Atoms and Stars ist 2420
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Atoms and Stars IST 2420 Class 2 Fall 2008 Instructor: David Bowen Course web site: www.is.wayne.edu/drbowen/aasf08 On the Table in Front… Initial the sign-in sheet Turn in lab report in folder Handwritten data sheet and typed analysis stapled together. Tonight’s Schedule What is due tonight? What is science? Essay assignment Review of readings Before the Greeks What is due next week? Lab 2 Due tonight Report for Lab 1. A lab report has two parts, turned in as a single assignment (stapled): Data Sheet: setting, procedures, observations Analysis Experimental results can be surprising “Nature is the final arbiter” (judge) (Q19) Observation: write what you see Definitions for Reading In “We Are All Scientists,” Huxley uses “induction” and “deduction” without defining them (Q5) Induction: reasoning from a series of identical cases to a general conclusion In the reading, green apples example Deduction: reasoning from different types of evidence to a conclusion in a specific case In the reading, missing teapot and spoons example Also see Glossary in Reader Pg 279 ff Overview Two pillars of science (Q27): Data / observations / experiments Hypotheses / laws / theories Overview “Theory” Use in popular culture Vs. scientific usage Q29 In popular culture, “theory” usually means a passing thought, a possibility – “just a theory” In science, a theory is an accepted and thoroughly tested explanation for a wide range of data – the top of the line Overview #2. Hypotheses / laws / theories (cont’d) Accepted theory must (continued): Be capable of being disproven (falsifiability) Explain all (vast majority) data Have direct evidence - not accepted just because rival theory fails Be productive - predict new, unsuspected measurements, new phenomena, new results, which must be tested and which must agree Simpler theory preferred to more complicated Overview Typical sequence of advance (focus comes first and is assumed here) Q28: Observation / Measurement Description Understanding (theory) Often this is first association (statistical) then causal Control or technology (especially last 50 years) Science is progressive: Q20 Start in small area, expand Overview Science is progressive (cont’d) Later theory / experiment can change earlier theory Example: Einstein's 1915 General Theory of Relativity changed ideas about his 1905 Theory of Special Relativity However, old results still correct but range extended Scientific knowledge provisional – subject to change Overview Science is progressive (cont’d) Scientific knowledge can change rapidly at the frontier Science is not: Fair – theories do not have a right to be considered – someone must want to do this Overview Science is not: Democratic – no votes, nor formal consensus, theories can come “back to life” (string theory) Not based on authority – Newton and Einstein can be (were) wrong Most scientists follow these rules but (with many scientists) there are many individual exceptions, e.g. falsifying data Overview Most scientists follow these rules but (with many scientists) there are many individual exceptions, e.g. falsifying data (continued) Science is social – scientists help & check each other Q23 Scientific arguments can be fierce Issue about women and aggressive argument Our heroes – the people who overthrew the established order Instant success: prove someone else wrong Scientists often become advocates of a theory Social interaction corrects this Overview Scientists are skeptical about truth claims Many strongly-held beliefs have been shown to be wrong, e.g. common ideas about space Many purely rational arguments have been shown to be wrong – e.g. Aristotle Experiments keep science correct and reliable Review of Essay Assignment Due October 6 (three weeks) on diskette Topic: We have studied two cases in which an earlier theory is replaced by a later one: (a) Aristotle's view that nature abhors a vacuum was replaced by the sea of air hypothesis and (b) the caloric theory of heat was replaced by Rumford’s kinetic theory of heat. We have also read about Copi’s seven steps of the scientific method. Pick one of the two cases above (a or b), describe the sequence in which it took place, and show by comparison whether each of Copi's seven steps in the scientific method happened or not. Draw on material from the reading, class discussion, and the laboratory experiments. Also describe what this tells us about the scientific method. Essay Assignment (cont’d) 3 to 4 pages, 12-point Times Roman, double-spaced, 1” margins top and bottom, 1½” left and right. Content: one third. Reading and understanding course materials, applying them to topic, consistent point of view Essay Assignment (cont’d) Form: one third. Title page (does not count in number of pages), Introduction (roadmap), Body (organized, transitions between topics, detail to support general points), Conclusion (review content, draws to an end) Mechanics: one third. Spelling, grammar, punctuation. Use spell-check and grammar-check (note on passive), your own editing, dictionary. To organize your own thinking Have something you want to say Pretend if necessary – it works! Read your Essay out loud to yourself, and listen More Examples and Details www.is.wayne.edu/olgt then link to Writing Guide, or use The Everyday Writer Writing Center in 2310 UGL / 313-577-2544 Many of you have heard this before, but the problem is applying this stuff More in the next slides Common Writing Problems Functional grammar Rules of grammar have a purpose – to transmit meaning Rules of grammar are always changing Different grammars for different groups Get too far from the group’s grammar and you are not understood (must change with changes) The further you get from the group’s grammar, the harder it is to understand you Being able to use good standard grammar is like dressing well for a job interview Organization Many possibilities for organization Historical Logical Specific to general, or general to specific Combination Signal transitions from one topic to another Paragraphs help here New topic new paragraph Quick-and-Easy Organization Write body first One you have figured out what you are going to