it requires the recognition of his identity of being
with God, without which the absoluteness of his
historic mission can not be conceived. But it does
not go into the metaphysical profundities from
which it might be hoped to gain an insight into the
inner recesses of the divine nature. It lights up
history with the light of eternity; but it can show
us eternity only in the light of history, not in its
own supernatural radiance. (O. KIRN.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: On Jewish and ethnic doctrines of the Logos consult: A. Aall, Der Logos, Gsachichte seiner Entwickelung, 2 vole., Leipaie, 1896‑99; J. M. Heinze, Die Lehre vom Logos in der priechiechen Phidoeophie, Oldenburg, 1872; Schiirer, Geachichte, iii. 55fr557, Eng, trsnel., TL, iii. 374‑376; works on O. T. theology, especially that of Schultz; and the literature under Pamo.
On the Johannine doctrine: H. H. Wendt, Daa Johaxneaevangelium, Gottingen, 1900; M. Stuart, in Bibliotheca Sacra, 1850, pp. 281‑327 W. Emlieht, Thsophania; or, Scriptural View of the Manifestation of the Logos or pre‑existent Messiah, London, 1857; RShrieht, in TSK, 1888, pp. 299‑315; J. Rwille, La Doctrine du Logos dens Is qualripme 6vanpiLe et dana Zee auvree de Philon, Paris, 1881; H. P. Liddon, Divinity of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, lecture v.. London, 1885; H. W. Watkins. Modern Criticism Considered in its Relations to the Fourth Gospel, lecture viii., ib. 1890; A. Harnack, in ZKT, ii (1892), 189‑231; idem Dogma, vole. i.‑iv (contains also the later development); G. B. Stevens, Johannine Theology, chap, iv., New York, 1894; W. Baldensperger, Der Prolog des !,. EvanOetiuma, Freiburg, 1898; Jannsrie, in ZNT1V, Feb., 1901, pp, 13 eqq,; W. R. Inge, Personal Idealism and Mysticism, lectures ii.‑iii., New York 1907; Lichtenberger, ESR, viii. 334‑339; DB iii. 132‑138; EB, iii. 2811‑2812; the commentaries on the Fourth Gospel, especially that of H. J. Holtzmann, Tiibingen, 1893; the works on N. T, theology, particularly that of Beyechlag; and the works on the history of doctrine. The last‑named class of works is also to be consulted for the later development of the doctrine, and further works of value are: L. Atzberger Die LoOOalehre des heiligen Athanariue, Munich, 1880; C. Bigg, Christian Platoniata of Alexandria, London, 1886.
LOISTS, f'o'ists: A pantheistic sect of the sixteenth century. The first mention of the sect of the Lolsts occurs in a letter of Luther's dated Mar. 21, 1525, in which he writes that some " new prophets " from Antwerp had appeared in Wittenberg, and that they put the mind and reason of man on terms of equality with the Holy Ghost. A disputation took place, in Luther's presence, between Melanchthon and the leader of this sect, a slater named Eligius (Loy) Pruystinck; and shortly afterward Luther directed a warning to his own adherents at Antwerp against dangerous " blustering and noisy spirits." Pruystinek was subjected to an examination by the Inquisition at Antwerp (Jan., 1526); he recanted, and was cleared with the sentence of public ecclesiastical penance. Nevertheless his doctrines in the following decades spread not only in Antwerp but also in the district about Cologne, in Brabant, and in Flanders. But an additional investigation ensued in the summer of 1544, ending in the execution of Pruystinck and of six of his followers and completely disbanding their sect. The Loists religious attitude may be defined as a corollary of practical pantheism. Man's
intellectual nature is a spiritual substance; =in
other words, every one possesses the Holy Ghost.
