Atoms, Molecules, and Periodic Table Short Answer



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Atoms, Molecules, and Periodic Table
Short Answer


  1. Explain what subatomic particle determines the identity of the atom and how that makes it different from other atoms.

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  1. What experiment did Thomson use to demonstrate the existence of the electron? What did the data show? What conclusion did he draw from the data?

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  1. What did Rutherford hypothesize/predict would happen when he bombarded metal foil with alpha particles? How was this different from what the data actually showed? How did his results change the model of the atom?

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  1. Why is the electron cloud pictured with a fuzzy outline?

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  1. The operating system and programs that run on a computer depend on tiny electrical circuit boards called chips, which are made of materials called semi-conductors. Based on the label "semi-conductor," which type of element would you predict is used to make computer chips? Explain.

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  1. Atoms of the element carbon have six protons. How many electrons does each atom of carbon have? _________________



  1. How does the number of electrons in outer energy levels relate to the position of an element in the periodic table?

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Problem

1. Do the elements shown belong to the same period or the same group on the periodic table? ________________________
2. Are the elements shown metals or nonmetals? ___________________________________________________________
Essay (Chose 1) use the Sum-it-Up to plan your answer. Then write your final answer on the sheet provided bellow.
1. How does the atomic model developed by John Dalton differ from the atomic model developed by Niels Bohr? Describe each model.
2. Describe some of the trends in the periodic table. What is a row called? What is a column called? What properties increase or decrease and in which directions?
3. Contrast metals and nonmetals by describing three ways in which they are different. Then, identify one example of a metal and one example of a nonmetal.




  1. Create an A + B + C topic sentence by combining the information from the three boxes below.



A

Activity or Lab

B

Strong Verb

C

Big Idea












  1. Write down 4-5 main ideas from what you read that support the big idea in your topic sentence.



Big Ideas/Fact Outline (important information)




























Verb Bank

Specifies

Identifies

Elaborates

Illustrates

Extends

Clarifies

Proposes

Defends

Dismisses

Demonstrates

Justifies

Explores

Investigates

Shows

Analyzes

Suggests

Affirms

Supports

Explains

Chronicles

Student Choice:






Transition Words & Phrases

Agreement / Addition / Similarity

Opposition / Limitation / Contradiction

Examples / Support / Emphasis

Conclusion / Summary / Restatement

Time / Chronology / Sequence

in the first place

although this may be true

in other words

as can be seen

at the present time

not only ... but also

in contrast

to put it differently

generally speaking

from time to time

as a matter of fact

different from

for one thing

in the final analysis

sooner or later

in like manner

of course ..., but

as an illustration

all things considered

at the same time

in addition

on the other hand

in this case

as shown above

up to the present time

coupled with

on the contrary

for this reason

in the long run

to begin with

furthermore

at the same time

to put it another way

given these points

in due time

equally

in spite of

that is to say

as has been noted

as soon as

identically

although this may be true

with attention to

as can be seen

as long as

uniquely

in contrast

in other words

generally speaking

in the meantime

like

be that as it may

to put it differently

in the final analysis

at the present time


3. Write your summary paragraph below. Start by coping you’re A + B + C topic sentence. Then turn each fact or main idea from the box above into a sentence. Use transition words (http://www.smart-words.org/linking-words/transition-words.html ) to help improve sentence fluency. If helpful, add on explain sentences (for example, this caused, this is important because…). No closing sentence is necessary. You must use at least 5 words from your vocabulary list in your summary paragraph.

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Final Answer

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Atoms, Molecules, and Periodic Table

Answer Section
SHORT ANSWER
1. ANS:

Atoms of different elements contain different numbers of protons. The number of protons is a critical factor in determining the number of electrons in an atom. Electrons are the part of the atom that reacts with other atoms so as the number of e- changes the way the atom reacts changes and thus the properties and characteristics of the atom.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Understanding the Atom: Lesson 2

OBJ: 9-5 STA: SC.8.P.8.7
2. ANS:

Thomson observed beams of particles being bent toward a positively charged plate. He concluded that there was a negatively charged particle around the nucleus – the e-

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Understanding the Atom: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-1
3. ANS:

He expected the paths of the particles to be deflected by the charged particles in the foil. Because most of the alpha particles passed straight through with no deflection, Rutherford concluded that atoms are mainly empty space.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Understanding the Atom: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-3
4. ANS:

The electron cloud is shown with a fuzzy outline because the electrons can be anywhere, though they are usually clustered around the nucleus.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Understanding the Atom: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-3 STA: SC.8.P.8.7
5. ANS:

