Atmospheric Composition…



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  • Atmosphere
  • Atmospheric Basics

Atmospheric Composition…

  • Nitrogen – 78%
  • Oxygen – 21%
  • Argon - .93%
  • Carbon Dioxide - .03%
  • Water Vapor - .0 to 4%
  • Trace Gases
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/21c/atmosphere/chemicalsairrev1.shtml

Key Atmospheric Components

  • Oxygen (O2)
    • Gas
    • Organisms need it to break down food for energy
  • http://schoolworkhelper.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/oxygen-transport.jpg

Key Atmospheric Components

  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
    • Gas
    • Minor role in absorbing heat
    • plant fertilizer
  • http://ed101.bu.edu/StudentDoc/current/ED101fa10/ccburke/Photosynthesis.html

Key Atmospheric Components

  • Ozone (O3)
    • Gas
    • Absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun
  • http://mmedia.pl/ozone-layer-diagram-for-kids

Key Atmospheric Components

  • Water Vapor(H2O)
    • Gas
    • Major role in absorbing heat
    • source of condensation for clouds

Key Atmospheric Components

  • Water
    • Liquid
    • source of rain
  • Singing in the Rain!
  • http://mypeartreehouse.blogspot.com/

Key Atmospheric Components

  • Ice
    • Solid
    • Makes up snow, sleet, & hail
  • Legendary Vail Powder!
  • http://www.austinskiers.org/trips0910/vail0910.htm

Key Atmospheric Components

  • Dust, Salt, Volcanic Ash
    • Solids
    • Provide solid surface for water vapor to condense (so that clouds can form)
    • Condensation nuclei
    • See next slide…
  • Salt Spray from Waves
  • http://www.kidsgeo.com/images/ocean-waves.jpg
  • Dust Storm
  • http://www.weatherfreaks.net/images/dust_storm3.jpg

The Structure of the Atmosphere …

  • http://ds9.ssl.berkeley.edu/lws_gems/3/images_3/layat510.jpg

The Structure of the Atmosphere – The Troposphere

  • Description…
    • Tropo- (change)
    • 0-11 km
    • highest air pressure
    • Contains most gases of the atmosphere
  • Objects Found There
    • Weather
    • life forms
    • jets

The Structure of the Atmosphere – The Stratosphere

  • Description…
    • Strato- (layer)
    • 11-48 km
    • Molecular heat rises due to ozone layer absorbing UV radiation
  • Objects Found There
    • Ozone layer
    • Weather balloons

The Structure of the Atmosphere – The Mesosphere

  • Description…
    • Meso- (middle)
    • 48-95 km
    • Temperature falls b/c there’s not a whole lot here!
  • Objects Found There
    • Meteors (shooting stars) burn here

The Structure of the Atmosphere – The Thermosphere

  • Description…
    • Thermo- (heat)
    • 95-550 km
    • Molecular heat rises
  • Objects Found There
    • Ionosphere
    • Auroras

The Structure of the Atmosphere – The Exosphere

  • Description…
    • Exo- (outside)
    • Above 600 km
    • Outermost layer
    • Space!
  • Objects Found There
    • Some H and He
    • Satellites

Temperature Variations with Altitude

  • http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/atmosphere/atmosphere/layers.gif
  • The layers are determined by temperature!

What Happens to the Sun’s Energy?

  • http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/cascade.GIF
  • The State of the Atmosphere

The Temperature of the Atmosphere

  • The thermosphere is the hottest layer of the atmosphere but it feels so cold…
  • b/c even though molecules are moving very fast (which means they are very hot), they are so far apart that there is no heat transfer.
  • Astronaut Bruce McCandless II is feeling no heat!
  • http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Astronaut

The Temperature of the Atmosphere

  • Dew Point - temperature to which air must be cooled (at constant pressure) to reach saturation.
    • Dew point tells us how much water is in the air.
    • This is when dew is formed!
    • The higher the dew point, more humid and uncomfortable the air.

Vertical Temperature Changes

  • How is dew point determined?
    • … determine the temperature at which dew (condensation) forms by cooling the air.

Humidity Changes with Temperature…

  • What is humidity?
    • The amount of water air can hold at a given temperature. This is a constant!
  • What is relative humidity?
    • The amount of water the air is actually holding compared to how much it can hold
  • Relative humidity is determined by....using a wet/dry bulb thermometer & a relative humidity chart

Air Pressure and Density…

  • Density is mass (of air) per volume.
  • Air pressure is…
    • … force exerted by molecules of atmosphere as they are pulled toward Earth’s center by gravity.