Since man's flesh and spirit are thoroughly inde
pendent, and with no influence upon each other,
the spirit of man incurs no responsibility for the
weakness of the flesh; hence the spirit, as such, is
sinless. The final goal of man is to vanish into the
BIHLiOaRAPH7: A valuable collection of sources and history of the sect is given in J. Fredericha, De sects der Lofaten of Antwerpsche libertijnen U626‑l,6), Ghent, 1891; idem, Un LuthBrien jranvaia devenu libertin spirituel, in Bulletin hiatorique et ZittPraire de la aoci,Etk de l'hiatoire du proteatantisme jrareCais, xli (1892), 250‑269; idem, La Moralifk des libertine epirituela, ib., pp. 502‑504; A. Jundt, Hiat. du panthkiame populaire au molten spa, pp. 122 eqq., Paris, 1875. LOISY, lwa"zi', ALFRED FIRMAft: . French Roman Catholic; b. at Ambriisres (6 m. tl. of .Mayenne) Feb. 28, 1857. He was educated at the Seminary of ChT his.superiors t0 Ceme lecturing. Slllffi lhij J;ne
he has lived in retirement at Garnay, in the department of Eure‑et‑Loire. His works attracted considerable attention, and five were placed, in 1903, on the Index, although Loisy claims to seek to refute the radicalism of A: Harnack (q.v.) and to defend the orthodox faith of the Church. He has written: HiBtoire du canon de l'Ancien Testament (Paris, 1890); Hiatoire du canon du Nouveau Testament (1891); Le Livre de Job, tretduit del'hebreu (1892); HiBtoire critique du teaxe et am versions de la Bible (2 vole., Amiens, 1892‑93); Les Mythes babylonierta et lea premiers chapitrea de la Genkse (Paris, 1901); PEudes biblique8 (1901); Lo
Religion d'larazl (1901); Audea wangdliques (1902); LIvangile et Z'eglise (1902; Eng. transl. by C. Home, The Gospel and the Church, London, 1903);
1'S RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Logos
Le Quatn;eme eva'~ le (1903); Autour d'un pent livre
(1903) ; and Les Evanyiles synoptiques (1908).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. J. Williams, Newman, Pascal, Loiay,
and the Catholic Church, London, 1908; Publisher's
Weekly, Feb. 22, 1908, p. 884; Expository Times, Aug.
1909, pp. 488‑495; A. Ddtres, L'Abbe Loiay, Paris, 1909.
Origin of the Lollards (¢ 1).
Wyclif and the Early English Lollarda (¢ 2). Spread of Lollardism in England (¢ 3).
Lollard Memorial of 1395 (¢ 4).
Ecclesiastical Opposition to Lollardiem (¢ 5). The Constitutions of Arundel (¢ 0).
Sir John Oldcastle (¢ 7).
Suppression and Decline of Lollardiam (§ 8). Tenets of Lollardism (§ 9).
Lollard Opposition to Roman Catholic Doctrines (¢ 10). Lollard View of the Eucharist (¢ 11).
The name Lollards is applied both to a semimonastic charitable society originating in Brabant in the fourteenth century and to the English followers of John Wyclif. The Brabantine Lollards are mentioned by J. Hocsem, a canon of Liege c. 1350, in a notice of the year 1309, and from his account it is obvious that they received their name from the Middle Dutch loellen (" to sing softly, hum "). They first appeared prominently on the outbreak of the plague in Antwerp c. 1350, devoting themselves to the care of the sick
r. Origin and the burial of the dead, and reof the ceived the name Alexians (q.v.) from
Lollards. their patron saint. Suspected of her
esy from the very start, they were tol
erated conditionally after 1347, and their dubious
reputation transferred their name to the adherents
The middle of the fourteenth century was a period of religious transition for the English people, and the calm but intense conviction that the evils of the time must be overcome and that religious and social life must be reformed found expression in John Wyclif (q.v.). In 1378 he denied the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, receiving the support of his university, the court, the nobles, and the knights. Finding his model in the mendicant monks, he sent his closest friends, including Hereford, Aston, Bedeman (all members of the University of Oxford), Purvey (his
sermons of the mendicant orders were replaced by a new note of religious conviction, Wyelif had no ground of opposition to the ideals of St. Francis and St. Dominic, as is amply proven by his Short Rule of Life with its close affinities to the aims of St. Francis. Their followers, on the other hand, he bitterly assailed, not only for their teachings about the Eucharist, but also for their adherence to the two antipopea of the Great Schism (see SCHISM) after 1378, for their opposition to free preaching, and for their hostility to the Bible in the vernacular. Wyclif accordingly sent out his " Eoqr Priests" to invade the territory of the mendicant orders. Bound by no vows and no formal consecration, poor, and yet not mendicant, they wandered from village to village, barefoot, with a long staff in token of their pastoral vocation and coarse habits of reddish brown to symbolize poverty and toil. Prelates, priests, and abbots scorned and hated them, but the people loved them and flocked around them.
