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THE NEW


SCHAFF‑HERZOG


ENCYCLOPEDIA


OF


RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE


Editor‑in‑Chirf


SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.


Editor‑in‑Chief

of

Supplementary Volumes




LEFFERTS A. LOETSCHER, Ph.D., D.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY


BAKER BOOK HOUSE
GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN





THE NEW


SCHAFF‑HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA

or

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE



EDITED BY

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.



(Editor‑in‑ Chief )

WITH THE ASSISTANCE of

CHARLES COLEBROOK SHERMAN

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE., M.A.

(daeociate Editors)

AND THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENT KDITON•

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.



(Department of Symemamc 77uoloyy)

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.



(Department of Minor Denominations)

JAM FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.



(Department of Luuryicr and Reiigiosu Orders)

JAKE FREDERIC McCUBDY, PH.D., LL.D.



(Department of the Old Teerament)

HENRY SYLVESTER NABH, D.D.



(Department of the New Testament)
ALBERT HENRY NEWNAN, D.D., LLD.

(Department of Church History)


FRANK HORACE YIZETELLY, F.B.A.

(Department of P"mnciation and 7ooyraphY)


VOLUME V

GOAR ‑ INNOCENT




BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

1953

EXCLUSIVE AMERICAN PUBLICATION RIGHTS

SECURED BY BAKER BOOK HOUSE FROM FUNK AND WAGNALLS

PHOTOLITHOPRINTED BY CUSHING ‑ MALLOY, INC.

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

1953


EDITORS


SAMUEL XACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(EDITOR‑IN‑CHIEF.)

Professor of Church History, New York University.

ASSOCIATE EDITORS



CHARLES COLE33ROOK SHERMAN GFEORG~E WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.

Editor in Biblical Criticism and Theology on "The New New York, Formerly Professor of Biblical History and

International Encyclopedia," New York. Lecturer on Comparative Religion, Bangor Theological

Seminary.

DEPARTMENT EDITORS, VOLUME V

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.



(Department of Systematic Theology.)

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary.

HENRY BINGE CARROLL, LL.D.



(Department of Minor Denominations.)

Secretary of Executive Committee of the Western Section for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Liturgics and Religious Orders.)

President of St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.

JAMES FREDERICK. MCCURDY, Ph.D.,

LL.D.


(Department of the Old Testament.)

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College,

Toronto.

HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.



(Department of the New Testament.)

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New

Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.

ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Church History.)

Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary

(Baylor University), Waco, Tex.

FRANK HORACE VIZETELLY, F.S.A.

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography.)

Managing Editor of the STANDARD DICTIONARY, etc.,

New York City.

CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME Y

JUSTIN EDWARDS ABBOT, D.D.,

Missionary in Bombay, India.

ERNST CHRISTIAN ACHELIB, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Marburg.

WILHELM ALTMANN, Ph.D.,

Director of the Deutsche Musiksammlung, Berlin.

FRANKLIN CARL ARNOLD,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Breslau.



JOHANNES BACHMANN (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Rostock.
HERMANN GE03ELG JULIUS BECK,

Consiatorial Councilor and First Preacher, Baireuth.


CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECg­

WITH, D.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary.


IZA33X • BENEATH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Konigsberg.




IMDIANUEL GUSTAV ADOLF BEN­

ZIN(iER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

German Orientalist and Vice‑Consul for Holland in

Jerusalem.


CARL ALBRECHT BERNOULLI, Th.Lic.,

Professor in Berlin.



CARL BERTHEAU, Th.D.,

Pastor of St. Michael's, Hamburg.

BERNHARD BESS, Th.Lic.,

Librarian, University of Halle.



WILLIBALD BEYBCHLAQ (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Halle.

TEEBOD03ELA CROSBY BLISS,

Writer on Missions.

EMIL BLOESCH (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology. Bern.

HEINRICH BOEHMER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Professor of Church History, University of Bonn.



CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME V




GOTTLIEB NATHANAEL BON­

WETSOH, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Gottingen.

FRIEDRICH BOSSE, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Auxiliary Librarian, University Library, Marburg.

