LLOYD, WILLIAM: Bishop of Worcester; b. at Tilehurst (18 m. w. of Windsor), Berkshire, Aug. 18, 1627; d. at Hartleburg Castle (4 m. s. of Kidderminster), Worcester, Aug. 30, 1717. He studied at Oriel and at Jesus College, Oxford (B.A., 1642; M.A., 1646; B.D. and D.D., 1667), becoming a fellow of the latter college. He became a royal chaplain (1666), prebendary of Salisbury Cathedral (1667), vicar of St. Mary's, Reading, and archdeacon of Merioneth (1668), dean of Bangor and prebendary of St. Paul's (1672), vicar of St. Martin's‑in‑the‑Fields (1677) and bishop of St. Asaph (1680). He was translated to the see of Lichfield and Coventry in 1692, and to the see of Worcester in 1700. He was one of the most indefatigable opponents of Romanism under James IL, and was one of the seven bishops who were imprisoned in the Tower June 8‑15, 1688, for protesting against the Second Declaration of Indulgence. With the other
bishops he was tried and acquitted June 29. He assisted at the crowning of William and Mary and shortly afterward became lord high almoner. He furnished material for Burnet's History of the Reformation of the Church of England (3 parts, London, 1679‑1715), wrote many tracts, and also one valuable work, An Historical Account of Church Govern.. meat as it was in Great Britain and Ireland when they first Received the Christian Religion (London, 1684; reprinted in T. P. Pantin's edition of Stillingfleet's Origines Britannicce, vol. ii., Oxford, 1842).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A valuable lint of sources is appended to the article in DNB, xxjaii. 43B‑439. Consult: N. Salmon, Lives of the English Bishop@, pp. 147‑158. London, 1733; F. B. Howell, Complete Collection of State Trials, aii. 183254, xiv. 545‑580, ib. 1812; E. H. Plumptre, Life of Bishop Ken, i. 88, 140, 145, 293‑318, ii. 1‑10, 302, London, 1888; J. H. Overton, The Church in England, ii. 181 eqq., ib. 1897; w. H. Hutton, The English Church (Itt86171/,), pp. 227 eqq., ib. 1903.
LOBO, lb'b8, JERONIMO: Portuguese Jesuit missionary; b. in Lisbon 1593; d. there Jan. 29, 1678. After teaching for a time in the Jesuit college at Coimbra he went as a missionary to India in 1621, arriving at Goa in 1622. In 1825 he settled in Abyssinia as superintendent of missions in the kingdom of TigrS, but some years later he was driven from the country, along with the patriarch and other Jesuit missionaries (see ABYSSINIA AND THE ABYSSINIAN CHURCH, § 8). After trying in vain to enlist the pope and the Spanish and Portuguese governments in a scheme to reclaim Abyssinia to the Romish Church by force of arms, he returned to India in 1640 and became provincial of the Jesuits at Goa. In 1656 he returned to Lisbon, where he spent the rest of his life. He wrote in Portuguese an account of his travels, which, it seems, has never been published. The manuscript is preserved in the monastery of St. Roque, Lisbon. Balthazar Tellez drew largely upon Lobo's work for his Historic general de Ethiopia a Alta (Coimbra, 1660), which has often been attributed to Lobo. AbbE; Legrand translated Lobo's work into French under the title Voyage historique de Abisainie (Paris, 1728), which was translated by Dr. Johnson‑as A Voyage to Abyssinia (London, 1735; new ed., 1$87).
LOBSTEIN, lob'stain, PAUL: German Protestant; b. at Epinal (264 m. e.s.e. of Paris), Department of the Vosges, France, July 28, 1850. He was educated at the universities of Strasburg, Tubingen, and Gdttingen, and in 1878 became privat‑docent at the first‑named institution. In the following year he was appointed associate professor of theology at the same university, where he has been full professor since 1884. In theology he is a disciple of Reuss, A. Sabatier, and Ritachl. He has been associate editor of the works of Calvin in the Corpus Rejormattrrum, xxiii.‑xaxii., xlv., and has written Die Ethik Calvin's in ihren Grundziigen eretworfen (Strasburg, 1877); Petrua Ramus ala Theolog (1878); La Notion de la preexistence du Fils de Dieu (Paris, 1883); etudes christologiques (5 parts, 1885‑94; the second part, La Doctrine de la neissance mireculeuae du Christ, 1890, was translated into English by V. Leuliette under the title The Virgin Birth of Christ, London,
1903); La Doctrine de la Sai7ste‑Cane (Lausanne, 1889); &,/leziona sur le baPte3me des enfanla (Paris, 1892) ; Essai dune introduction h la dogmatique Ilrotestante (Paris, 1896; Eng. transl. Introduction to Protestant Dogmatics, Chicago, 1902); etudes our la doctrine chretienne de Dim (Lausanne, 1906).