Metalloids because their ability to conduct electricity lies somewhere between the good metallic conductors and the poor nonmetallic conductors.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Periodic Table: Lesson 3 OBJ: 10-6

STA: SC.8.P.8.6
6. ANS:

An atom of carbon has six electrons, the same as its number of protons.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Elements and Chemical Bonds: Lesson 1

OBJ: 11-1 STA: SC.8.P.8.7
7. ANS:

Elements whose atoms have the same number of electrons in outer energy levels are in the same family.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Elements and Chemical Bonds: Lesson 1

OBJ: 11-1 STA: SC.8.P.8.7
PROBLEM
1. ANS:

the same group

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Elements and Chemical Bonds: Lesson 1

OBJ: 11-1 STA: SC.8.P.8.6
2. ANS:

metals


PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Elements and Chemical Bonds: Lesson 1

OBJ: 11-1 STA: SC.8.P.8.6
ESSAY
1. ANS:

Dalton’s model of the atom stated that during a chemical reaction, atoms of one element cannot be converted into atoms of another element. Atoms of one element are identical to each other, but different from atoms of another element. Dalton also said that atoms combine in specific ratios.

Niels Bohr’s atomic model proposed that electrons move in circular orbits, or energy levels, around the nucleus. Electrons have varying energy levels depending on which orbit they are in.

Dalton did not realize that atoms can be divided into even smaller particles, such as protons, neutrons, and electrons. Dalton did not know that atomic weight is a product of the structure of the atoms. Bohr was able to observe the light released when an electron’s energy level changed.




Score

Description

4

Student’s response includes the following:

description of Dalton’s atomic model

description of Bohr’s atomic model

similarities between the models

differences between the models


3

Student’s response includes three of the following:

description of Dalton’s atomic model

description of Bohr’s atomic model

similarities between the models

differences between the models


2

Student’s response includes two of the following:

description of Dalton’s atomic model

description of Bohr’s atomic model

similarities between the models

differences between the models


1

Student’s response includes one of the following:

description of Dalton’s atomic model

description of Bohr’s atomic model

similarities between the models

differences between the models


0

Student’s response is totally incorrect or irrelevant.


Blank

No student response.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 4-HIGH

REF: To review this topic refer to Understanding the Atom: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-1 | 9-2 | 9-3


2. ANS:

The periodic table is named such because there are periodic, or repeating, trends that occur throughout the table. The atomic mass increases from left to right as you advance through the table. A row of elements is called a period. A column of elements is called a group. Metallic properties increase as you move to the left and down on the periodic table. Other properties increase as you go left to right.




Score

Description

4

Student’s response includes four of the listed trends:

increase of atomic number

label for rows

label for columns

example of one trend and the direction for increase


3

Student’s response includes three of the listed trends:

increase of atomic number

label for rows

label for columns

example of one trend and the direction for increase


2

Student’s response includes two of the listed trends:

increase of atomic number

label for rows

label for columns

example of one trend and the direction for increase


1

Student’s response includes one of the listed trends:

increase of atomic number

label for rows

label for columns

example of one trend and the direction for increase


0

Student’s response is totally incorrect or irrelevant.


Blank

No student response.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to The Periodic Table: Lesson 1 | To review this topic refer to The Periodic Table: Lesson 2 | To review this topic refer to The Periodic Table: Lesson 3

OBJ: 10-1 | 10-2 | 10-3 | 10-4 | 10-5 | 10-6 STA: SC.8.P.8.6


3. ANS:

Metals and nonmetals differ in their ability to conduct heat—metals are good conductors while nonmetals are poor conductors. Metals also have luster, a shiny appearance, that nonmetals lack. Thirdly, metals conduct electricity well, but nonmetals do not. An example of a metal is copper; an example of a nonmetal is carbon.




Score

Description

4

Student’s response includes three differences between metals and nonmetals and a correct identification of an example of a metal and an example of a nonmetal


3

Student’s response includes a combination of the following that totals three points:

differences between metals and nonmetals

identification of a metal and a nonmetal


2

Student’s response includes a combination of the following that totals two points:

differences between metals and nonmetals

identification of a metal and a nonmetal


1

Student’s response includes one of the following:

a difference between metals and nonmetals

identification of a metal and a nonmetal


0

Student’s response is totally incorrect or irrelevant.


Blank

No student response.

PTS: 4 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 3-MOD



REF: To review this topic refer to The Periodic Table: Lesson 3 OBJ: 10-3

STA: SC.8.P.8.6


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