GUSTAV BOSSERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Retired Pastor, Stuttgart.

JOHANNES F'RIEDRIOH THEODOR

BRIEGER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Leipsic.

CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D.,

Litt.D.,


Professor of Theological Encyclopsjdia and Symbolics,

Union Theological Seminary, New York.

ARTHUR YON BROECKER, Th.D.,

Chief Pastor of Jacobiklrche, Hamburg.

CARL VON BUCHRQCHKR (t), Th.D.,

Late Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Munich.

FRANTS PEDER WILLIAM BUHL,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University of Copenhagen.


KARL BURGER (t), Th.D.,

Late Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Munich.

H933MICH CARL CARSTENS (t),

Late Provost in Tondern, Prussia.

WALTER CASPARI, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology,

University of Erlangen.

JOHAN ANTERS OEDEBBERG, Th.D.,

Provost in St. Michel, Finland.

JAOAUES EUGUE CHOISY, Th.D.,

Pastor in Geneva.

JOHN WILLIAM CLARK,

Corresponding and Executive Secretary of the National

Indian Association.

JOSEPH BOURNE CLARKE, D.D.,

Editorial Secretary of the Congregational Home Mis­

sionary Society, New York.

OTTO CONSTANTIN CLEMEN,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Gymaseial Professor at Zwickau.

FERDINAND COHRS, Th.Lic.,

Consistorial Councilor, Weld, Germany.

HENRY COWAN, D.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Aberdeen,

Scotland.

EDWARD TANJORE CORWIN, D.D.,

Church Historian, North Branch, New Jersey.


AUGUST HERMANN CREMES (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Systematic Theology, University of

Greifawald.


GUSTAF HERMAN DALMAN,

Ph.D., Th.D.,



Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Univereity of

Leipeic, and President of the German Evangelical

Archeological. Institute, Jerusalem.


EDWIN CHARLES DARGAN, D.D., LL.D.,

Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Macon. Georgia.

JOHN D. DAVIS, Ph.D., D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Oriental and Old Testament Literature,

Princeton Theological Seminary.


GUSTAV ADOLF DEISSMANN, Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Berlin.

SAMUEL MARTIN DEUTSCH, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.

FRANZ WILHELM DIBELIUS,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Supreme Oonsietorial Councilor, City Superintendent, and

Pastor of the Kreuakirche, Dresden.


ERNST VON DOBSCHUETZ, Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of

Strasburg.

PAUL GOTTFRIED DBEWS, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Halle.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.,

President of St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, New York.

EX31L EGLI (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Zurich.

JOHANNES ERDMANN,

Pastor at Skurz, Province of West Prussia.

LUDWIG ALPR30M ERICHSON (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Preacher at St. Thomas', Strasburg, Germany.

HUBERT EVANS, Ph.D.,

Member of the Editorial Staff of the Encyclopaedia

Britannica Company, New York.




PAUL FEINE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of

Berlin.

CHRISTIAN THEODOR FICKER, Ph.D.,



Emeritus Pastor at Eythra, near Leipsic.
DAVID HAY FLEXING, LL.D.,

Honorary Secretary of the Scottish Historical Society,

Edinburgh.

FRIEDRICH FLOERING, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Consistorial Councilor, Darmstadt.

RUDOLF FOSS (t),

Late Councilor in Groeslichterfelde, Germany.

FRANK HUGH FOSTER, Ph.D., D.D.,

Professor of History, Olivet College, Michigan.

GUSTAV WILHELM FRANK (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Dogmatics, Symbolics and Christian

Ethics, University of Vienna.

HERMAN FRANKFURTH, Ph.D.,

Teacher at the Sophien‑Realgymnasium, Berlin.

ALBERT FREYSTEDT (t), Th.Lic.,

Late Pastor in Cologne.

EMIL ALBERT FRIEDBERG,

Th.D., Dr. Jnr.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical, Public, and German Law,

University of Leipsic.

WILHELM FUNKE (t),

Late Pastor at Gehrden, near Hanover.

