

early adolescence.

C)

middle adolescence.

D)

early adulthood.



75.

With increasing age, adopted children's intelligence test scores become ________ positively correlated with their adoptive parents' scores and ________ positively correlated with their biological parent's scores.

A)

more; more

B)

less; less

C)

more; less

D)

less; more



76.

The heritability of intelligence refers to:

A)

the extent to which an individual's intelligence is attributable to genetic factors.

B)

the percentage of variation in intelligence within a group that is attributable to genetic factors.

C)

the extent to which a group's intelligence is attributable to genetic factors.

D)

a general underlying intelligence factor that is measured by every task on an intelligence test.



77.

If 10 genetically identical individuals were all raised in different homes, the heritability of intelligence for this group would be ________ percent.

A)

0

B)

10

C)

50

D)

100



78.

The heritability of intelligence is lowest among genetically ________ individuals who have been raised in ________ environments.

A)

similar; similar

B)

dissimilar; similar

C)

similar; dissimilar

D)

dissimilar; dissimilar



79.

The importance of environmental influences on intelligence is provided by evidence that:

A)

fraternal twins have more similar intelligence test scores than ordinary siblings.

B)

intellectual development of neglected children in impoverished environments is often retarded.

C)

Head Start programs for disadvantaged children can decrease the likelihood of their having to repeat a grade in school.

D)

all of the above are true.



80.

Research indicates that Head Start programs:

A)

contribute to dramatic and enduring gains in the participants' intelligence test scores.

B)

yield the greatest benefits for participants coming from intellectually stimulating home environments.

C)

reduce the likelihood that participants will repeat grades or require special education.

D)

do all of the above.



81.

Increasing years of schooling over the last half century have most likely contributed to:

A)

the eugenics movement.

B)

the Flynn effect.

C)

the normal curve.

D)

savant syndrome.



82.

Disproportionately more Whites than Blacks would be admitted into American colleges if performance scores on ________ were the only criterion for college admissions.

A)

the Stanford-Binet

B)

the WAIS

C)

the SAT

D)

any of the above



83.

On average, the intelligence test scores of the Wallonians are much higher than those of the Danasians. The difference in the average test scores of the two groups might be a product of:

A)

genetic differences between two groups with similar environments.

B)

environmental differences between two groups with similar genetics.

C)

genetic and environmental differences between the two groups.

D)

any of the above.



84.

Research on racial and ethnic differences in intelligence indicates that:

A)

desegregation has actually decreased the academic achievement of black American children.

B)

the average mathematics achievement test scores of Asian children are notably higher than those of North American children.

C)

among American Blacks, those with African ancestry receive the highest intelligence test scores.

D)

the Black-White difference in SAT scores has increased since 1979.

E)

all of the above are true.



85.

The average difference in intellectual aptitude scores of white and black college graduates has been observed to be greatest when these individuals were:

A)

eighth graders.

B)

high school juniors.

C)

college sophomores.

D)

college seniors.



86.

Girls are most likely to outperform boys in a(n):

A)

spelling bee.

B)

math test.

C)

computer programming contest.

D)

chess tournament.



87.

Boys outnumber girls at the ________ levels of reading ability and at the ________ levels of mathematical problem-solving ability.

A)

high; low

B)

low; low

C)

high; high

D)

low; high



88.

Boys are most likely to outnumber girls in a class designed for students gifted in:

A)

reading.

B)

speech.

C)

mathematics.

D)

a foreign language.



89.

Boys are most likely to outperform girls in a(n):

A)

essay contest.

B)

chess tournament.

C)

speed-reading tournament.

D)

spelling bee.

E)

speech-giving contest.



90.

Exposure to high levels of male sex hormones during prenatal development is most likely to facilitate the subsequent development of:

A)

the g factor.

B)

savant syndrome.

C)

spatial abilities.

D)

Down syndrome.

E)

emotional intelligence.



91.

Research on gender and emotional intelligence suggests that women are more skilled than men at:

A)

avoiding the experience of emotional ambivalence.

B)

preventing emotions from distorting reasoning.

C)

interpreting others' facial expressions of emotion.

D)

delaying emotional gratification in pursuit of long-term goals.



92.

Most experts would agree that intelligence tests are “biased” in the sense that:

A)

test performance is influenced by cultural experiences.

B)

the reliability of intelligence tests is close to zero.

C)

the heritability of intelligence is 100 percent.

D)

numerical scores of intelligence serve to dehumanize individuals.



93.

Experts who defend intelligence tests against the charge of being culturally biased and discriminatory would be most likely to highlight the ________ of intelligence tests.

A)

normal distribution

B)

content validity

C)

predictive validity

D)

reliability

E)

standardization



94.

When completing a verbal aptitude test, members of an ethnic minority group are particularly likely to perform below their true ability levels if they believe that the test:

A)

is a measure of emotional intelligence as well as academic intelligence.

B)

assesses their interests as well as their abilities.

C)

is biased against members of their own ethnic group.

D)

results in a distribution of scores that form a bell-shaped curve.



95.

Intelligence tests have effectively reduced discrimination in the sense that they have:

A)

avoided questions that require familiarity with any specific culture.

B)

helped limit reliance on educators' subjectively biased judgments of students' academic potential.

C)

provided an objective measure of teaching effectiveness in different public school systems.

D)

done all of the above.


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