Barron’s Ch. 1 (Mods 1+4+5) History and Approaches



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  • Trephination: Stone age human remains found with holes in skull to release evil spirits
  • Max Werthheimer: Gestalt psychologist who argued against dividing human thought into “structures”
    • Gestaltists believe the whole person is more than the sum of its parts
  • Evolutionary Perspective : (sociobiology) Views behavior in terms of “natural selection” or “Darwinism”
  • Socio- Cultural Perspective: Emphasize importance of culture on personality development
  • Biopsychology Perspective: (neuroscience) study how thoughts are influenced by genes, hormones, neurotransmitters
  • Barron’s Ch 2 (Part 1) (Mod 2)
  • Research Methods
  • Stratified Sampling: Process to better ensure representation of the population being studied. Ex. 50%male/50% female, 60%white/20% Hispanic/20% Black
  • Confounding Variable: any difference between the the experimental and control conditions except for the independent variable that might affect the dependent variable
    • Random assignment controls for Subject Relevant Confounding Variable (does not allow subjects to select their own group)
    • Situation-Relevant Confounding Variable occurs when the situation groups are placed in aren’t equivalent (except for independent variable)
  • Single Blind: when only the subjects do not know if they are in experimental or control group
    • minimizes effects of demand characteristics, response/subject bias, and social desirability
  • Barron’s Ch 2 (Part 2) (Mod 2)
  • Research Methods
  • Hawthorne Effect: Changes in experimental group attributed simply to the fact that they know they are in an experiment
  • Counterbalancing: Using subjects as their own control group
    • Ex. Test group for IQ level under normal conditions then put group under stress and test again for changes
    • Counterbalancing controls for “order effect” (half the subjects test under stress first, other half does the opposite)
  • Z- Scores: a statistical measure of the distance of a score from the “mean” in units of standard deviation. (+.5 = Std. Dev. of +.5)
  • P-Value: (Probability) determines extent to which experiment results could have occurred by chance. (P=.05, is 5% probability)
  • Institutional Review Board (IRB): Reviews research proposals for possible ethical violations and/or procedural errors.
  • Barron’s Ch 3 (Part 1) (Mods 3+4)
  • Biological Bases of Behavior
  • Acetylcholine (ACH): Motor movement, Too little= Alzheimers
  • Dopamine: Movement/Alertness, Too little ... Parkinson’s Too Much ... Positive Schizophrenia symptoms
  • Endorphins: Pain control ... involved in addictions
  • Serotonin: Mood Control, Too little ... Depression
  • Afferent Neurons = Sensory ; Efferent Neurons = Motor
  • Hindbrain: Top of spinal chord,(medulla, pons, cerebellum)
  • Midbrain: Just above spinal chord, (between hindbrain and forebrain), integrates sensory and muscle movement, includes Reticular Formation that controls arousal and consciousness
  • Forebrain: Main structures that control thoughts/reasoning, (thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala +cerebrum)
  • Limbic System: Involved with memory/emotion; (thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala)
  • Barron’s Ch 3 (Part 2) (Mods 3+4)
  • Biological Bases of Behavior
  • Contralateral Control: Left hemisphere of brain controls right side of body and vice versa
    • Auditory cortex is not contralateralized like visual cortex
  • Hemispheric Specialization: (brain lateralization) Left side is more active during logic/sequential tasks/speech while right side may be more active during spatial/creative tasks
  • Top of the sensory/motor cortex receives/sends signals from the bottom of the body and progresses up the body as you move higher up on the cortex
  • Turner’s Syndrome: Babies with only one “X” chromosome;
  • Klinefelter’s Syndrome: Babies with “XXY” chromosome;
  • Down’s Syndrome: Extra chromosome on 21st pair; round face, short fingers, slanted eyes, mentally retarded
  • Barron’s Ch 4 (Mods 11-16)
  • Sensation and Perception
  • (review sensation/perception textbook slides)
  • Thalamus: Brain part that routes incoming sensations to brain
  • Signal Detection Theory: Depends on a person’s motivation called Response Criteria or Receiver Operating Characteristics
    • False Positive/Negative: erroneous sensations/perceptions
  • Muller-Lyer Illusion:
  • Barron’s Ch 5 (Mods 17+18+19 )
  • States of Consciousness
  • Levels of Consciousness: Conscious = Fully Aware; Nonconscious = Autonomic N.S.; Preconscious = Info not currently in conscious mind but could easily be retrieved; Subconscious = Drives some behavior (priming…mere exposure) but not on a conscious level; Unconscious = Freudian repression of unacceptable feelings/memories.