JOHANNES ABRAHAM GERTH VAN

WIJK (t), Th.D.,

Late Reformed Church Clergyman at The Hague, Holland.

GE03ELGE WILLLA M GILMORE, M.A.,

Former Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on

Comparative Religion, Bangor Theological Seminary.

WILHELM GOETZ, Ph.D.,

Honorary Professor of Geography, Technical High School,

and Professor, Military Academy, Munich.




CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME V


CASPAR BEN* GREGORY Ph.D., Th.D.,

D.D., LL.D., Dr.~ur.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of

Leipsic.


PAUL GRVENME%G, Th.Lic.,

Pastor in Strasburg.

GEORG GRUETZMACHER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Extraordinary Professor of Church History, University

of Heidelberg.

PAULUS GUEDER (t),

late Pastor at Biglen, Switzerland.

HERMANN (?LITHE, Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Wpsic.

MARL HAC$ENSCHXIDT, Th.D.,

Pastor in Strasburg.

ADOLF HAANACH, M.D., Ph.D.,

Th.D., Dr. Jur.,

General Director of the Royal Library, Berlin.

THOMAS SAMUEL HASTINGS, D.D.,

LL.D., L.H.D.,

Emeritus Professor of Pastoral Theology, Union Theo­

logical Seminary, New York.

ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History University of Wpsic Editor­

in‑Chief of the Hauck‑herzog $eolencyklopete.

HERMAN HAUPT, Ph.D.,

Professor and Director of the University Library, Giessen.

JOHANNES HAQSSLEITER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of the New Testament, University of Greifewald.

AUGUST WILHELM HEGLER (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Ttabingen.

ERNST HENKE (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Marburg.

LUDWIG THEODOR EDGAR HENNECBE,

Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Pastor in Betheln, Hanover.

WILHELM HERMANN, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Marburg.

JOHANN JAKOB HERZOG (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Reformed Theology, University of

Erlangen.

PAUL DIETHELM HESS,

Pastor at Witikon near Zurich.

JOHANNES HESSE,

Former Editor of the Evanpeliachea Miaaiona‑Maygain and

President of the Publishing Society at Calve,

Wtirttemberg.




PAUL HINSCHIQS (t), Th.D., Dr.Jur.,

Iate Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Berlin.




FERDINAND HOERSCHELMANN (t),

Th.D.,


Late Professor of Practical Theology, University of Dorpat.


EARL HOLL, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.

WILHELM HOLLENBERG (t), Ph.D.,

Late Gymnasial Director, Bonn.

ALFRED JEBEMIA8, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Privet‑docent, University of Leipsic.




ADOLF HERMANN HEINRICH KAMP­

HAUSEN (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Bonn.


FBRDINAMD FRIEDRICH WILHELX

BATTENBUSOH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics, University of Halls.


PETER GUSTAV HAWERAQ, Th.D.,

Conaistorial Councilor, Professor of Practical Theology and

University Preacher, University of Breslau.


OTTO SIRN, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics, University of JApsic.




RUDOLF BITTEL, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Unij arsity of Leipsio.

HUGO WILHELX PAUL KLEINERT,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Practical Theol­

ogy, University of Berlin.




RUDOLF $OEGEL (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Court Preacher, Berlin.

JULIUS HOESTLIN (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Dr.Jur.,


Late Professor of Theology, University of Halls.

CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH ADOLF

SOLB, Th.D.,

Prelate and Court Preacher, Ludwlgsburg,

THEODOR FRIEDRICH HERMANN

SOLDE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Erlangen.

WILHELM LUDWIG KRAFFT (t),

Late Professor at Bonn.

HERMANN GUSTAV EDUARD

KRUEGER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Giessen.

ROBERT BQEBEL (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of New Testament Exegesis and Pastoral

Theology, University of Tubingen.

ALBERT B: UHNERT,

Superintendent in Cottbus, Prussia.

JOHANNES WILHELM BQNZE,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic and Practical Theology, University;f Greifswald.


EZCity Pastor in Leonberg, Wdrrttemberg.

MORITZ LAUTERBURG, Th.D., Th.Lic.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Bern.