Air Pressure and Density…

  • Air at the bottom of the atmosphere (troposphere) has higher density and pressure because...
    • … of the greater mass of the atmosphere above you (it contains the most gases)
    • … This is similar to being at the bottom of the ocean with tons of water above you!
    • … We are accustomed to the high air pressure so it doesn’t squash us.

Temperature-Density Relationship

  • Warm Air
    • a. As temperature increases… air becomes less dense.
    • b. Warm air is less dense and will rise.
    • c. The upward movement of warm air lowers pressure.
    • d. So, warm air rising causes low pressure.

Temperature-Density Relationship

  • Cold Air
    • As temperature decreases… air becomes more dense.
    • Cold air is more dense and will sink.
    • The downward movement of cold air raises pressure.
    • So, cold air sinking causes high pressure.

Creating Wind…

  • Cool air, which is denser, sinks.
  • This forces the warm air, which is less dense to move up.
  • Air moves from areas of high density to areas of low density.
  • In its simplest form, wind can be thought of as air moving from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure.
  • http://scifiles.larc.nasa.gov/text/kids/Problem_Board/problems/light/sim3.html

Wind…

  • The density imbalances that move air to produce wind are created by…
    • The unequal heating of Earth’s surface
  • Wind is measured by…
    • anemometers (mph or kph)
  • Wind speeds increase at high altitudes b/c…
  • Moisture in the Atmosphere

Three Ways Clouds Can Form…

  • a. from convection currents
  • b. from warm air rising over mountains (orographic lifting)
  • c. when air masses of different temperatures meet

Cloud Formation – Convection Currents

  • http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/cld/cldtyp/home.rxml

Cloud Formation – Orographic Lifting

  • http://www.envi.hufs.ac.kr/gwlee/session6/lift.html
  • Clouds form over a mountain.

Cloud Formation – Frontal

  • http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/images/cloudformation_Fronts_small.jpg

Cloud Types…Altitude

  • Cirro- high
    • Above 6000m
  • Alto - middle
    • Between 2000-6000m
  • Stratus - low
    • Below 2000m
  • http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/clouds/cloud_heights.html

More Clouds!

  • http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met130/notes/chapter5/summary.html
  • Meteorology
  • The Causes of Weather

Energy in the Atmosphere…

  • What two things are always in motion to distribute heat energy on and around the Earth?
    • ocean currents
    • global wind systems
  • What explains why the poles are never very warm?
    • The Sun’s rays don’t hit Earth as directly at the poles as at the tropics. (So the same amount of solar radiation is spread over a larger area.)

Air Masses…

  • Continental Tropical
    • Abbreviation - cT
    • Origin - land
    • Origin - tropical
    • Moisture Content - dry
    • Temperature - warm
  • http://earth.usc.edu/~stott/Catalina/WeatherPatterns.html

Air Masses…

  • Maritime Tropical
    • Abbreviation - mT
    • Origin – ocean/water
    • Origin - tropical
    • Moisture Content - humid
    • Temperature - warm

Air Masses…

  • Continental Polar
    • Abbreviation - cP
    • Origin - land
    • Origin – high latitudes
    • Moisture Content - dry
    • Temperature – cool or cold

Air Masses…

  • Maritime Polar
    • Abbreviation - mP
    • Origin – ocean/water
    • Origin – high latitudes
    • Moisture Content - humid
    • Temperature – cool or cold

Air Masses…

  • Arctic (Continental)
    • Abbreviation - cA
    • Origin – land
    • Origin - Arctic
    • Moisture Content – dry
    • Temperature – very cold

Air Masses That Affect Our Weather…

Global Wind Systems

  • http://pulse.pharmacy.arizona.edu/9th_grade/from_global/earth_science/images/wind_patterns.gif
  • http://www.topnews.in/files/atmosphere_wind_patterns.jpg

2. Chart:Global Wind Systems…

Global Wind Systems…

  • Prevailing Westerlies
    • Comes from the west
    • Located between 30 and 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres
    • (30° - 60°)
    • This is the wind system that directs fronts across our country.

