Automobile Safety Essay



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Automobile Safety Essay


The first car in the world was invented in 1769 in France by N.J.Cugnot. In 1885, a German Kari Benz made the first normative car. Since the cars were drive on the roads, car accident always happened. At the inquest into the world’s first traffic death in 1896(just 11 years after cars were invented), the coroner was reported to have said ‘this must never happened again’. More than a century later, 1.2 million people are killed on roads every year and up to 50 million more are injured. These casualties of the road will increase if the action is not taken. According a survey of WHO, one of the main reasons of the death of the young people around the world is the road accident.

In 2004, WHO had reported about the global road safety. According to the report, the number of people died in accident increase. From 0.99 million people in 1990 to 1.2 million people in 2002. 85%~90% of the dead are from low and middle income country. From 1975 to 1998, the accident death rate in Canada, Sweden and U.S. had been decreased 63.4%, 58.3% and 27.2%. At the same time, the accident death rate in Colombia, China and Botswana had been increased 237.1%, 243% and 383.8%.

So, we have to decrease the death rate on the roads. So, today, when we are designing a car, one of the most important parts of the cars is the safety system. Then, let’s see some instruments that can protect the drivers and passengers.

First, the most common, seat belt. Seatbelt or safety belt is a safety harness designed to secure the occupant of a vehicle against harmful movement that may result from a collision or a sudden stop. As part of an overall automobile passive safety system, seat belts are intended to reduce injuries by stopping the wearer from hitting hard interior elements of the vehicle, or other passengers (the so-called second impact), are in the correct position for the airbag to deploy and prevent the passenger from being thrown from the vehicle. Seat belts also absorb energy by being designed to stretch during any sudden deceleration, so that there is less speed differential between the passenger's body and their vehicle interior, and also to spread the loading of impact on the passenger’s body.

We know, everything has its advantage and disadvantage. Let us see both of them of the seat belt.

Seat belts are responsible for saving thousands of lives each year by restraining passengers from being thrown out of their seat or even out of the vehicle. Seat belts are made from a special material designed to be very durable but also to stretch just enough to disperse the energy from a sudden collision, softening the effect of the sudden impact.

Of all the automobile-accident-related deaths, an estimated 60 percent were people who were not wearing their seat belt. Oftentimes, the most serious injuries are a result of the collision that occurs once a body is thrown from the seat as opposed to the primary collision the vehicle is involved in. With a seat belt, this second collision is easily preventable.

Although they greatly reduce the incidence of death and serious injuries, seat belts are not perfect. Often, they contribute to accident-related injuries, as is described by the term "seat belt syndrome." In many cases, the fibers of the seat belt can cause harm to the chest and abdominal areas. This may include severe cuts and bruises where the seat belt lies across you, as well as more serious damage to the internal organs like tearing of the colon or diaphragm. In some cases the lumbar vertebrae may even be fractured or dislocated.

Children are at the highest risk for seat-belt-related injuries and should be closely monitored after a car crash even if they appear unharmed at first glance.

Second, an important thing is the airbag. An airbag is a vehicle safety device. It is an occupant restraint consisting of a flexible envelope designed to inflate rapidly during an automobile collision, to prevent occupants from striking interior objects such as the steering wheel or a window. Modern vehicles may contain multiple airbags in various sides and frontal locations of the passenger seating positions, and sensors may deploy one or more airbags in an impact zone at variable rates based on the type and severity of impact; the airbag is designed to only inflate in moderate to severe frontal crashes. Airbags are normally designed with the intention of supplementing the protection of an occupant who is correctly restrained with a seatbelt. Most designs are inflated through pyrotechnic means and can only be operated once.

Now, let’s see the advantage and disadvantage of airbag.

Air bags offer additional protection in car accidents, and when used in combination with seat belts, they reduce the risk of head, neck and chest injuries by 75 percent. Inflation is automatically triggered by sudden impacts, providing immediate protection from striking the dashboard with your head in the case of a collision. Air bags deflate immediately after the collision so as not to suffocate the victim.

Despite the obvious benefits, there also are some risks associated with air bags. Most prominently, the speed at which the air bag deploys can sometimes cause whiplash, potentially fatal head and chest injuries or concussions. This is especially true for drivers or passengers not wearing seat belts, as they may be thrown forward before the actual collision if the breaks are slammed on.

Both seat belt and airbag is important. According to the data, if you use the airbag only, the death rate will be decreased 18%. And if you use both seatbelt and airbag, the death rate will be decreased 47%.



I said, most of the people who died in accident are because they didnt fasten their seat belts, also in China. China has one of the highest death rates of accident. An important reason is, Chinese dont have very good education about road safety before they learned how to drive. So today, you can see many people always violate the traffic laws. Like that jaywalk, not fasten the seat belt, run the red light. So, I am wondering, if every Chinese has good character, I think it may decrease the death rate the road very much. So, I think now the schools should educate the children to abide by the traffic rules seriously. Beside China, other countries also have to do this. This is a problem about moral, ethical, social, and cultural.

