Barron’s Ch. 1 (Mods 1+4+5) History and Approaches
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Trephination: Stone age human remains found with holes in skull to release evil spirits Max Werthheimer: Gestalt psychologist who argued against dividing human thought into “structures” Gestaltists believe the whole person is more than the sum of its parts Evolutionary Perspective : (sociobiology) Views behavior in terms of “natural selection” or “Darwinism” Socio- Cultural Perspective: Emphasize importance of culture on personality development Biopsychology Perspective: (neuroscience) study how thoughts are influenced by genes, hormones, neurotransmitters Barron’s Ch 2 (Part 1) (Mod 2) Research Methods Stratified Sampling: Process to better ensure representation of the population being studied. Ex. 50%male/50% female, 60%white/20% Hispanic/20% Black Confounding Variable: any difference between the the experimental and control conditions except for the independent variable that might affect the dependent variable Random assignment controls for Subject Relevant Confounding Variable (does not allow subjects to select their own group) Situation-Relevant Confounding Variable occurs when the situation groups are placed in aren’t equivalent (except for independent variable) Single Blind: when only the subjects do not know if they are in experimental or control group minimizes effects of , demand characteristics , and response/subject bias social desirability Barron’s Ch 2 (Part 2) (Mod 2) Research Methods Hawthorne Effect: Changes in experimental group attributed simply to the fact that they know they are in an experiment Counterbalancing: Using subjects as their own control group Ex. Test group for IQ level under normal conditions then put group under stress and test again for changes Counterbalancing controls for “ ” (half the subjects test under stress first, other half does the opposite) order effect Z- Scores: a statistical measure of the distance of a score from the “mean” in units of standard deviation. (+.5 = Std. Dev. of +.5) P-Value: (Probability) determines extent to which experiment results could have occurred by chance. (P=.05, is 5% probability) Institutional Review Board (IRB): Reviews research proposals for possible ethical violations and/or procedural errors. Barron’s Ch 3 (Part 1) (Mods 3+4) Biological Bases of Behavior Acetylcholine (ACH): Motor movement, Too little= Alzheimers Dopamine: Movement/Alertness, Too little ... Parkinson’s Too Much ... Positive Schizophrenia symptoms Endorphins: Pain control ... involved in addictions Serotonin: Mood Control, Too little ... Depression Afferent Neurons = Sensory ; Efferent Neurons = Motor Hindbrain: Top of spinal chord,(medulla, pons, cerebellum) Midbrain: Just above spinal chord, (between hindbrain and forebrain), integrates sensory and muscle movement, includes Reticular Formation that controls arousal and consciousness Forebrain: Main structures that control thoughts/reasoning, (thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala +cerebrum) Limbic System: Involved with memory/emotion; (thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala) Barron’s Ch 3 (Part 2) (Mods 3+4) Biological Bases of Behavior Contralateral Control: Left hemisphere of brain controls right side of body and vice versa like visual cortex Auditory cortex is not contralateralized Hemispheric Specialization: (brain lateralization) Left side is more active during logic/sequential tasks/speech while right side may be more active during spatial/creative tasks Top of the sensory/motor cortex receives/sends signals from the bottom of the body and progresses up the body as you move higher up on the cortex Turner’s Syndrome: Babies with only one “X” chromosome; Klinefelter’s Syndrome: Babies with “XXY” chromosome; Down’s Syndrome: Extra chromosome on 21st pair; round face, short fingers, slanted eyes, mentally retarded Barron’s Ch 4 (Mods 11-16) Sensation and Perception (review sensation/perception textbook slides) Thalamus: Brain