Global Wind Systems…

  • Trade Winds
    • Comes from the east
    • Located between the equator and 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres
    • (0° - 30°)

The Intertropical Convergence Zone

  • What is the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)?
    • The area near the equator where the trade winds converge.
    • Air is forced up and creates an area of low pressure. (Remember – warm air rising!)
    • The ITCZ provides the moisture for many of the world’s tropical rain forests.
    • Picture on next slide…

The Doldrums…

  • What are the doldrums?
    • Another name for the ITCZ!
    • Sailing ships would often get stranded in this area because of the light (or no!) winds.
    • The phrase, “I’m stuck in the doldrums,” came from this phenomenon.
  • Looking for wind!

Horse Latitudes…

  • Why were the horse latitudes so named?
    • Around the 30 degrees latitude, sinking air creates a belt of high pressure which causes weak winds.
    • Sailors stranded here were said to throw their horses overboard when they couldn’t feed them!

Weather Systems in the USA

  • Which global wind system is responsible for much of the movement of weather across the USA and Canada?
    • The prevailing westerlies
  • The Causes of Weather

Pressure Systems – High Pressure

  • Cold air sinking
  • Fair weather
  • Rotates clockwise
  • Represented as a blue ‘H’
  • Good ‘H’air Day!
  • http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/high_pressure.html

Pressure Systems – Low Pressure

  • Warm air rising
  • Clouds and precipitation
  • Rotates counter-clockwise
  • Represented as a red ‘L’
  • ‘L’ousy Weather Day!
  • http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/high_pressure.html

Cold Front…

  • Definition – Cold, dense air displaces warm air and forces it up a steep front
  • Symbol – blue icicles!
  • Weather – clouds, showers, and thunder storms
  • http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_275ZCyVPoFk/TNAxxCklePI/AAAAAAAAAJs/VFM3DzpqDzg/s1600/meteo.jpg
  • http://www.cdli.ca/courses/sci2200/unit02_org01_ilo03/b_activity.html

Warm Front…

  • Definition – Advancing warm air displaces cold air and moves up slowly
  • Symbol – red lava rocks!
  • Weather – extensive cloudiness and precipitation
  • http://www.cdli.ca/courses/sci2200/unit02_org01_ilo03/b_activity.html
  • http://earth.usc.edu/~stott/Catalina/WeatherPatterns.html

Stationary (Stalled) Front…

  • Definition – Two air masses meet and neither advances
  • Symbol – blue icicles alternate with red lava rocks
  • Weather – some clouds and precipitation
  • http://www.kidsgeo.com/geography-for-kids/0129-stationary-fronts.php

Occluded Front…

  • Definition – A cold air mass moves so rapidly that it overtakes a warm front and wedges the warm air up.
  • Symbol – purple alternating rocks/icicles
  • Weather – precipitation on both sides of the front
  • http://www.nvwx.com/wximages/occluded_front.png
  • http://www.aggiecat.com/Logs/logs-0016-Jan-08/occluded_front_sm.jpg
  • Gathering Weather Data

Thermometer

    • Measures temperature
    • Degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit
    • Thermometers contain liquids that expand when heated.

Barometer

  • Measures air pressure
  • Millibars or inches of mercury
  • A barometer may contain mercury or a vacuum inside a metal chamber that contracts or expands with changes in air pressure.
  • http://robertwhite.com/marineimages/precision_barometer.jpg

Anemometer

    • Measures wind speed
    • … mph or km/h or knots
    • Has cupped arms that rotate as the wind blows.
  • http://www.smg.gov.mo/www/dm/equip/ws.jpg

Hygrometer

    • Measures relative humidity
    • % age of water air is holding compared to how much it can hold.
    • Uses wet- and dry-bulb thermometers and determines how fast the water evaporates from the wet bulb.
  • https://www.avogadro-lab-supply.com/item_images/Wet%20Dry3.jpg

Ceilometer

    • Measures the height of cloud layers & estimates cloud cover
    • meters above ground level
    • Radar is beamed at the bottom of the clouds
  • http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met130/notes/chapter5/graphics/ceilometer.jpg

Upper Level Data

  • To make accurate forecasts, meteorologist gather data up to 30,000 m.
  • A radiosonde is a balloon-borne package of weather sensors (upper level data)
    • Radiosondes take measurement on temperature, air pressure and humidity.
    • They can track how fast and in what direction it is moving to determine wind speed/direction.
  • http://www.windows2universe.org/milagro/images/radiosonde_sm.jpg

Weather Radar and Satellites

  • Radar pinpoints where rain is falling at any given moment
  • http://www.comet.ucar.edu/nsflab/web/remote/1221.htm

The Doppler Effect…

  • … is the change in wave frequency of energy (sound or light) as it moves toward or away from an observer.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kg9F5pN5tlI&safe=active
  • Meteorologists use Doppler Radar to plot the speed at which raindrops move toward or away from a radar station.
  • This allows them to detect severe weather events!
  • http://24.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lvut83IRCk1r285ovo1_400.jpg
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0rJPvGML9A0

Weather Satellites…

  • a. Weather radar tracks rain.
  • b. Weather satellites track clouds.