At the end, I just want to tell you that when you are driving, please fasten your seat belt and also abide by the traffic rules, or, you will ……you know what will happen

-END-
Comments:

William: I liked your essay about seat belts and air bags. I can see that you have thought deeply about them. I’m curious about why your essay doesn’t answer the leading questions or match the grading criteria. I will attach the task description to this document so that you can write a better essay for your revision (see below).

--Mr Sittig

Levels:

A: 2

B: 1


Scientific Essay: Automobile Safety

TASK

At the inquest into the world’s first road traffic death in 1896, the coroner was reported to have said “this must never happen again”. More than a century later, 1.2 million people are killed on roads every year and up to 50 million more are injured. These casualties of the road will increase if action is not taken.

— WHO | Road safety: a public health issue

http://www.who.int/features/2004/road_safety/en/
From the statement above, it is clear that road safety is a growing issue around the world. Your task is to write an essay which describes how physics is used to tackle this issue.
Leading question


  1. What is the local/global problem related to this topic?

  2. What are the scientific applications used to address the problem?

    1. Select one application to discuss.

  3. How does the scientific application work?

    1. Use scientific theory or concepts to explain the application.

  4. How effectively does science and its application work?

    1. Search for data to support your statements.

    2. Explore both the usefulness and limitations of this application.

  5. How does the scientific application interact with One World factors?

    1. Select two factors to discuss.

    2. Search for data to explain how the application interacts with the selected factors.




One World factors

Moral

Ethical


Social

Economic


Political

Cultural


Environmental


Instruction

- You should include diagrams, charts and graphs to support your writing. When you use a chart of graph, you must discuss it in your essay.

- Include a bibliography with references for your work.
Criterion A: One World Task Clarification

0

The student does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors below.




0

You have not handed in an essay for this assessment.

1-2

The student states the ways in which science is applied and used to address specific problems or issues

The student states the effectiveness of science and its application in solving problems or issues






1-2

You have named one way physics is applied to address automobile safety.

You have stated the pros of how your chosen application is used to solve the problem.



3-4

The student mentions the ways in which science is applied and used to address specific problems or issues

The student mentions the effectiveness of science and its application in solving problems or issues

The student mentions how science and its application interact with one of the following factors: moral, ethical, social, economic, political, cultural and environmental.





3-4

You have given a short account of the way physics applies to addressing automobile safety.

You have stated the pros and cons of physics and of your chosen application.

You have stated that your chosen application is affected by or affects one of the One World factors, and supported your statement with data.


5-6

The student describes the ways in which science is applied and used to address specific problems or issues

The student describes the effectiveness of science and its application in solving problems or issues

The student describes how science and its application interact with at least two of the following factors: moral, ethical, social, economic, political, cultural and environmental.





5-6

You have explained in your own words the physics behind your chosen application.

You have described the effectiveness and limitations of physics and of your chosen application in addressing the problem (How do you know your chosen solution works? Why is it not the perfect solution?).

You have described how your chosen application is affected by or affects two of the One World factors, supporting your statements with data and examples from trustworthy sources.



Criterion B: Communication in science Task Clarification

0

The student does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors below.




0

You have not handed in an essay for this assessment.

1-2

The student uses limited scientific language correctly

The student uses appropriate communication modes, such as verbal (oral, written), visual (graphic, symbolic) and communication formats (laboratory reports, essays, presentations), consistent with the level of complexity of the units of work covered, to attempt communicate theories, ideas and findings in science

The student rarely acknowledges the work of others and the sources of information





1-2

You have used some scientific language in your explanations.

You have included diagrams, charts or graphs to illustrate your statements.

You have a bibliography.


3-4

The student uses some scientific language correctly, consistent with the level of complexity of the units of work covered

The student uses appropriate communication modes, such as verbal (oral, written), visual (graphic, symbolic) and communication formats (laboratory reports, essays, presentations), consistent with the level of complexity of the units of work covered, to some extent communicate theories, ideas and findings in science

The student partially acknowledges the work of others and the sources of information used by documenting them using a recognized referencing system.





3-4

You have used mostly correct scientific words from the physics we have studied in class in your explanations.

You have included diagrams, charts or graphs to illustrate and support your statements. They are labeled and have titles.

You have listed your sources in a bibliography.


5-6

The student uses scientific language correctly, consistent with the level of complexity of the units of work covered

The student uses appropriate communication modes, such as verbal (oral, written), visual (graphic, symbolic) and communication formats (laboratory reports, essays, presentations), consistent with the level of complexity of the units of work covered, to effectively communicate theories, ideas and findings in science

The student fully acknowledges the work of others and the sources of information used by documenting them using a recognized referencing system.





5-6

You have used scientific vocabulary correctly in your explanations. There is some flexibility if the physics behind your solution is not a concept we have studied in class.

You have included appropriate diagrams, charts or graphs that illustrate and support your statements. They are labeled, have titles, and are explained in your essay.



You have listed your sources in a bibliography in the correct format: alphabetically ordered, second lines indented, and with the necessary information for the kind of source you used.



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