part that routes incoming sensations to brain Signal Detection Theory: Depends on a person’s motivation called Response Criteria or Receiver Operating Characteristics False Positive/Negative: erroneous sensations/perceptions Muller-Lyer Illusion: Barron’s Ch 5 (Mods 17+18+19 ) States of Consciousness Levels of Consciousness: Conscious = Fully Aware; Nonconscious = Autonomic N.S.; Preconscious = Info not currently in conscious mind but could easily be retrieved; Subconscious = Drives some behavior (priming…mere exposure) but not on a conscious level; Unconscious = Freudian repression of unacceptable feelings/memories. Paradoxical Sleep; REM sleep; brain waves similar to awake : Freudian … manifest/latent Key Dream Theories content ; Activation Synthesis; Information Processing (memory builder) : Role play = hypnotically suggestible; State theory = Become more/less aware of environment; Hilgard’s DissociationTheory = Divide our consciousness Hypnosis Theories Thicker walls surround blood vessels in brain to protect it from harmful chemicals in blood Drug Blood Brain Barrier: Reverse Tolerance: May occur with psychedelics when second dose is less than the first but has greater effect Barron’s Ch 6 (Part 1) (Mods 21+22+23) Principles of Learning Types of Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian): Delayed Conditioning: Present the CS first then present the US while the CS is still evident (most effective method) Trace Conditioning: Present CS… short break,,, then US Simultaneous Conditioning: CS/US presented together Backward Conditioning: US first... then CS (ineffective) Second (Higher) Order Conditioning: (Ex.) Condition dog to salivate to a light, then pair light with a bell (no food) and dog will eventually salivate to the bell (never paired with food) Garcia/Koelling illustrated “ Biological Preparedness” in classical conditioning of rats. Rats easily associated noise with shock and unusual tasting water with nausea but not the reverse Token Economy: Used in prisons/mental hospitals/schools Premack Principle: preferred activity can be used to reinforce an activity that is not preferred. (Ex. Eat Apple Vs. Play Piano) Barron’s Ch 6 (Part 2) (Mods 21+22+23) Principles of Learning Instinctive Drift: Tendency for animals to refuse rewards for new behaviors in order to pursue their natural behaviors Contingency Vs. Contiguity Model of Classical Conditioning Contiguity model (Pavlov) argues that the more times two things are paired the greater the learning that occurs Contingency model (Robert Rescorla) revises Pavlov’s model to include cognition’s impact on conditioning Ex. A dog gets 10 consecutive pairings, another gets 10 pairings mixed with 5 non-pairings (both get 10) Latent Learning: Tolman demonstrated that even if rats are not reinforced while wandering through a maze they were able to learn maze quicker than other rats (once reinforcement began) Abstract Learning: Animals have demonstrated ability to learn “concepts” (tree, chair) rather than simply securing a reward Insight Learning: Chimpanzees suddenly able to learn how to solve problem without gradual reinforcement (banana on string) Barron’s Ch 7 (Mods 23-27) Cognition 3 Box Info. Processing Model: Sensory/Short term/Long term Levels of Processing Model: memory ability based on how deeply (elaboratively) or shallowly (maintenance) its processed Tip-of-the-Tongue phenomenon: Temp inability to remember Semantic Network Theory: Memories connected by context Constructed Memory (Loftus): False memory...Confabulation Anterograde Amnesia: Caused by damage to Hippocampus, person may learn new skills but not remember when, indicates procedural (skill) memory may be stored in cerebrum vs hippo Nativist Theory of Language Acquisition: Chomsky’s theory that humans have a making it easier for children to learn language at younger ages Language Acquisition Device Linguistic Relativity (Determinism) Hypothesis: B. Whorf’s theory that language controls/limits thinking/intelligence Convergent Thinking: Search