Station Models…

  • What is a station model?
    • A record of weather data for a particular site at a particular time
  • What is the advantage of using a station model?
    • A large amount of data can be shown in a small space
  • http://www.free-online-private-pilot-ground-school.com/Aviation-weather-reporting.html

Station Model Symbols…

  • http://0.tqn.com/d/weather/1/0/R/-/-/-/cloudcover.gif
  • Cloud/Sky Cover
  • Wind Speed
  • http://www.scalloway.org.uk/images/knots.gif

  • The Nature of Storms
  • Thunderstorms and Severe Weather

Average Number of Thunderstorm Days Annually… Florida is #1!!

Cause of Thunderstorms…

  • Warm air rises over a mountain
  • Temperature difference b/tw land & sea
  • Fronts

Types of Thunderstorms…

  • Air Mass - Mountain
    • Where… within one air mass over a mountain
    • Why… warm air rises over a mountain, forming storm clouds!
    • When… midafternoon
  • http://web.mst.edu/~rogersda/umrcourses/ge301/press&siever12.3.png

Types of Thunderstorms…

  • Air Mass - Sea-Breeze
    • Where… coastal areas, esp. tropics/subtropics
    • Why… temperature differences between land and sea create convection cells and updrafts
    • When… summer
  • http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/~wintelsw/MET1010LOL/web/notes/chapter11/ts_ingredients4summary.html

Types of Thunderstorms…

  • Frontal - Cold
    • Where… at the leading edge of a cold front
    • Why… cold air pushes warm air rapidly up at the steep cold-front boundary
    • When… anytime a cold front moves in!
  • http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met130/notes/chapter11/graphics/cf_xsect.jpg

Types of Thunderstorms…

  • Frontal – Warm
    • Where… at the leading edge of a warm front
    • Why… warm air mass slides up over a cold air mass creating clouds
    • When… if a warm front moves in with enough moisture and instability
  • http://www.atmoz.org/img/warm-front.png

Lightning…

  • What is lightning?
    • A giant spark of static electricity
  • How does a lightning bolt form?
    • A ‘-’ channel of air from a cloud (stepped leader) connects with a ‘+’ channel on the ground (return stroke).
  • http://i.imwx.com/web/multimedia/images/blog/stepped_lightning2.jpg

Lightning…

  • What causes thunder?
    • Super-heated air expanding and contracting
  • How hot is lightning?
    • 30,000 degrees Celsius
  • http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/lightning/images/lightning8.jpg
  • http://www.eoearth.org/files/119701_119800/119773/Step5.jpg

Lightning Damage…

  • The damage that lightning can do…
    • 7500 forest fires/year
    • 300 injuries/ 93 deaths/year
    • Property damage
  • Lightning-struck trees on the Blue Ridge Parkway
  • http://www.sciencephoto.com/images/download_lo_res.html?id=670034119
  • http://www.barransclass.com/phys1090/circus/JenkinsD/JenkinsD.html

Lightning Safety…

  • “When lightning roars, go indoors!”

Tornadoes (Formation of…)

  • change in wind direction & speed creates horizontal rotation.
  • Strong updrafts tilt rotating air to vertical position.
  • Tornado forms within rotating winds.
  • http://www.weatherwizkids.com/tornado_formation.jpg

Tornado Alley The Midwest!

  • http://midwestweather.net/archives/tornadoclimatology.htm
  • A supercell is a giant, self-sustaining storm that can spawn tornados.
  • (A cP air mass from Canada meets a mT air mass from the Gulf of Mexico)
  • Tornado Alley is in the midwest.
  • Most tornadoes occur in May.