KARL FRIEDRICH LMD31RHOSE (t),

late Dekan in Neckarau, Mannheim.

LUDWIG LEMME, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Heidelberg.

EDUARD LEMPP, Ph.D.,

Superintendent of the Royal Orphan Asylum, Stuttgart.

BRUNO LINDNER, Ph.D.,

Professor of Aryan Languages, University of Wpeic.

GEORG LOESCHE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History~ Evangelical Theological

Faculty, Vienna.

FRIEDRICH ARMIN LOOPS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Halle.

JOHANN LOSERTH, Ph.D.,

Professor of History, University of Gras,




WILHELM PHILIPP FRIEDRICH FERDINAND LOTZ, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Erlangen.

WILHELM JULIUS MANGOLD (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Bonn.

KONRAD VON MAURER (t), LL.D.,

Late Professor of Law, University of Munich.

PAUL MEHLHORN, Th.D.,

Pastor of the Reformed Church, Lefpsic.

JAMES FREDERICK McCURDY,

Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College,

Toronto.

OTTO MEJER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late President of the Consistory, Hanover.

PHILIPP MEYER, Th.D.,

Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Hanover.

CARL THEODOR MIRBT, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Marburg.

ALEXANDER FERRIER MITCHELL (t),

D.D.,

Late Professor, University of St. Andrews, Scotland.



EUGEN MOGK, Ph.D.,

Extraordinary Professor of Northern Germanic Languages

and Literatures, University of Leipsic.

IVA Ag MOLENAAR,

Pastor in Zaandam, North Holland.

HERMANN MOSAPP, Ph.D.,

Councilor for Schools, Stuttgart.

ERNST FRIEDRICH KARL MUELLER,

Th.D.,


Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen.

GEORG MUELLER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Inspector of Schools, Leipsic.

HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.,

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New

Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.



IWAX NAUMANN, Ph.D.,

Gymnasial Teacher, Berlin.

CHRISTOF EBERHARD NESTLE,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor in the Theological Seminary, Maulbronn,

Wfrttemberg.

KARL JOHANNES NEUMANN, Ph.D.,

Professor of Ancient History, University of Strasburg.

ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN,

D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Church History Baylor Theological Seminary

(Baylor University), Waco, Texas.

FREDERICK CHRISTIAN NIELSEN (t),

D.D.,


Late Bishop of Aarhus, Denmark.

TH03EL GEORG BERNHARD ODLAND (t),

Late Pastor in Copenhagen.

CONRAD VON ORELLI, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and History of

Religion, University of Basel.

EDWARDS AXASA PARK (t), D.D.,

Late Professor in Andover Theological Seminary.

FRANCIS LANDEY PATTON,

D.D., LL.D.,

President of Princeton Theological Seminary.


CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME V

CARL PFENDER,

Pastor of St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Parts.

WILHELM PREGER (t),

Late Professor, University of Munich.

HERMANN RAHLENBECB,

Pastor in Cologne.

EDUARD REUSS (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Strasburg.

SOLOMAN B.$VASZ,

Senior of the Reformed Church, Kaschau, Hungary.

GEORG CHRIBTIAW RIETSCHEL, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology and University Preacher,

University of Leipsic.


RUDOLF ROCHOLL (t), Th.D.,

Late Ecclesiastical Councilor, Dasseldorf.

ROBERT WILLLAM ROGERS,

M.A., Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, Drew

Theological Seminary, Madison, New Jersey.

HENDRIX CORNELIS ROGGE (t), Ph.D.,

Late Professor of History, University of Harlem.

ARNOLD RUEGFG,

Pastor at Birmensdorf and Lecturer at the University of

Zurich.

GEORG WILHELX RUNZE,



Ph.D., Th.D.,

Extraordinary Professor of Religious Philosophy and

Systematic Theology, University of Berlin.

THEODOR SCHAEFER, Th.D.,

Head of the Deaconess Institute, Altona.
DAVID SCHLEY SCHAFF, D.D.,

Professor of Church History, Western Theological Seminary,

Pittsurg, Pa.

PHILIP SCHAFF (t), D.D., LL.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, Union Theological

Seminary, New York.

