Atoms and Stars ist 2420



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Atoms and Stars IST 2420

  • Class 2
  • Fall 2008
  • Instructor: David Bowen
  • Course web site: www.is.wayne.edu/drbowen/aasf08

On the Table in Front…

  • Initial the sign-in sheet
  • Turn in lab report in folder
    • Handwritten data sheet and typed analysis stapled together.
  • 9/15/08

Tonight’s Schedule

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • What is due tonight?
  • What is science?
  • Essay assignment
  • Review of readings
  • Before the Greeks
  • What is due next week?
  • Lab 2
  • 9/15/08

Due tonight

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Report for Lab 1.
    • A lab report has two parts, turned in as a single assignment (stapled):
      • Data Sheet: setting, procedures, observations
      • Analysis
    • Experimental results can be surprising
    • “Nature is the final arbiter” (judge) (Q19)
    • Observation: write what you see
  • 9/15/08

Definitions for Reading

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • In “We Are All Scientists,” Huxley uses “induction” and “deduction” without defining them (Q5)
    • Induction: reasoning from a series of identical cases to a general conclusion
      • In the reading, green apples example
    • Deduction: reasoning from different types of evidence to a conclusion in a specific case
      • In the reading, missing teapot and spoons example
  • Also see Glossary in Reader Pg 279 ff
  • 9/15/08

Overview

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Two pillars of science (Q27):
    • Data / observations / experiments
    • Hypotheses / laws / theories
      • Make science valuable
  • 9/15/08

Overview

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • “Theory”
    • Use in popular culture Vs. scientific usage Q29
      • In popular culture, “theory” usually means a passing thought, a possibility – “just a theory”
      • In science, a theory is an accepted and thoroughly tested explanation for a wide range of data – the top of the line
  • 9/15/08

Overview

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • #2. Hypotheses / laws / theories (cont’d)
    • Accepted theory must (continued):
      • Be capable of being disproven (falsifiability)
      • Explain all (vast majority) data
      • Have direct evidence - not accepted just because rival theory fails
      • Be productive - predict new, unsuspected measurements, new phenomena, new results, which must be tested and which must agree
    • Simpler theory preferred to more complicated
  • 9/15/08

Overview

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Typical sequence of advance (focus comes first and is assumed here) Q28:
    • Observation / Measurement
    • Description
    • Understanding (theory)
      • Often this is first association (statistical) then causal
    • Control or technology (especially last 50 years)
  • Science is progressive: Q20
    • Start in small area, expand
  • 9/15/08

Overview

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Science is progressive (cont’d)
    • Later theory / experiment can change earlier theory
      • Example: Einstein's 1915 General Theory of Relativity changed ideas about his 1905 Theory of Special Relativity
      • However, old results still correct but range extended
    • Scientific knowledge provisional – subject to change
  • 9/15/08

Overview

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Science is progressive (cont’d)
    • Scientific knowledge can change rapidly at the frontier
  • Science is not:
    • Fair – theories do not have a right to be considered – someone must want to do this
  • 9/15/08

Overview

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Science is not:
    • Democratic – no votes, nor formal consensus, theories can come “back to life” (string theory)
    • Not based on authority – Newton and Einstein can be (were) wrong
  • Most scientists follow these rules but (with many scientists) there are many individual exceptions, e.g. falsifying data
  • 9/15/08

Overview

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Most scientists follow these rules but (with many scientists) there are many individual exceptions, e.g. falsifying data (continued)
    • Science is social – scientists help & check each other Q23
    • Scientific arguments can be fierce
      • Issue about women and aggressive argument
      • Our heroes – the people who overthrew the established order
      • Instant success: prove someone else wrong
    • Scientists often become advocates of a theory
      • Social interaction corrects this
  • 9/15/08

Overview

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Scientists are skeptical about truth claims
    • Many strongly-held beliefs have been shown to be wrong, e.g. common ideas about space
    • Many purely rational arguments have been shown to be wrong – e.g. Aristotle
    • Experiments keep science correct and reliable
  • 9/15/08

Review of Essay Assignment

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Due October 6 (three weeks) on diskette
  • Topic: We have studied two cases in which an earlier theory is replaced by a later one: (a) Aristotle's view that nature abhors a vacuum was replaced by the sea of air hypothesis and (b) the caloric theory of heat was replaced by Rumford’s kinetic theory of heat. We have also read about Copi’s seven steps of the scientific method. Pick one of the two cases above (a or b), describe the sequence in which it took place, and show by comparison whether each of Copi's seven steps in the scientific method happened or not. Draw on material from the reading, class discussion, and the laboratory experiments. Also describe what this tells us about the scientific method.
  • 9/15/08