The Enhanced Fujita Scale…

  • This scale is used to classify a tornado AFTER the tornado has passed by looking at the damage and effects of the tornado.
  • EF0 to EF5

Tornado Safety…

  • Move to a pre-designated shelter – to a basement if possible.
  • Move to an interior room/hall, lowest floor, under sturdy furniture. (A bath tub is safest!)
  • Stay away from windows.
  • Get out of vehicles!
  • Don’t try to outrun a tornado.
  • If outside, lie flat in a ditch or depression.
  • Abandon a mobile home for a shelter.
  • Tropical Storms & Hurricanes

Tropical Cyclones…

  • A tropical cyclone can be described as a…
    • Large, rotating, low pressure storm
  • We call these storms…
    • hurricanes
  • Tropical cyclones derive energy from…
    • Warm, tropical oceans
  • http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/HAW2/english/history.shtml

Tropical Cyclones…

  • As a hurricane strengthens, what do the following components do?
    • Air pressure in eyewall– decreases
    • Surface wind speeds – increase

Tropical Cyclones…

  • Which direction do tropical cyclones turn in the northern hemisphere?
    • Counterclockwise
    • It is a low pressure system!
    • Remember the Coriolis effect?
  • Fran, 1996, Cape Fear, NC Name was retired!

Tropical Cyclones…

  • Tropical cyclones in the N. Hemisphere move steadily towards…
    • the west!
    • Which wind system moves across the USA and usually guides hurricanes out into the Atlantic Ocean?
    • the prevailing westerlies
  • Hurricane Rita – 2005, 3rd lowest pressure in Atlantic (897 mb), hit as cat. 3
  • http://www.srh.noaa.gov/shv/?n=hurricane_rita

Development of a Tropical Cyclone…

  • Tropical Disturbance – a weak, low-pressure system – group of thunderstorms collect

Development of a Tropical Cyclone…

  • Tropical Depression – a disturbance begins to rotate around the center of low pressure
  • Katrina as a tropical depression
  • http://www.uvs-model.com/WFE%20on%20tropical%20cyclone%20(Hurricane).htm

Development of a Tropical Cyclone…

  • Tropical Storm – a depression is labeled a storm when the wind speeds reach 39 mph.
  • Tropical Storm Dalila, July 2007
  • http://www.weatherstockphotography.com/

Development of a Tropical Cyclone…

  • Tropical Hurricane – pressure drops and the wind speeds reach 74 mph
  • http://www.weatherstockphotography.com/
  • Ivan2006
  • Dean 2007
  • Katrina 2005

Classifying Hurricanes… The Saffir-Simpson Scale

  • 4 characteristics of a hurricane described…
    • Wind speed – how high?
    • Air pressure – how low?
    • Potential for damage – how much?!
    • Storm surge
  • http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/sshws_table.shtml?large

Classifying Hurricanes…

  • The Saffir-Simpson Scale…
  • Categories 1 – 5
  • Category that does the most damage – 5
  • Wind speed of a cat 5? > 155 mph
  • Three most powerful storms to hit USA?
    • Florida Keys, 1935
    • Camille, 1969
    • Andrew, 1992
  • http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastint.shtml

Classifying Hurricanes…

  • A hurricane runs out of energy
    • When it moves over land or cold water
  • http://backyard.weatherbug.com/profiles/blogs/the-south-central-texas-445

Hurricane Hazards…

  • The strongest winds in a hurricane are in the…
    • eye wall
  • http://www.med.navy.mil/sites/nmcp/localarea/Weather/PublishingImages/def1.gif

Hurricane Hazards…

  • What is a storm surge?
    • When hurricane force winds drive a mound of ocean water towards coastal areas
  • http://www.chathamemergency.org/images/storm%20surge%202.png

Storm Surge…

  • 9 of every 10 people who die in a hurricane are killed by the storm surge.
  • You should EVACUATE so you don’t get killed by the storm surge!

Hurricane Hazards…

  • What hurricane hazard is caused by great amounts of rain?
    • floods
  • http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1996/of96-499/text/PHOTOS.html

Hurricane Hazards…

  • Which agency is responsible for tracking and forecasting hurricanes?
  • The National Hurricane Center in Miami, FL
  • (FIU Campus) (NOAA)

The World’s Best Hurricane Safety Tip…

  • EVACUATE!!
  • Human Impact on Air Quality

Smog (Smokey Fog)…

  • Smog is a yellow-brown photochemical haze.
  • Smog is caused by solar radiation heating pollution (hydrocarbons & nitrogen oxides mostly from car exhaust).
  • Smog makes it difficult to breathe!
  • The major chemical in smog is ozone.
  • b/c Ozone irritates the eyes, nose, throat, & lungs.