This was the beginning of the Lollard movement, which stirred England to its depths for nearly a century and a half and formed the essential basis of the Reformation. [It seems probable that Wyclif and his " Poor Priests " did not originate the type of Evangelical life and thought known as Lollardism. They rather evoked and made aggressive older forms of Evangelical life which survived the Roman Catholic conquest and may have been influenced by continental Evangelicals like the Waldenses, with whom they had much in common. The movement seems too extensive to be ascribed solely to the .preaching of Wyclif's evangelists. A. 11. N.] The ranks of the " Poor Priests " were soon increased by many of the laity, who boldly opposed the authority of the Church, while some of the nobility who did not fear the wrath of the powerful John of Gaunt, such as the count of Salisbury, likewise joined them. Among the common
people their success was enormous,
3. Spread until their adherents were believed to
of Lollard‑ number at least half the population.
ism in [This estimate is too high. It is not England. likely that one in ten was a Lollard.
A. H. rr.] Their weapon was the Bible in the vernacular, and true to their doctrine that each priest had the same power to bind and loose as pope or bishop, they ordained others to extend their work. By the middle of the fourteenth century the Lollards were at their zenith, at least numerically, but even during Wyclif's lifetime they met a rude shock when in 1382 Courtenay, archbishop of Canterbury, urged Parliament to take measures against the " Poor Priests," whom he accused of disobedience to their ecclesiastical superiors, stirring up class hostility, and propagating heresy. This was averted by Richard IL, but on the insistence of the primate he placed the matter under the jurisdiction of the ordinaries, which were to proceed against the Lollards through their own episcopal officials. The result was the excommunication of Aston and the suspension of Hereford, Repington, and Bedeman from university privileges. On Dec. 31, 1384, Wyclif died, but the movement which he had inaugurated lived and grew.
Lollards THE NEW ScHAFF‑HERZOC is
A few years later Lollards were numerous in London, Lincoln, Salisbury, and Worcester, and their tenets, no longer restricted to religion, extended to economic and political life. In 1395, doubtless emboldened by the blunt refusal of Parliament to pass the archbishop's bill for the destruction of all Wyolif's translations of the Bible, the Lollards felt themselves sufficiently strong to present a memorial to Parliament and to demand the cooperation of that body is carrying out their reform. The twelve clauses of this memorial were as follows: Faith, love, and hope had vanished from the English daughter‑
churcb since she bad been lost in
4. Lollard worldly wealth through her association Memorial with her great stepmother of Rome; of z3g5. the Roman Catholic priesthood was not that of Christ; the priestly law of celibacy resulted in unnatural vice; transubstantiation was a feigned miracle and conduced to idolatry; prayers over bread, salt, wine, water, oil, was, and the like were unlawful magic rites; it was contrary to the word of Christ (Matt. vi. 24) to have king and bishop or prelate and judge in one person; prayers for the dead were ineffectual, pilgrimages and the invocation of images were nearly idolatrous; auricular confession was not essential to salvation, but was a source of priestly arrogance and permission to sin; war was contrary to the New Testament, and death and pillage to the poor; the vows of nuns led to infanticide and unnatural impurity; and art was unnecessary and conducive to luxury and extravagance. [Cf. the teat in Fasciculi Ziraniorum, ed. W. W. Shirley in Rdla Series, pp. 380‑369, London, 1858; Wilkins, Concilia, III., p. 221; condensed tranal. in Lechler's John Wyclif, ed. P. Lorimer, pp. 447‑448.] In this memorial, however, the Lollards had overestimated their strength, and the king, who bad taken no part hitherto in the episcopal proceedings against them, now admonished them sternly.