Essay Assignment (cont’d)

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • 3 to 4 pages, 12-point Times Roman, double-spaced, 1” margins top and bottom, 1½” left and right.
  • Content: one third. Reading and understanding course materials, applying them to topic, consistent point of view
  • 9/15/08

Essay Assignment (cont’d)

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Form: one third. Title page (does not count in number of pages), Introduction (roadmap), Body (organized, transitions between topics, detail to support general points), Conclusion (review content, draws to an end)
  • Mechanics: one third. Spelling, grammar, punctuation. Use spell-check and grammar-check (note on passive), your own editing, dictionary.
  • 9/15/08

#1 Reason for Writing

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • To organize your own thinking
  • #1 Way to Good Writing
  • Have something you want to say
    • Pretend if necessary – it works!
  • #1 Way to Find Mistakes
  • Read your Essay out loud to yourself, and listen
  • 9/15/08

More Examples and Details

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • www.is.wayne.edu/olgt then link to Writing Guide, or use The Everyday Writer
  • Writing Center in 2310 UGL / 313-577-2544
  • Many of you have heard this before, but the problem is applying this stuff
  • More in the next slides
  • 9/15/08

Common Writing Problems

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Functional grammar
    • Rules of grammar have a purpose – to transmit meaning
    • Rules of grammar are always changing
    • Different grammars for different groups
    • Get too far from the group’s grammar and you are not understood (must change with changes)
    • The further you get from the group’s grammar, the harder it is to understand you
    • Being able to use good standard grammar is like dressing well for a job interview
  • 9/15/08

Organization

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Many possibilities for organization
    • Historical
    • Logical
    • Specific to general, or general to specific
    • Combination
  • Signal transitions from one topic to another
    • Paragraphs help here
      • New topic  new paragraph
  • 9/15/08

Quick-and-Easy Organization

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Write body first
  • One you have figured out what you are going to say (the Body), write the Introduction and Conclusion afterwards
  • Body should have general statements and specific examples and quotes
  • Skip to 31?
  • 9/15/08

Sentences

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • A sentence:
    • Verb (action)
    • Subject (did the action)
    • Complete thought
    • (starts with capital, period at end)
  • (Y/N) Because he hit the ball.
  • (Y/N) John hit the ball.
  • 9/15/08

Sentences

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Is it a sentence? Consider it all by itself. (Read it out loud)
  • Common sentence problem #1:
    • Sentence fragment – something that starts with a capital and ends with a period but is not a sentence
      • Because he hit the ball. John ran to first base.
      • Fix by joining to main thought with a comma (,)
        • Because he hit the ball, John ran to first base.
  • 9/15/08

Sentences

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Is it a sentence? Consider it all by itself.
  • Common sentence problem #2:
    • Run-on sentence – two or more sentences written as one
      • John hit the ball he ran to first base.
      • Fix by breaking into two sentences
        • John hit the ball. He ran to first base.
      • Or by joining with semicolon (;) to show causality
        • John hit the ball; he ran to first base
  • 9/15/08

Number (singular/plural)

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Both subject and verb have number
    • If these are not the same, signals conflict
      • Members join the club
      • A member joins the club
      • “One s”
  • Without a reason, do not change number from sentence to sentence
    • (Bad) People should take care of their health. You should take your vitamins.
  • 9/15/08

Tense (past, present, future)

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Without a reason, do not change tense from sentence to sentence
  • Citations
  • “Scientific investigation is not, as many people seem to suppose, some kind of modern black art.” (Huxley 1)
  • Cite the source even if you are paraphrasing
  • 9/15/08

Works Cited

  • For each citation:
    • Author: last name, first.
    • Title, underlined
    • Source (e.g. Atoms and Stars Reader)
    • Page (e.g. in Reader)
    • Year of original publication
  • 9/15/08

Punctuation

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Apostrophe (‘)
    • Contraction (don’t use contractions in the essay)
    • Possession (‘s or s’)
      • Some words inherently possessive, no ‘ (e.g. theirs)
    • Never for pluralization
  • Lists
  • 9/15/08

Wrong Word

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Some words are commonly confused – memorize or use list or dictionary
    • its Vs it’s
    • whose Vs who’s
    • their Vs there
    • too Vs to
    • accept Vs except
    • Many, many more – see Online Writing Tutor
  • End of writing section, on to something else
  • 9/15/08

Readings

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Huxley, “We Are All Scientists”
    • Induction. Apples, Math compared to Red Shift
    • Deduction. Teapot and spoons Q5
    • Must put a supposed theory or hypothesis to every test
    • Hypothesis is normal
  • DB: science prefers:
    • simple law before complicated one
    • universal law before specific
  • 9/15/08