Particulate Matter…

  • Four examples of particulate matter include…
    • ash, dust, pollen, & asbestos fibers.
    • These are forms of SOLID pollutants in the air.
  • Particulate matter is harmful to people because it can…
    • get in lung tissues & cause breathing difficulties & lung disease.
    • See next slide…

Review Only! The Greenhouse Effect

  • What is the greenhouse effect? It is heat from the sun being trapped by the gases in our atmosphere.
    • A greenhouse effect you may relate to is that of a closed car on a cold, sunny day in winter.
    • The greenhouse effect is a GOOD thing! It allows for life on our planet!
  • http://www.uic.com.au/graphics/ueg1-1.gif

Global Warming…

  • Global warming is…
    • … an increase in Earth’s average surface temperature.
  • Some scientists believe that the cause of global warming is...
    • the burning of fossil fuels
    • Write examples in margin…
    • which releases carbon dioxide (CO2)
    • CO2 makes up only .04% of the atmosphere! (4 out of 10,000 molecules)
    • Coal for electricity
    • Gasoline for vehicles
    • Natural Gas for fireplaces and cooking

Fossil Fuel Use

  • Fossil Fuels Used…
    • Coal for electricity
    • Gasoline for vehicles
    • Natural Gas for fireplaces and cooking
  • There are many scientists who believe the Sun has the major role in global warming/cooling.
  • To reduce levels of CO2 in the atmosphere people can …
  • … reduce our use of fossil fuels! (And stop breathing!) How?

The Ozone Issue

  • Review! The ozone layer is found in the stratosphere.
  • Ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
  • www.space.gc.ca

Add to Margin of Notes: 3 Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation…

      • Ultraviolet radiation from the sun can cause cataracts (a clouding of the lens of the eye) and skin cancer.
      • Ultraviolet radiation can kill the eggs of certain animals like amphibians because they lay their eggs in shallow water.
  • www.matthews.co.nz
  • www.waterencyclopedia.com
  • www.mja.com.au

The Ozone Issue

  • Man-made chemicals called (CFCs) chlorofluorocarbons react with ozone and break it apart.
  • (The part of the CFC molecule that reacts with the ozone molecule is the chlorine atom.)
  • observe.arc.nasa.gov

The Ozone Issue

  • CFCs are used as refrigerants, coolants, propellants in aerosol cans, and Styrofoam.
  • tiki.oneworld.net
  • www.ec.gc.ca

The Ozone Issue

  • We should eliminate sources of CFCs worldwide. (CFCs were banned in the late 1980’s in industrialized nations. They are still in use in some places in the world.)
  • “Under the 1987 Montreal Protocol, developing countries committed themselves to halving consumption and production of the CFCs by 2005 and to achieving an 85 percent cut by 2007.”
  • http://www.tribuneindia.com/2002/20020919/science.htm#2

Acid Precipitation (Rain)…

  • 1. Acid precipitation (rain) is precipitation with a pH of less than 5.
  • The pH of natural precipitation is 5.0 to 5.6.
  • 2. Acid precipitation forms when sulfur dioxide (SO2) & nitrogen oxides (NO2) combine w/ atmospheric water to create sulfuric acid & nitric acid.
  • 3. Six types of acid precipitation are acidic rain, snow, fog, mist, gas, and dust.
  • Nitrous oxide and sulfur dioxide come from
  • volcanoes, marshes, and human activities

Coal-burning Power Plant – Jacksonville, FL

  • 5. The source of acid precipitation that receives the most attention is caused by coal-burning power plants in the midwestern USA.

Acid Rain…

  • 6. Three effects of acid precipitation are the damage it causes to…
    • … aquatic ecosystems
    • … plants & soil.
    • … stone buildings & statues.
  • Easy on the acid rain, guys!

Acid Rain…

Station Model…

  • http://visual.merriam-webster.com/images/earth/meteorology/station-model.jpg

Jet Streams…

  • Definition of Jet Stream…
    • Narrow bands of fast, high altitude westerly winds (which resemble jets of water)
    • Jet streams follow the boundaries between hot and cold air and are strongest in the winter.
  • http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Dictionary/Jet_Stream/DI68G1.jpg

A Jet Stream As It Appears on a Weather Map…

Jet Streams…

  • Location by Wind Systems…
    • A. Polar jet stream (separates polar easterlies from prevailing westerlies)
    • B. Subtropical jet stream (where the trade winds meet the prevailing westerlies)


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