REINHOLD SCHMID, Th.Lic.,

Pastor in Oberholzheim, Wiirttemberg.

ALBERT SCHNEIDER (t),

Late Professor of Roman Law, University of Zurich.

LUDVIG SCHROEDER (t),

Late Professor, University of Copenhagen.

JOHANN FRIEDRICH BITTER VON

SCHULTE, Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Law, University of Bonn.

VICTOR SCHULTZE, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology,

University of Greifswald.

HANS SCHULZ, Ph.D.,

Gymnasial Professor, Steglitz, near Berlin.

LUDWIG THEODOR SCHULZE,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Rostock.

ALEXANDER SCHWEIZER (t), D.D.,

Late Professor in Zurich.

EMIL SECKEL, Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Law, University of Berlin.

REINHOLD SEEBERGI, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Berlin.

CHRISTIAAN SEPP (t), Th.D.,

Late Mennonite Preacher, Leyden.






CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME V


ISAAC SHARP LESS, LLM.,

President of Haverford College, Haverford, Pa.

FRIEDRICH ANTON EVIL SIEFFERT,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics and New Testament Exegesis,

University of Bonn.

GEORG EDUARD SIEVERS, Ph.D.,

Professor of German Literature, University of Leipsic.

ERNEST GOTTLIEB SIEMER, Ph.D.,

Professor of Latin, New York University.


JOHANN LEONHARD SONNER (t),

Th.Lic.,


Late Dean at Neustadt‑an‑der‑Aisch, Bavaria.

RUDOLF STAEHELIN (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Basel.
GE03ELG STEINDORFF, Ph.D.,

Professor of Egyptology, University of Leipsic.

GEORG EDUARD STEITZ (t), Th.D.,

Late Pastor, Frankfort‑on‑the‑Main.

WILLIAM CURTIS STILES, IBM.,

Member of the Editorial Staff of The Homiletic Review.

HERMANN LEBERECHT STRACK,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Extraordinary Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and

Semitic Languages, University of Berlin.

PHILIPP STRAUCH, Ph.D.,

Professor of Germanic Languages, University of Halle.

FRIEDRICH TEUTSCH (t), Th.D.,

Late Consistorial Councilor, Hermannstadt, Germany.

KARL THIEVE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics, University of Leipsic.

ERNST PETER WIT LX TROELTSCH,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Heidelberg.

PAUL TSCHACKERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Gdttingen.

JOHANN GERHARD WILHELM

UHLHORN (t), Th.D.,

Late Abbot of Lokkum, Germany.




HEINRICH ULNANN, Ph.D.,

Professor of History, University of Greifswald.

KONRAD VARRENTRAPP, Ph.D.,

Professor of History, University of Marburg.

SIETRE DOUWES VAN VEEN, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology,

University of Utrecht.

WILHELN VOLCK (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Rostock.


WILHELM NARKUS WALTHER, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Rostock.

BENJAMIN BRECKINRIDGE WAR­

FIELD, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology, Princeton

Theological Seminary.

FRIEDRICH WILHELN HERMANN

WASSERSCHLEBEN (t),

Late Professor of Theology, University of Giessen.

JOHANNES WEISS, ThM.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of

Heidelberg.

CARL HEINRICH VON WEIZSAECKER

(t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Tilbingen.

AUGUST WILHELM WERNER, Th.D.,

Pastor Primarius, Guben, Prussia.

FRIEDRICH LUDWIG LEONHARD

WIEGAND, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Greifswald.

PAUL WOLFF (t),

late Pastor at Friedersdorf, Brandenburg, and Editor of

the Evongeliache %irchznzeitunp.

THEOD03EL ZAHN, Th.D., Litt.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis and Introduction,

University of Erlangen.

RUDOLF ZEHNPFVND, Ph.D.,

Minister in Oranienbaum.

WILHELM ZIMMERMAN, PhM.,

Gymnasial Professor in Darmstadt.