for one solution (use logic) Divergent Thinking: Search for multiple solutions (creative) Barron’s Ch 8 (Mods 33-34-35-36-37-38) Motivation & Emotion Primary Drive = Biological need; Secondary = Learned Drive Yerkes-Dodson Law: High level arousal best for easy task etc Garcia Effect: Nausea paired with food causes food aversion Theory “X”: People work for reward or to avoid punishment Theory “Y”: People are internally motivated to do good work Approach-Approach Conflict: Choose between 2 desired things Avoidance- Avoidance: Choose between 2 undesirable things Approach- Avoidance: Goal has attractive/unattractive features Multiple Approach- Avoidance: Many good/bad features Holmes/Rahe “Social Readjustment Rating Scale” = Stress Test Masters/Johnson: Sex: Excitement/Plateau/Orgasm/Resolution General Adaptation Syndrome: Hans Seyle’s theory of how animals/humans respond to stressful events 1. = Sympathetic N.S. 2. Alarm Reaction = Physical readiness to meet threat 3. Resistance = Parasympathetic N.S. Exhaustion Barron’s Ch 9 (Mods 7-8-9-10) Developmental Psychology Babies only see about 12 inches out at birth; full range by 12 mo. Harlow’s monkey preferred soft surrogate mom vs. wire/food Mary Ainsworth studied “secure/avoidant/anxious” attachments Stage Theories: Critics argue about “continuity” vs. “stage” Dev. Eric Erickson(Neo-Freudian): Trust/Mistrust; Autonomy/Shame; Initiative/Guilt; Industry/Inferiority; Identity/Role Confusion; Intimacy/Isolation; Generativity/Stagnation; Integrity/Despair Jean Piaget: Sensorimotor (0-2); Preoperational (2-7); Concrete Operational (8-12); Formal Operational (12- thru adulthood) Concept of Conservation: object properties remain the same Information Processing Model: Continuous alternative to Piaget Rooting (Cheek); Sucking (mouth); Grasping (Hand); Moro (Startle); Babinski (Foot); All these reflexes lost with age Reflexes: Kohlberg/Morals: Preconventional/Conventional/Post Conven Carol Gilligan: Argued against Kohlberg, believed M/F morality is different. Barron’s Ch 10 (Mods 41-42-43-44 ) Personality Theories “Type A” Personality: Rushed; easily angered, competitive “Type B” Personality: Relaxed;easygoing;lower risk heart attack Defense Mechanisms: Repression; Displacement; Projection; Reaction Formation; Regression; Rationalization; Sublimation; Denial: Not accepting the truth Intellectualization: Taking academic, unemotional approach Carl Jung: Collective ; Unconscious Complexes in unconscious Alfred Adler: Ego psych- focused on inferiority/superiority Trait Theories: Nomothetic Approach believes a basic set of traits can describe someone’s personality (Ideographic does not) Hans Eyensenck used intro/extroversion and stable/unstable “Big Five” traits (“OCEAN”) Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness, Emotional Stability (Neurotic) Factor Analysis: Correlates clusters of traits (Extraversion) George Kelly: Past personality predicts future personality Barron’s Ch 11 (Mods 30-31-32) Testing+ Individual Differences Reliability: Consistency of measurement (Split half, test-retest) Validity: Measures what it is supposed to (accuracy of a test) Concurrent Validity: Measures current characteristics (Now) Predictive Validity: Measures qualities of future performance Speed Test: Lots of questions with little time to complete Power Test: Items of increasing difficulty levels (SAT, AP) Fluid (Youth) Vs. Crystallized (Adults) Intelligence Spearmen’s “G” Factor: Underlies all other types of intelligence Thurstone/Guilford/Gardner Postulate many(7-100) intelligences Goleman: “EQ”, Emotional Intelligence (Social Skills) Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory: Analytic/ Experiential(Creative) /Practical IQ Tests: Stanford-Binet/Weschler(WAIS/WISC) (Z Score=15) Statistically = “ Testing Bias: NO”, Politically = “ Yes” “ ” Within group difference greater than between group difference Barron’s Ch 12 (Mods 45-46-47-48-49) Abnormal Psychology DSM-IV_TR: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Types: Anxiety; Mood(Affective); Dissociative; Schizophrenia Somatoform: Show psych. problems with physical symptoms Hypochondriac; Conversion Disorder = paralysis, blind, deaf, (not real) Beck’s “Cognitive Triad” Theory: Depression from negative ideas about Themselves, Their World, Their Future. (External) Schizophrenia’s Origin: Biological or Environmental? Dopamine Hypothesis: High levels linked->positive symptoms Low dopamine may cause “tardive dyskinesia”(Parkinson’s) Double Binds: Schizo’s experienced contradictory messages Personality Disorders: O-C, Dependent, Narcissistic, Histronic etc Paraphilias: Sexually based psychological Disorders ... pedophile, zoophilia, fetishism, voyeur, masochist, sadist Rosenhan Study (Labels): Confederates fake Schizo, were admitted to mental hospitals, then no symptoms. All diagnosed as Schizo Barron’s Ch 13 (Mods 50-51-52) Treatment of Disorders Psychoanalytic Treatments: Insight into “unconscious” causes Free Assoc, Hypnosis, TAT, Rorschach, Dream analysis, Humanistic: Free will, Client centered, Unconditional Positive Regard Gestalt Therapy: Get in touch with the present “whole body/self” (Perls) Existential Therapy: Help clients get in touch with “purpose of life” Behavioral: Counterconditioning, Systematic Desensitization (relax) Cognitive Therapies: Seek to change unhealthy thinking patterns Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)(A. Ellis): Teach client that failure is unlikely, and not a big deal if they fail Beck’s “Cognitive Triad”; explains depression as a person’s negative perception of 1) Themselves, 2) Their world, 3) Their future Somatic Therapies: Psychopharmacology/Chemotherapy/ECT Schizo = Thorazine / Haldol; Anxiety = Barbituates (Valium / Zanax) Depression = MAOIs, SSRIs, (Prozac/Zoloft); Bipolar = Lithium Barron’s Ch 14 (Mods 53-54-55 ) Social Psychology Attitudes: Say Vs. Do: Stereotype: Prejudice: Discrimination. Ethnocentrism: viewing others from your personal ethnic viewpoint Compliance Strategies:Foot-in-Door; Door-in-Face; Reciprocity Norms Person Stable/ Unstable Attribution: Is the behavior routine or an exception? Situation Stable/Unstable Attribution: Is situation routine or an exception? Fundamental Attribution Error: Less likely collectivist cultures (False Consensus:Just World Bias:Self-Serving Bias: Self Fulfilling) Out-Group Homogeneity: Out-group less-diverse than in-group Contact Theory:Hostile groups work at “ Super-ordinate Goal” Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis:Frustration sparks aggression Instrumental Aggression: Intended to secure a particular goal Hostile Aggression: Has no clear purpose other than expression Prosocial Behavior: Helping others ( ) Bystander Intervention Genovese (NYC): “Diffusion of Responsibility”& “Pluralistic Ignorance” to others is based on Attraction “similarity - proximity - reciprocal liking” Asch’s conformity study - Milgram’s controversial obedience study Barron’s Ch 15 AP Multiple Choice Tips Try to answer question before looking at choices Read “All Choices” before choosing Cross out definitely incorrect choices Guess only if you can eliminate (2) choice(s) Make Intelligent Guesses Use common sense Use your general knowledge of psychology to guess Avoid extreme choices (Always, Never, All, Everyone) Be wary of choices that are too similar to each other Mark questions you absolutely don’t know and don’t return Mark those you wish to double check, time permitting Remember “Yerkes-Dodson” Effect (Arousal) Barron’s Ch 16 AP Essay Writing Hints Underline/circle critical parts of the question Use 2-3 minutes to create a short outline on scrap paper Use short paras to answer each point (Don’t number/letter) Answer question in order asked (Leave space between points) Write clearly (penmanship) and clearly label inserts Be thorough but keep it simple using psychological terms Use all allotted time by adding to what you have written Keep an eye on the clock … Answer points you know first
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