The decline of Lollardism now began. In 1396 Thomas Arundel, a bitter opponent of the movement, succeeded Courtenay as archbishop of Canterbury, and three years later Richard II. was murdered. The throne was then occupied by the Lancastrian Henry IV., who found it to his interests to follow the lead of the hierarchic and aristocratic faction which bad given him the crown. In Jan., 1400, the bishops declared that they were unable to make headway against the heretics, and the statute De oomburendo heeretico was accordingly passed. The first to be executed under its provisions was W. Sawtrey (Cbartris), who died at the
stake in the following month. The
g. Ecclesi‑ act was enforced with special severity
a.tical Op‑ in the counties of southern and middle
position to England, while those who were not
>rovardism, burned to death were either tortured
into recantation or ended their lives in prison. Undismayed by these measures, the Lollards sought support in their struggle for religious and political freedom is the hatred of the oppressed peasantry for the priests who lived in luxury. Both the secular and the regular clergy, and especially the friars, were regarded as baying long since deserted the principles of their founders and as hav‑
ing persecuted their own brethren, the Fraticelli, the Begbards, and the Lolla,rds, for remaining faithful to the teaching of their fathers. In Piers The Plomman'a Creed (c. 1394) a man in search of the true doctrines of Christ is represented as inquiring of the four mendicant orders in succession, only to meet the scornful reply that the words of Jesus are no longer remembered, and not until he finds the " Poor Priests " does he obtain what he desires. Popular approbation of the Lollards, however, could avail little against the power of the archbishop, who in 1408 extorted from the convocation of Oxford, then the center of the movement, the Conatitutionea Thomte Arundel, which were designed to crush the tenets of Wyclif. Among other prohibitions, these regulations forbade preaching without the permission of the bishop, as well as the punishment of the sine of the clergy
The movement of repression was now extended, and commoners in city and country alike were in peril of gallows, ax, and stake. On the other head, many of the nobility remained true to their principles. Prominent among the latter was Sir John Oldcastle, Lord Cobham (see OrncnseTT.E, Six Joy), who gave free scope to the Lollards on his Kentish estates, especially as he was protected against Arundel by his friendship with Henry IV. and the Prince of Wales, afterward Henry V. The date of his conversion to Lollardiem is unknown, but was before 1410, when he was in high favor with the prince, whom he even sought to win over to his sect. During the reign of Henry IV. he bad no need to fear the hostility of the bishops, who hated him for his denial of transubstantiation and his opposition to auricular confession, pilgrimages, and the adoration of images, as well as for the wealth which he expended on the preparation and maintenance of itinerant preachers.