  • Paradoxical Sleep; REM sleep; brain waves similar to awake
  • Key Dream Theories: Freudian … manifest/latent content ; Activation Synthesis; Information Processing (memory builder)
  • Hypnosis Theories: Role play = hypnotically suggestible; State theory = Become more/less aware of environment; Hilgard’s DissociationTheory = Divide our consciousness
  • Drug Blood Brain Barrier: Thicker walls surround blood vessels in brain to protect it from harmful chemicals in blood
  • Reverse Tolerance: May occur with psychedelics when second dose is less than the first but has greater effect
  • Barron’s Ch 6 (Part 1) (Mods 21+22+23)
  • Principles of Learning
  • Types of Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian):
    • Delayed Conditioning: Present the CS first then present the US while the CS is still evident (most effective method)
    • Trace Conditioning: Present CS… short break,,, then US
    • Simultaneous Conditioning: CS/US presented together
    • Backward Conditioning: US first... then CS (ineffective)
  • Second (Higher) Order Conditioning: (Ex.) Condition dog to salivate to a light, then pair light with a bell (no food) and dog will eventually salivate to the bell (never paired with food)
  • Garcia/Koelling illustrated “Biological Preparedness” in classical conditioning of rats. Rats easily associated noise with shock and unusual tasting water with nausea but not the reverse
  • Token Economy: Used in prisons/mental hospitals/schools
  • Premack Principle: preferred activity can be used to reinforce an activity that is not preferred. (Ex. Eat Apple Vs. Play Piano)
  • Barron’s Ch 6 (Part 2) (Mods 21+22+23)
  • Principles of Learning
  • Instinctive Drift: Tendency for animals to refuse rewards for new behaviors in order to pursue their natural behaviors
  • Contingency Vs. Contiguity Model of Classical Conditioning
    • Contiguity model (Pavlov) argues that the more times two things are paired the greater the learning that occurs
    • Contingency model (Robert Rescorla) revises Pavlov’s model to include cognition’s impact on conditioning
      • Ex. A dog gets 10 consecutive pairings, another gets 10 pairings mixed with 5 non-pairings (both get 10)
  • Latent Learning: Tolman demonstrated that even if rats are not reinforced while wandering through a maze they were able to learn maze quicker than other rats (once reinforcement began)
  • Abstract Learning: Animals have demonstrated ability to learn “concepts” (tree, chair) rather than simply securing a reward
  • Insight Learning: Chimpanzees suddenly able to learn how to solve problem without gradual reinforcement (banana on string)
  • Barron’s Ch 7 (Mods 23-27)
  • Cognition
  • 3 Box Info. Processing Model: Sensory/Short term/Long term
  • Levels of Processing Model: memory ability based on how deeply (elaboratively) or shallowly (maintenance) its processed
  • Tip-of-the-Tongue phenomenon: Temp inability to remember
  • Semantic Network Theory: Memories connected by context
  • Constructed Memory (Loftus): False memory...Confabulation
  • Anterograde Amnesia: Caused by damage to Hippocampus, person may learn new skills but not remember when, indicates procedural (skill) memory may be stored in cerebrum vs hippo
  • Nativist Theory of Language Acquisition: Chomsky’s theory that humans have a Language Acquisition Device making it easier for children to learn language at younger ages
  • Linguistic Relativity (Determinism) Hypothesis: B. Whorf’s theory that language controls/limits thinking/intelligence
  • Convergent Thinking: Search for one solution (use logic)
  • Divergent Thinking: Search for multiple solutions (creative)
  • Barron’s Ch 8 (Mods 33-34-35-36-37-38)
  • Motivation & Emotion
  • Primary Drive = Biological need; Secondary = Learned Drive
  • Yerkes-Dodson Law: High level arousal best for easy task etc
  • Garcia Effect: Nausea paired with food causes food aversion
  • Theory “X”: People work for reward or to avoid punishment
  • Theory “Y”: People are internally motivated to do good work
  • Approach-Approach Conflict: Choose between 2 desired things
  • Avoidance- Avoidance: Choose between 2 undesirable things
  • Approach- Avoidance: Goal has attractive/unattractive features
  • Multiple Approach- Avoidance: Many good/bad features
  • Holmes/Rahe “Social Readjustment Rating Scale” = Stress Test
  • Masters/Johnson: Sex: Excitement/Plateau/Orgasm/Resolution
  • General Adaptation Syndrome: Hans Seyle’s theory of how animals/humans respond to stressful events
  • 1. Alarm Reaction = Sympathetic N.S. 2. Resistance = Physical readiness to meet threat 3. Exhaustion = Parasympathetic N.S.