Readings (cont’d)

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Copi, “Science and Hypothesis”
    • Recent, long after the birth of modern science
    • Often uses Sherlock Holmes to illustrate
    • Seven steps
    • Science has
      • Practical benefit
      • Value in itself as knowledge
    • Scientists focus on a problem
      • Hypothesis to focus on pertinent facts
      • Used to gather more facts
      • “Aha” – serious hypothesis - creative
  • 9/15/08

Readings (cont’d)

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Copi, “Science and Hypothesis”
    • Finding consequences of hypothesis
      • DB: If none, “not science”
    • Consequences must be tested
    • Application to practical problems
      • DB: Today, can lead to technology. Transistor, microchip, programmable computer, laser
  • 9/15/08

Readings (cont’d)

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Copi, “Science and Hypothesis”
    • Example of caloric theory of heat to kinetic Q22
    • Caloric – a substance, add it to matter, temperature goes up
    • Count Rumford (Benjamin Thompson) – supervised making cannons
      • Boring generated very large amount of heat, could not believe you could mix in that much caloric
      • What could you add a lot of? Motion, led to…
  • 9/15/08

Readings (cont’d)

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Copi, “Science and Hypothesis”
    • 1798: Kinetic theory of heat
    • Sir Humphrey Davy compared theories, devised test
      • Two pieces of ice, keep them frozen, rub together. Caloric could not get in
      • Did this, they melted, demonstrating kinetic theory
    • Later, Joule more tests, also measurements
  • 9/15/08

Before the Greeks…

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Universe: about 15 billion years old
  • Solar System (includes earth): about 5 billion years old
    • Molten at first, many collisions with asteroids and meteorites (Hadean Eon)
    • Cooled off, land formed about 4 BYA
  • First life formed in seas about 3.7 BYA
  • Earliest human-like animals (humanoids) evolved in southern Africa about 5 MYA
  • 9/15/08

Before the Greeks…(Q21)

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • McClellan and Dorn, Science and Technology in World History
  • Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel
  • Several humanoid species and expansions
  • Homo sapiens (modern humans) evolved there
    • 100k to 400k years ago
    • Little genetic change since then
    • Expansions north, then East and West to Europe and Asia
    • Signs of early astronomy – phases of the moon
  • 9/15/08

Before the Greeks (cont’d)…

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Early science developed with agriculture, large cities, complex and specialized societies
    • Areas shown on next slide (Diamond’s thesis)
    • “Hydraulic civilizations” – irrigation or drainage
    • Large (monumental) building projects, e.g. pyramids (Egypt), canals
    • Highly efficient food production allowed cities
    • Strong central governments
    • American ones “incomplete” – no cattle, wheel, plow or (later) metal tools (but had metal jewelry)
  • 9/15/08

Before the Greeks (cont’d)…

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • 9/15/08

Before the Greeks (cont’d)…

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Some areas (Egypt) one nation, others (Mesopotamia) several (Sumer, Babylonia)
  • Europe and Asia, these formed ~7,000 years ago
  • Each lasted 1 – 2 thousand years
  • Each developed empirical science (no theories – “recipes”) in math, astronomy, geometry, medicine, but different strengths
    • E.g. place-value numbers in Sumeria but not Egypt. Egypt had geometry for Nile flooding.
  • Scientific theory (explanations) arose with Greeks
  • 9/15/08

For next class…

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • (1/24 is MLK Day)
  • Lab Report for Experiment 2
  • Reader: “Greeks Bearing Gifts”
  • Manual: Experiment 3 Part 1
  • 9/15/08

Questions or comments? Lab 2

  • Start water boiling first
  • For hand vacuum pumps, record vacuum
    • Note two scales – record which one you use
  • For “holed pop cap” seal joint with clay
  • 9/15/08

Lab 2 Theory

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Scientific Revolution 1400 – 1800 AD
  • Before, prevailing view about air pressure due to Greek philosopher Aristotle 384 – 322 B.C.
    • “Nature abhors [hates] a vacuum” – will not let it exist, other matter rushes in
  • Replaced by “sea of air” due to Torricelli
  • Observation of a vacuum for water columns higher than 34 feet in a tube closed at the top – practical limit on suction pumps
  • 9/15/08

Lab 2 (cont’d)

  • Atoms and Stars, Class 2
  • Vacuum seal is O-ring, Vaseline and flat flange
  • Valve is open when handle is in-line, closed when handle is “crossed” – look down the valve!
  • 9/15/08

Lab 2 (cont’d)

  • Lab period
  • 9/15/08


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