Binder Check!!

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Binder Check!!

  • Please have your binders on your desk. The 4 sections need to be labeled:
  • -Notes
  • -tests/quizzes
  • -Review
  • -Essays
  • If you are missing dividers get a 4th period class to get some on Wednesday!

Tweety Tuesday

  • 1st person writes three #hashtags
  • 2nd person writes 3 sentences explaining the significance of ONE of the #hashtags
  • Today’s Topic:
  • Watertown, NY

Taking Notes

  • I will give you guided note packets for the year. This are full of information and must be kept in your binders
  • Some slides you will need to take notes on, others you wont. Pay attention to the upper left hand corner for a pencil icon.

Write notes!!!

  • Slides with the pencil icon have blanks that you must fill in, or questions that you must answer on your note sheets.

No notes needed

  • Some slides are meant to increase your understanding of a topic. These slides may have a different activity but will not have notes. If there is no pencil, you don’t need to take notes, but must pay attention!
  • Ex: What was the note on the previous slide you needed to complete?
  • Pencil

Global Studies 9

  • Who studies history?

Studying History

  • Many different groups of people study history:
  • -Archaeologists- find and analyze physical remains and artifacts (objects made by humans)
  • -Anthropologists- study humans and the societies they created
  • -Geographists- study people, their environment and the resources available to them.


  • Archaeologists study the human remains and artifacts from the past.
  • They also study the technology, or the skills and tools people used to meet their basic needs.
  • Technology from pre-history often includes rough stone tools and animal skin clothes.


  • Theme: Relationship between people, places, and environments over time
  • Geography includes how we have altered the environment to match our needs
  • *Dams to slow water and prevent floods
  • *Canals to transport goods quickly
  • *Irrigation ditches to water plants
  • *Terrace farming in the mountains


  • Theme: Relationship between people, places, and environments over time
  • Geography also includes how the environment affects humans
  • Can you think of a way our environment affects us in Northern NY?


  • We have 5 main ways we examine geography
  • Location
  • Longitude and Latitude
  • Place
  • The physical features such as mountains, water, climate and resources
  • Human environment interaction
  • How we are and have shaped the environment (dams)
  • Movement
  • Trade, Migration and cultural diffusion
  • Region
  • Unifying characteristics that unite a region (Atlantic coast states)

2 Types of Maps

  • Topographic- the physical features of a place or region
  • Political- shows the borders of countries and nations


  • The Earth is also split into several hemispheres: Northern and Southern/ Western and Eastern
  • A Hemisphere is created by cutting the globe in half
  • Western
  • Eastern
  • Northern
  • Southern


  • Climate is the average weather in a region
  • Tropical
  • Near the equator; tropical rainforests
  • Mid latitude
  • Variety of weather changes with season. (North America and Europe)
  • High latitude
  • Polar regions, very cold
  • Dry
  • Less than 10 inches rain/year; hot during the day, cold at night
  • What Climate zone does this picture represent?


  • A topographical map would most likely be used to:
    • identify the major agricultural products of Egypt
    • determine the population of Beijing, China
    • estimate the elevation of Kabul, Afghanistan
    • count the number of provinces in India


  • The study of people, their environment, and their resources is:
    • 1. archaeology
    • 2. anthropology
    • 3. geography
    • 4. sociology


  • The time before written records

Early People

  • Evidence suggests the earliest humans came from East Africa
  • Humans then migrated to Europe and Asia
  • Migrate: the movement of people from one area to another

Paleolithic Age

  • Paleolithic means Old Stone Age. Humans in this time had very simple tools made of stone.
  • Hunters and Gatherers- food came from hunting animals and gathering berries and fruits as they ripened
  • People were nomads- moving to follow herds and plant ripening
  • The Climate was very cold, the world was mostly covered in glaciers, or large sheets of ice

Life in Paleolithic Age

  • It was difficult to survive in the cold weather. Nomadic groups of 20-30 banded together, taking shelter in caves during the cold seasons
  • Usually men hunted while women and children gathered.
  • Most people died before the age of 30
  • Cave Art depicts animals that were hunted
  • After reading the image below, what was the “thing” they were making?

Prehistory: The time before written Records

  • How can we study Pre-history if there are no written records?