say (the Body), write the Introduction and Conclusion afterwards Body should have general statements and specific examples and quotes Sentences A sentence: Verb (action) Subject (did the action) Complete thought (starts with capital, period at end) (Y/N) Because he hit the ball. (Y/N) John hit the ball. Sentences Is it a sentence? Consider it all by itself. (Read it out loud) Common sentence problem #1: Sentence fragment – something that starts with a capital and ends with a period but is not a sentence Because he hit the ball. John ran to first base. Fix by joining to main thought with a comma (,) Because he hit the ball, John ran to first base. Sentences Is it a sentence? Consider it all by itself. Common sentence problem #2: Run-on sentence – two or more sentences written as one John hit the ball he ran to first base. Fix by breaking into two sentences John hit the ball. He ran to first base. Or by joining with semicolon (;) to show causality John hit the ball; he ran to first base Number (singular/plural) Both subject and verb have number If these are not the same, signals conflict Members join the club A member joins the club “One s” Without a reason, do not change number from sentence to sentence (Bad) People should take care of their health. You should take your vitamins. Tense (past, present, future) Without a reason, do not change tense from sentence to sentence “Scientific investigation is not, as many people seem to suppose, some kind of modern black art.” (Huxley 1) Cite the source even if you are paraphrasing Works Cited For each citation: Author: last name, first. Title, underlined Source (e.g. Atoms and Stars Reader) Page (e.g. in Reader) Year of original publication Punctuation Apostrophe (‘) Contraction (don’t use contractions in the essay) Possession (‘s or s’) Some words inherently possessive, no ‘ (e.g. theirs) Never for pluralization Lists Wrong Word Some words are commonly confused – memorize or use list or dictionary its Vs it’s whose Vs who’s their Vs there too Vs to accept Vs except Many, many more – see Online Writing Tutor End of writing section, on to something else Readings Huxley, “We Are All Scientists” Induction. Apples, Math compared to Red Shift Deduction. Teapot and spoons Q5 Must put a supposed theory or hypothesis to every test Hypothesis is normal DB: science prefers: simple law before complicated one universal law before specific Readings (cont’d) Copi, “Science and Hypothesis” Recent, long after the birth of modern science Often uses Sherlock Holmes to illustrate Seven steps Science has Practical benefit Value in itself as knowledge Scientists focus on a problem Hypothesis to focus on pertinent facts Used to gather more facts “Aha” – serious hypothesis - creative Readings (cont’d) Copi, “Science and Hypothesis” Finding consequences of hypothesis DB: If none, “not science” Consequences must be tested Application to practical problems DB: Today, can lead to technology. Transistor, microchip, programmable computer, laser Readings (cont’d) Copi, “Science and Hypothesis” Example of caloric theory of heat to kinetic Q22 Caloric – a substance, add it to matter, temperature goes up Count Rumford (Benjamin Thompson) – supervised making cannons Boring generated very large amount of heat, could not believe you could mix in that much caloric What could you add a lot of? Motion, led to… Readings (cont’d) Copi, “Science and Hypothesis” 1798: Kinetic theory of heat Sir Humphrey Davy compared theories, devised test Two pieces of ice, keep them frozen, rub together. Caloric could not get in Did this, they melted, demonstrating kinetic theory Later, Joule more tests, also measurements Before the Greeks… Universe: about 15 billion years old Solar System (includes earth): about 5 billion years old Molten at first, many collisions with asteroids and meteorites (Hadean Eon) Cooled off, land formed about 4 BYA First life formed in seas about 3.7 BYA Earliest human-like animals (humanoids) evolved in southern Africa about 5 MYA Before the Greeks…(Q21) McClellan and Dorn, Science and Technology in World History Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel Several humanoid species and expansions Homo sapiens (modern humans) evolved there 100k to 400k years ago Little genetic change since then Expansions north, then East and West to Europe and Asia Signs of early astronomy – phases of the moon Before the Greeks (cont’d)… Early science developed with agriculture, large cities, complex and specialized societies Areas shown on next slide (Diamond’s thesis) “Hydraulic civilizations” – irrigation or drainage Large (monumental) building projects, e.g. pyramids (Egypt), canals Highly efficient food production allowed cities Strong central governments American ones “incomplete” – no cattle, wheel, plow or (later) metal tools (but had metal jewelry) Before the Greeks (cont’d)… Before the Greeks (cont’d)… Some areas (Egypt) one nation, others (Mesopotamia) several (Sumer, Babylonia) Europe and Asia, these formed ~7,000 years ago Each lasted 1 – 2 thousand years Each developed empirical science (no theories – “recipes”) in math, astronomy, geometry, medicine, but different strengths E.g. place-value numbers in Sumeria but not Egypt. Egypt had geometry for Nile flooding. Scientific theory (explanations) arose with Greeks For next class… (1/24 is MLK Day) Lab Report for Experiment 2 Reader: “Greeks Bearing Gifts” Manual: Experiment 3 Part 1 Questions or comments? Lab 2 Start water boiling first For hand vacuum pumps, record vacuum Note two scales – record which one you use For “holed pop cap” seal joint with clay Lab 2 Theory Scientific Revolution 1400 – 1800 AD Before, prevailing view about air pressure due to Greek philosopher Aristotle 384 – 322 B.C. “Nature abhors [hates] a vacuum” – will not let it exist, other matter rushes in Replaced by “sea of air” due to Torricelli Observation of a vacuum for water columns higher than 34 feet in a tube closed at the top – practical limit on suction pumps Lab 2 (cont’d) Vacuum seal is O-ring, Vaseline and flat flange Valve is open when handle is in-line, closed when handle is “crossed” – look down the valve! Lab 2 (cont’d)
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