OTTO ZOECKLER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History and Apologetics, Uni­

versity of Greifwald.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX‑yOLS. I‑Y

The following list of books is supplementary to the bibliographies given at the end of the articles

contained in volumes I.‑V., and brings the literature down to September, 1909. In this list each vocab‑

ulary entry is printed in capital letters.

ADLER , H.: 8. Adler, Anglo‑Jeurd.h Memories, and Other Sermons, London, 1909.

AxARNA TABLETS: F. M. Bahl, Die S der

Amarnabrisfe mit besmiderer ~

igung der Karwaniamen, Leipsic, 1909.

ANDREws, E. G.: F. J. McConnell Edward Gayer Andrems, a Bishop in the ldethodist Epiaco­pal Church, New York, 1909.

APOCRYPHA: Ecdesiaetwus: The Greek Text of Codex 243. Ed. with a textual Commentary and Prolegomena by J. H. A. Hart, London, 1909.

The Goa~el of Barnabas, ed. and tranel . . . by L. and Laura Ragg, Oxford, 1909.

APOLOGETICS: W. Baldenaperger, Urduistliche Apologia, Strasburg, 1909

J. C. Rickett, Origins and Faith. An Essay of Reconciliation, London, 1909.

H. E. Sampson, Propreseive Creation. A Recon­ciliation of Religion with Science, 2 vole., ib. 1909.

R. M. Wenl , Modern Thought and the Crisis in Belief, ~. 1909.

AUGUsTmE: J. Mausbach, Die Ethik des heiligen Augustinus, 2 vole., Freibu.:g, 1909.

BABYLONIA: A. Ungnad, Altbabylonische Privatur­kunden aus Dilba:, Leipsic, 1909.

BAENTsCH, B.: David and rein Zeitalter, Leipsic, 1907.

BEER, G.: Saul, David, Salomo, Tiibingen, 1906;

Schabbath, ib. 1908.

BEHAIBM: H. Dreyfus, The Universal Religion: Be­haiam, its Rue and Social Import, London, 1909.

E. Hammond, The Splendor of God; being Ex­trada from the sacred Writings of the Bahais, New York, 1909.

BIBLE VERSIONS: F. Eichler, Die Deutsche BZel des Erasmus Stratter in der Universddte­Bxbliothek zu Graz. Eine Untersuchung our Geschichte des Buchwesens in xv. Jahrhun­dent ~~* ic, 1908.

The did ~ tament in Greek According to the Text of Codex Vatican=, Supplemented from Other Uncial MSS., etc., ed. A. E. Brooke and N. McLean, vol. i., part 2, Exodus and LoTriticus, Cambridge, 1909.

G. Henalow, The Vulgate, London, 1909

S. McComb, The Making of the English Bible: with an introductory Essay on the Influence of the English Bible on English Literature, New York 1909.

M. B. 'Riddle, The Story of the Revised New Testament, American Standard Edition. [Philadelphia, 1908.]

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: T. Whittaker , The Origins of

Christian %ty With an Outline of Van

Manen'a talyt;ia of the Pauline Literature

and an Appendix on Galatians, London, 1909.

BIBLICAL INTRODUCTION: W. Wrede, Origin of the New Testament, London, 1909.

BoNIFACB, SAINT: G. Sehnarer, Banifatius Die Bekehnung der deutachen zum Chriatentum, Mainz, 1909.

BUDDHISM: L. de La Vall6e Poussin, Bouddhiame. Opinions sur d'hist. de la dogmatique, Paris, 1909.

V. A. Smith, Asoka, the Buddhist Emperor of India, New York, 1909.

CABALA: S. L. M. Mathers, %abbalah Unveiled, 3d ed., London, 1907.

CALviN, J.: A. Lang, Johannes Calvin. Ein Le­benabild zu aeinem .1,00 Geburtstag am 10 Juli, 1909, Leipsic, 1909.

Johannes Calvins Lebenewerk in seinem Brie Eine Auswahl von Briefen Calving in

aeher Uebersetzung, 2 vols., Tiibingen, 1909.

CAMPANELLA, T.: J. Kvacala, Thomas Campanella, ein Reformer ausgehenden Renaissance, Ber­lin, 1909.