  • Barron’s Ch 9 (Mods 7-8-9-10)
  • Developmental Psychology
  • Babies only see about 12 inches out at birth; full range by 12 mo.
  • Harlow’s monkey preferred soft surrogate mom vs. wire/food
  • Mary Ainsworth studied “secure/avoidant/anxious” attachments
  • Stage Theories: Critics argue about “continuity” vs. “stage” Dev.
  • Eric Erickson(Neo-Freudian): Trust/Mistrust; Autonomy/Shame; Initiative/Guilt; Industry/Inferiority; Identity/Role Confusion; Intimacy/Isolation; Generativity/Stagnation; Integrity/Despair
  • Jean Piaget: Sensorimotor (0-2); Preoperational (2-7); Concrete Operational (8-12); Formal Operational (12- thru adulthood)
    • Concept of Conservation: object properties remain the same
  • Information Processing Model: Continuous alternative to Piaget
  • Reflexes: Rooting (Cheek); Sucking (mouth); Grasping (Hand); Moro (Startle); Babinski (Foot); All these reflexes lost with age
  • Kohlberg/Morals: Preconventional/Conventional/Post Conven
  • Carol Gilligan: Argued against Kohlberg, believed M/F morality is different.
  • Barron’s Ch 10 (Mods 41-42-43-44 )
  • Personality Theories
  • “Type A” Personality: Rushed; easily angered, competitive
  • “Type B” Personality: Relaxed;easygoing;lower risk heart attack
  • Defense Mechanisms: Repression; Displacement; Projection; Reaction Formation; Regression; Rationalization; Sublimation;
    • Denial: Not accepting the truth
    • Intellectualization: Taking academic, unemotional approach
  • Carl Jung: Collective Unconscious; Complexes in unconscious
  • Alfred Adler: Ego psych- focused on inferiority/superiority
  • Trait Theories: Nomothetic Approach believes a basic set of traits can describe someone’s personality (Ideographic does not)
  • Hans Eyensenck used intro/extroversion and stable/unstable
  • “Big Five” traits (“OCEAN”) Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness, Emotional Stability (Neurotic)
  • Factor Analysis: Correlates clusters of traits (Extraversion)
  • George Kelly: Past personality predicts future personality
  • Barron’s Ch 11 (Mods 30-31-32)
  • Testing+ Individual Differences
  • Reliability: Consistency of measurement (Split half, test-retest)
  • Validity: Measures what it is supposed to (accuracy of a test)
    • Concurrent Validity: Measures current characteristics (Now)
    • Predictive Validity: Measures qualities of future performance
  • Speed Test: Lots of questions with little time to complete
  • Power Test: Items of increasing difficulty levels (SAT, AP)
  • Fluid (Youth) Vs. Crystallized (Adults) Intelligence
  • Spearmen’s “G” Factor: Underlies all other types of intelligence
  • Thurstone/Guilford/Gardner Postulate many(7-100) intelligences
  • Goleman: “EQ”, Emotional Intelligence (Social Skills)
  • Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory: Analytic/ Experiential(Creative) /Practical
  • IQ Tests: Stanford-Binet/Weschler(WAIS/WISC) (Z Score=15)
  • Testing Bias: Statistically = “NO”, Politically = “Yes
  • Within group difference greater than between group difference
  • Barron’s Ch 12 (Mods 45-46-47-48-49)
  • Abnormal Psychology
  • DSM-IV_TR: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  • Types: Anxiety; Mood(Affective); Dissociative; Schizophrenia
  • Somatoform: Show psych. problems with physical symptoms
    • Hypochondriac; Conversion Disorder = paralysis, blind, deaf, (not real)
  • Beck’s “Cognitive Triad” Theory: Depression from negative ideas about Themselves, Their World, Their Future. (External)
  • Schizophrenia’s Origin: Biological or Environmental?