y. Sir Henry V., however, lent a ready ear John to the complaints of the archbishop Oldcastle. and the convocation. Oldcaatle refused to be convinced of his errors by the king, and left the court without permission, retiring to his castle of Cowley in Kent. Ignoring Arundel's citations, he was placed under the ban for contumacy and arrested by a royal warrant. He‑now formulated a reply to a committee consisting of Arundel and the bishops of Winchester and
London, but bas answers concerning transubstantiation and confession were unsatisfactory. After much urging, he finally declared himself ready to accept the teachings of the Church, but denied that the pope, the cardinals, or the prelates had the right to define these matters. He was accordingly brought before another episcopal court on Sept. 25. He refused to retract his opinions and sharply rebuked the pope and the clergy, where‑
RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Lobo
upon the archbishop delivered him over as a heretic to the secular arm. Henry vainly endeavored to induce him to recant, but he steadfastly refused and was imprisoned for weeks in the Tower. On Oct. 10, however, he escaped, and wild rumors spread through the country that the Lollards had resolved to kill the king and his brothers, as well as the archbishop and the clergy, to destroy all ecclesiastical edifices, and to make Oldcastle regent. There is no evidence that such a plot was actually formed, but on Jan. 11, 1414, about a hundred friends of Oldcastle, ignorant of his escape, gathered under the leadership of Sir Roger Acton in St. Giles to effect his liberation. They were dispersed without bloodshed, but some of the leaders were captured and executed, while two edicts were issued, one forbidding the reading of the Bible under penalty of death and the other declaring all Lollards heretics. Guarded by his friends, Oldcastle eluded capture for four years before he was taken in Wales by Lords Jeuan ab Gruffydd and Gruffydd Vychan of Garth. He was carried back to London and lodged in the Tower, where he was condemned to death Dec. 14, 1417, on the charges of high treason and heresy, his execution taking plate on the same day.
With Oldcastle's death the hopes of Lollardism vanished. Minor recalcitrants were forced to choose between recantation and execution, and all political and social aspiration, if they had ever existed, disappeared. The Council of Constance (1414‑18), moreover, had put an end to the Great Schism, and the Church, again able to devote its reunited energies to the suppression of heresy, forced the Lollards to seek refuge in secrecy and obscure hiding‑places. Driven from the fields and the streets, they concealed themselves
8. Suppres‑ in hovels and barns, sand‑pits and
aion and caves, while conventiclea in the houses
Decline of replaced preaching in the streets.
Lollardism. Their numbers at first remained undiminished, and in some parishes the Lollards formed so large a proportion that pilgrimages and processions, as well as the observance of saints' days, were neglected. Some of the clergy were found among them, but after the execution of Oldcaetle the leader was gone, although the Lollard hatred of the Church was occasionally manifested by rabid outbursts on the part of individuals. Executions for Lollardism continued long after the middle of the fifteenth century, and in 1476 the University of Oxford again had to proceed against some of its members for Wyclifite heresy. In 1485 and 1494 bishops preached in Coventry and Kyle against the " Bible Men," and in the first decade of the following century, before the thoughts of Luther had crossed the Channel, increasing numbers were condemned and burned for possessing Wyclif's writings, reading the Bible in the vernacular, and rejecting transubstantiation, auricular confession, the invocation of saints, and pilgrimages, the very things which had formed the point at issue in 1395. At Ameraham, a Lollard center, thirty men were executed in 1506, and eleven years later sectaries called " Brethren in Christ " or " Known Men " (the latter name derived from a mistranslation of I Cor. xiv. 38) were cited before the courts. VIL‑2
In a certain sense, therefore, Lollardiam, inherited for generations, was a real, though secret, precursor of the Reformation in England. With no Hues or Luther to lead them, they achieved what no other religious movement of the Middle Ages was able to do, when they succeeded in awakening and maintaining a longing for the Bible in the vernacular. The repeated efforts to secure an English Bible
which were made by Tyndale, Coverdale, Taver, ner, Cranmer, the Geneva fugitives, and Parker
were inspired primarily by the Lollard " Bible
Men." From England Lollardiam spread to Scot
land. Oxford infected St. Andrews, and the teach
ers there were repeatedly accused of adhering to
the doctrines of Wyclif'a followers, while Knox ex
pressly termed the Lollards of Kyle, Ayrshire, the
forerunners of the Reformation and the descend
ants of the Lollards of the fifteenth century.
The tenets of the Lollards must be gleaned from the legal proceedings against them, contemporary accounts, the memorial of 1395, Piers Plow»uen'a Creed, Piers Plowman's Complaint, The Lanthorn
of Light, The Plowman's Prayer, and the Repressor
of R. Peoock, but these documents moat be used
with caution. The scanty literature of the Lollards