CANON oh THE BIBLE: Jugie, Histoare du canon de l'Aneien Testament dons l'6glise grecque et l'tglise rusael Paris, 1909.

CARMEL: E. von Miilinen, Beitrage zur Kenntnis des Karmels, Leipsic, 1908.

CENSORSHIP, ETC.‑ T. S. Betten, The Roman Index of Forbidden Books, St. Louis, 1909.

CHURCH HISTORY: C. Bigg, The Origins of Chris­tianity, ed. T. B. Strong, New York, 1909.

L. Duchesne, Early History of the Christian Church. From its Foundation to the End of the Third Century, London, 1909.

CHURCH AND STATE: S. Z. Batten, The Christian State: the State, Democracy and Christianity, Philadelphia, 1909.

CLEmENT or ALEXANDRIA: J. Gabrielson, Ueber die Quellen des Clemens Alexandrinus, part 2, Zur genaueren Praffung der Favorinushy­pothese, Leipsie, 1909.

ConIPARATIvE RELIGION: Add to the bibliography W. Mundt, Vdlkerpsychologie, Leipsie, 1904 s19.

K. H. E. de Jong, Dos antike Mysterienwesen in rel eschichtlicher ethnologischer and psycho .=' cc Beleuchtu , Leyden, 1909.

J. Toutain, Iftudes de m et d'histoire



des religions a s, Paris 1909.

J. H. Leuba, Paye~ologieal (~rign and Nature of Religion, London, 1909.



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX‑VOLUMES I‑V

D. A. Bertholet, The Transmigration of Souls, ib. 1909.

W. St. C. Tisdall, Mythic Chriats and the True: a Criticism of some modern Theories, ib. 1909.

CONWAY, M. D.: Addresses and Reprints 1860‑1907, Boston, 1909.

DANTE A.: Inferno, ed. C. H. Grandgent, Boston, 199. The Convivo, London and New York, 1909.

DEACONEss: E. F. von der Goltz Der Diend der Frauen in der chriWichen lfChe, Potsdam, 1905.

DOBseHVETz, E. vow: Christusbs7der (in TU, 1899); Der g .=Is Stand der neuteatament­lichen ese, Tu~ingen, 1906, Eng. transl., London, 1909.

DOGMA, DoaMATics: F. Schaeder, Theozentriache Theologie, Leipsic, 1909.


EcsHARDT, M.: Meister Eckhardt's Sermons, Eng. trand., by C. Field, London, 1909.

EGYPT: Texts Relating to St. Mena of E and Canons of Nicacea, in a Nubian , ed. E. A. W. Budge, London, 1909.

EGYPT ExPLoRATioN FUND: The Oxyrrhynchus Papyri, part vi., ed. B. P. Grenfell an A. S. Hunt, London, 1908.

ENGLAND, CHURCH OF: W. H. Hutton, History of the Church, 161,8‑1816, London, 1908.

C. Bullock, The Story of England's Church, London, 1909.

ERAsmus: J. Lindeboom, Eramua, Onderzoek nwr zz ne theologie en zijn godadiendig gemoedsliestaan, Leyden, 1909.

ETHics: M. Cronin, The Science of Ethics. Vol. i., General Ethics, London, 1909.

EUCHARIST: D. Stone, A History of the Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist, 2 vols., Dondon, 1909.

E. T. Green, The Eucharist, ib., 1908.

FRANcis OF Assisi: H. Holzapfel, Handbuch der Geschichte des Franziskanerordens, Freiburg, 1909.

GERHARDT, P.: R. Eckart, Paul Gerhardt. Urkun­den and Aktenstiicke zu seinem Leben and Kampfen, Gliickstadt, 1909.


GOD: W. N. Clarke, The Christian Doctrine of God,

New York, 1909.

A. Daniels, Quellenbeitrdge and Untersuchung­en zur Geschzchte der Gottesbeweise in 13. Jahrhundert, Munster, 1909.

GOOD WORKS: O. Bensow, Glaube, Liebe, and g‑ute Werke, Giitersloh, 1906.