  • Dopamine Hypothesis: High levels linked->positive symptoms
    • Low dopamine may cause “tardive dyskinesia”(Parkinson’s)
  • Double Binds: Schizo’s experienced contradictory messages
  • Personality Disorders: O-C, Dependent, Narcissistic, Histronic etc
  • Paraphilias: Sexually based psychological Disorders ... pedophile, zoophilia, fetishism, voyeur, masochist, sadist
  • Rosenhan Study (Labels): Confederates fake Schizo, were admitted to mental hospitals, then no symptoms. All diagnosed as Schizo
  • Barron’s Ch 13 (Mods 50-51-52)
  • Treatment of Disorders
  • Psychoanalytic Treatments: Insight into “unconscious” causes
    • Free Assoc, Hypnosis, TAT, Rorschach, Dream analysis,
  • Humanistic: Free will, Client centered, Unconditional Positive Regard
    • Gestalt Therapy: Get in touch with the present “whole body/self” (Perls)
    • Existential Therapy: Help clients get in touch with “purpose of life”
  • Behavioral: Counterconditioning, Systematic Desensitization (relax)
  • Cognitive Therapies: Seek to change unhealthy thinking patterns
    • Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)(A. Ellis): Teach client that failure is unlikely, and not a big deal if they fail
    • Beck’s “Cognitive Triad”; explains depression as a person’s negative perception of 1) Themselves, 2) Their world, 3) Their future
  • Somatic Therapies: Psychopharmacology/Chemotherapy/ECT
    • Schizo = Thorazine / Haldol; Anxiety = Barbituates (Valium / Zanax)
    • Depression = MAOIs, SSRIs, (Prozac/Zoloft); Bipolar = Lithium
  • Barron’s Ch 14 (Mods 53-54-55 )
  • Social Psychology
  • Attitudes: Say Vs. Do: Stereotype: Prejudice: Discrimination.
  • Ethnocentrism: viewing others from your personal ethnic viewpoint
  • Compliance Strategies:Foot-in-Door; Door-in-Face; Reciprocity Norms
  • Person Stable/Unstable Attribution: Is the behavior routine or an exception?
  • Situation Stable/Unstable Attribution: Is situation routine or an exception?
  • Fundamental Attribution Error: Less likely collectivist cultures
  • (False Consensus:Just World Bias:Self-Serving Bias: Self Fulfilling)
  • Out-Group Homogeneity: Out-group less-diverse than in-group
  • Contact Theory:Hostile groups work at “Super-ordinate Goal
  • Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis:Frustration sparks aggression
  • Instrumental Aggression: Intended to secure a particular goal
  • Hostile Aggression: Has no clear purpose other than expression
  • Prosocial Behavior: Helping others (Bystander Intervention)
  • Genovese (NYC): “Diffusion of Responsibility”& “Pluralistic Ignorance”
  • Attraction to others is based on “similarity - proximity - reciprocal liking”
  • Asch’s conformity study - Milgram’s controversial obedience study
  • Barron’s Ch 15
  • AP Multiple Choice Tips
  • Try to answer question before looking at choices
  • Read “All Choices” before choosing
  • Cross out definitely incorrect choices
  • Guess only if you can eliminate (2) choice(s)
  • Make Intelligent Guesses
    • Use common sense
    • Use your general knowledge of psychology to guess
    • Avoid extreme choices (Always, Never, All, Everyone)
    • Be wary of choices that are too similar to each other
    • Mark questions you absolutely don’t know and don’t return
    • Mark those you wish to double check, time permitting
    • Remember “Yerkes-Dodson” Effect (Arousal)
  • Barron’s Ch 16
  • AP Essay Writing Hints
  • Underline/circle critical parts of the question
  • Use 2-3 minutes to create a short outline on scrap paper
  • Use short paras to answer each point (Don’t number/letter)
  • Answer question in order asked (Leave space between points)
  • Write clearly (penmanship) and clearly label inserts
  • Be thorough but keep it simple using psychological terms
  • Use all allotted time by adding to what you have written
  • Keep an eye on the clock … Answer points you know first


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