Archaeologist evidence

  • The Paleolithic era is part of prehistory- before writing
  • To study events from so long ago we use artifacts and human remains
  • Archaeologists have discovered many graves with tools, pots, supplies and human remains.
  • Artifact: Objects made by humans

Science and Technology

  • Theme: Tools and methods used by people to get what they need and want
  • What types of technology did Paleolithic people have?
  • Stone arrow heads for hunting
  • Pots for cooking
  • Baskets for gathering


  • Sketch a scene of life in the Paleolithic Age

Neolithic Revolution

  • Revolution= Change
  • Around 10,000 years ago early people began to change from hunting and gathering to farming and herding.
  • This period is known as the Neolithic Revolution

Neolithic Revolution

Change and Turning Points

  • Theme: Basic alterations in events, things and ideas
  • What is the basic alteration of the Neolithic Revolution?
  • Humans stopped migrating and settled in one place.

Life in Neolithic Age

  • Villages are established
  • Women took care of home, men farmed and took care of animals
  • Some groups domesticated animals in closed pens, others herded them to green pastures.
  • The rank of men increased over women
  • Read “The Changing Ways of Life” on page 12 of your blue books (under the desk)

Effects of the Neolithic Revolution

  • People lived longer
  • Steady source of food increased
  • Population increased
  • Civilizations started to develop

Compare and Contrast

  • Paleolithic
  • Neolithic

Skara Brae

  • Read pages 11-12 to learn about Skara Brae, an ancient village that developed during the Neolithic Revolution.
  • Explain why cooperation would be essential to survival in Neolithic Villages like Skara Brae
  • Identify two forms of technology the people of Skara Brae developed. What was one they were missing?


  • What types of changes do you think occurred because of the Neolithic Revolution?
  • -Surplus food
  • -improved health
  • -permanent shelters
  • -women’s status declines
  • -Trade and interaction
  • Increase population

Crash Course: Neolithic Revolution

  • As the video plays write down 3 things about the Neolithic Revolution and how it changed life

Villages Cities  Civilizations

Features of Civilizations

  • Civilizations all have 8 basic features
  • Cities
  • Well-organized central governments
  • Complex religions
  • Job specialization
  • Social classes
  • Arts and architecture
  • Public works
  • Writing


  • As farmers were able to produce surplus food populations grew. Villages became cities as their populations continued to grow.

Organized Government

  • Governments were responsible for
  • -issuing laws
  • -collecting taxes
  • -ensuring a steady and sufficient food supply
  • -organizing defense
  • .
  • Bureaucracy developed: officials would oversee various duties such as farming production, animal husbandry, road repair
  • During the Paleolithic Age governments were led by the tribe elders, who had the most experience. In the Neolithic Age Warrior Kings fought to gain and maintain power

Complex Religions

  • Most ancient religions were polytheistic, meaning they believed in many gods. Many gods were based around nature such as Sun gods, river goddesses, and animal spirits. Others were based around human activities such as war gods.
  • To appease the gods people built temples and made sacrifices. Priests were specially trained in rituals, knowledge and ceremonies to keep the favor of the gods.

Job Specialization

  • As cities continued to grow, so did their “To-do-list”. Urban people developed numerous skills to help them maintain their cities and evolving lifestyles:
  • -Artisans were skilled craft workers who made pottery, tools, and other goods.
  • -Bricklayers built city walls and buildings
  • -Soldiers defended cities
  • -Farmers worked the land

Social Classes

  • People were ranked according to their jobs.
  • Wealthy merchants
  • Artisans
  • Peasant farmers
  • Slaves
  • Nobles- wealthy families with ties to the king
  • Label the pyramid on your papers

Egyptian Social classes

Arts and Architecture

  • To emphasize the power of the government, the rulers would commission grand buildings such as temples and palaces.

Public Works

  • Rulers would order projects to benefit the city by protecting it from attack and ensuring a steady food supply. Such projects included irrigation systems, roads, bridges, and defensive walls.
  • What is the purpose of the system pictured to the right?
  • Irrigation- bringing water to the plants away from the water source


  • Writing has developed over time from pictograms to letters. Pictograms are simple drawings that show the words they represent. In time symbols were added for ideas that could not easily be drawn.
  • Only a select few, called scribes, learned to read and write.
  • Would scribes be in a low, mid or high social class? Why?
  • Scribe: people who learned to read and write


  • What social class would it be unlikely for a Scribe to come from?
  • Priests
  • Nobles
  • Merchants
  • Farmers


  • Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Neolithic Age?
  • Villages
  • Farming
  • Nomads
  • Job Specialization

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