GosPELs: D. J. Chapman, Notes on the Early His­tory of the Vulgate Gospels, New York, 1908

J. Frey, Die 1~robleme der Leidengeschichte Jesu. Beitrage zur Kridik der Evangelien, part 1, Leipsic, 1907.

A. Harnack, New Testameid Studies: 11, The Sayings of Jesus, the second Source of St. Matthew and St. Luke, New York, 1908.

H. B. Sharman, The Teachings of Jesus about the Future, according to the Synoptic Gospels, Chicago, 1909.

B. Weiss, Die Quellen der syttoptischen Ueber­lieTeerung, Leipsic, 1908

F. . Worsley, The Fourth Gospel and the Synoptists, Edinburgh, 1909.


GREGORY NAZIANZEN: Gregoire de Narianw. Dis­coure funebres en Monneur de son frbre Ce­saire et de Basile de Cdsaree. Texte grec, tradudion rangaise, introduction et index par F. B , Paris, 1908.

GREGORY OF NYSSA: Gregoire de Nysse, Discours catkhdtique, Texts grec, tradudion fran~aise, introduction et index par L. M6ridzer, Paris, 1908.

GREvnqo, K. M. N. J.: Johann Eck als junger Ge­lehrterr Munster, 1906; Johann Ecks Pfarr­buch, ib. 1908.

HABAKKUK: B. Duhm, Das Buch Habakkuk, Tu­bingen, 1906.

F. Nicolardot, Le Composition du livre d'Ha­bacuc, Paris, 1909.

HALL, C. C.: Sermons, New York, 1909; Christ and the Eastern Soul (Barrow Lectures, 1906‑07), Chicago, 1909; The Silver Cup‑ simple Mes­sages to Children from one mho loved them, Boston, 1909.

HANNINGTON, J.: W. G Berry, Bisho Hanning­ton. The Life and Adventures ofia mission­ary Hero, London, 1908.

HARms, C.: F. ZIppe1, Klaus Harms and die Homi­lie, Giitersloh, 1908.

HEBREW LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE: J. Mein­hold, Die Weisheit leraels in Spruch, Sage and Dichtung, Leipsic, 1908.

HEGEL, G. W. F.: B. Croce, Lebendiges and Totes in Hegels Philosophie, mit einer Hegel‑Biblio­graphie, Heidelberg, 1909.

HEHN, J. F.: Siebenzahl and Sabbat bed den Baby­loniern and im Altern Testament, Leipsic, 1907.

HELLENIBM: J. Kaerst, Geschichte deg hellenistischen Zeitauers, 3 vo1s., Leipsic, 1901‑09.

HELLENIsTIc GREEK: W. H. P. Hatch, in JBL, xxvii (1908), 134‑146.

HEMPHILL, S.: History of the Revised Version of the New Testament, London, 1906.

HExATEUCH: A. F. Puukko, Daa Deuteronomium, Leipsic, 1909.

J. Winter and A. Wiinsche, Mechilta. Ein tannaitischer Midrasch zu Exodus. Beitrage von L. Blau, Leipsic, 1909.

HIBBERT LEcTuREs: W. James, A Pluralistic Uni­verse. Hibbert Lectures at Manchester Col­lege on the Present Situation in Philosophy, London, 1909.

HIGH PLACES: G. Dahnan, Petra and seine Fels­



heilxgtamer, Leipsic, 1908.

G. L. Robinson, H h Places of Petra, in Bib­lical World, xxxi 1908).

HILAmus: H. Lindemann, Des heiligen Hilarius von Poitiers Liber mysteriorum, Munster, 1905.

M. Schiktanz, Die Hilarius Fragments, Breslau, 1905.

HINDUISM: E. B. Havel], Benares, the Sacred City:

Sketches of Hindu Life and Religion, Boston, 1908.

HOBBEs, T.: A. E. Taylor, Thomas Hobbes, Edin­burgh, 1908.

HOENNIcKE, G.: Die neutestamentliche Weissagung, Gross‑Lichterfelde, 1907; Das Judenchrueten­tum in 1. and Q. Jahrhundert, Berlin, 1908.


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