LOBWASSER, 18b‑v8s'ser, AMBROSIUS: Author of the welt‑known " Lobwasaer Psalter "; b. at Schneeberg (20 m. s.s.w. of Chemnitz) Apr. 4, 1515; d. at Ktinigaberg Nov. 27,1585. He was educated at Leipaic, especially in jurisprudence (under his elder brother Paul, then professor of that subject); took his master's degree at twenty, and worked as a lecturer till 1550. During the next seven years he traveled as tutor to some young men of rank, and in 1557 became court councilor and chancellor at Meissen. At Bologna, in 1562, he attained the degree of doctor of laws. From 1563 to 1580, when he retired from active life, he was assessor and professor of law at KtSnigaberg. He was a thorough and versatile scholar, and more than once filled the office of rector of the university. Although a Lutheran by conviction, he was viev~ed askance by his coreligionista for the reason that he based his translation of the Psalter of Beza and Marot not on the original text, but on the Reformed French Psalter. His object was to popularize in Germany the melodies of the French Psalter, of the beauty of which he had received a deep impression during a long sojourn in Berry; and thus he adhered to the texts which served as channels for these melodies, in order that the meter and versification might accord with the French model. His work was primarily designed for private edification. Accidental circumstances, above all a pestilential epidemic, afforded him the requisite leisure for the undertaking; a " noble Frenchman," Gaurier, gave him encouragement, and thus the Psalter was completely rendered into German by 1562. Duke Albert of Prussia, on whose patronage Lobwasser had doubtless reckoned, died in 1568, and the publication was deferred till 1573. The title reads: Der Psalter des k6nigliehen Prophden Davids, In deutsche reyme verstendiglich and deutlich gebracht, mit vorgehender anzeigung der reymen weiae, such einea jeden Psalmes inhalt: Durch den ehruesten Hochgelarten Hewn Ambrosium Lobwasser, der Rechten Dodorn and Fiirstlicher Durchlauchtigkeit in Preussen Rathe. Und hieriiber beg einem jeden Psalmen seine zegehdrige vier stimmen: Ynd taut der Paalmen arideclitige sch&w Gebel (Leipsic, 1573).
The prayers appended to every psalm are translations of the Oraisons of Augustin Marlorat, preacher at Rouen. The summary preceding each psalm and the appended prayer stamp the work as a manual of edification. Although but a mediocre performance in point of language and practical objectiveness, the Psalter enjoyed a success not much inferior to that of the Huguenot Psalter itself. For nearly two hundred years, Lobwasaer had almost unlimited sway in the German Reformed Church; and to this day, he is not quite out of date. He owed this success distinctly to the verbally exact adaptation of his version to the French melodies.
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
These melodies formed the common musical language of the Reformed of all tongues.
The work was recast musically in 1607 by Landgrave Maurice of Hesse, who sought to bring it into harmony with the declamatory style of singing at that time coming into fashion, and again by Samuel Marechall (Basel, 1606); by Criiger (Berlin, 1858); by Sultzberger (Bern, 1675) and others. The teat was also rendered into other languages: Latin, by Andrews Spetke, 1596; Danish, 1682; Italian, by Plants, 1740, as well as earlier; by the daughter of Landgrave Maurice of Hesse, 1608; by Casimir, 1753; Nicolai, .1762, etc. The attempts of eighteenth‑century taste to improve and expand the Lobwasser Psalter led gradually to its disuse. The appendix, which had at first comprised only the Decalogue Hymn (" Erheb' dein Herz, thu' suf dein Ohren ") and the Song of Simeon, and had then been enlarged‑ by the addition of German hymns, many of them Lutheran, grew continually stouter and heavier, till at last the " appendix " swallowed up the Psalter, and new hymnals arose in which only selected psalms were retained.
As the melodies lost their distinctive rhythm, their charm likewise vanished which the Lobwasaer text, notwithstanding its stiff and far from poetic language, had possessed. The German hymns which bad flourished, indeed, in the sixteenth century, although through the importance attached to Scriptural language and the charm of the French psalm melodies it had yielded to the latter, now gained the supremacy.
1820; C. llartlmoeh. Preuaaisehe Kirchenhiatorie. PP. 498 I
sqq., Frankfort 1888. Consult: P. Waokernagel, Dae deatache Kirchsnlied, i. 509 eqq., iv. 844 sqq., Leipeio, 1883‑78; G. Dbring, Choralkunde, pp. 52‑57, 234, Danzig, 1885; E. $5pfner, Reformbeetrebungen au,/ dem Genet der dsufecken Dichtunp, Berlin; 1888;' E. Koch, Geachidate des KirchsnZiedes, ii, b94‑597, Stuttgart, 1887; F. Bovet, Hut. du Peautier des tgZiaee roornt&a, Paris, 1872; O. Douen, Clement Marot et le Psautier huguenot, ib. 1872; P. Wolfram, Die Entetahunp and erete Entuiekelunp du dautechen euanpalischen Kirchenliedee, pp. 134 sqq., Leipsi0. 1898: J. Zahn, Die Melodien der deutachen KirchenZ%edsr, vi. 58 sqq., Giiterslob, 1893; ADB, xis. 58‑58; Julian, Hymnology, pp. 883‑884.
LOCI THEOLOGICI: A term applied by Melanchthon to Evangelical systems of dogmatics and retained by many as late as the seventeenth century. The word was borrowed, as he himself says, from the usage of the classic rhetoricians, in whose works Eoluoi or loci, denote the places or sources from which proofs are deduced. Various systematized indexes of these loci were made from the days of Aristotle, and mere formal categories, such as " person," " nature," or " fortune," were also reckoned under this head. It was the particular task of the rhetorician, however, to trace the concrete case, or " hypothesis," to the general, or
" thesis." Thus were evolved loci communes, or arguments which could be applied to many specific cases. The humanistic rhetoricians frequently confused loci communes with simple loci, or general basal concepts. This was especially .true of Melanchthon, as is clear from his De rhetorical libri tree (Cologne, 1519), in which he sought to train students for disputation. He accordingly advised them to prepare lists of all possible loci communes, and to enter under the proper rubrics (capita) any examples gathered in the course of their reading. Among theological loci communes he lists " faith,"
destruction of the body," " Church," " word of God," " patience," " sin," " law," " grace," " love," and " ceremony." Elsewhere he defines loci communes as " certain general rules of living, of which men are persuaded by nature, and which I might not unjustly call the laws of nature." These two definitions, however, are not clearly distinguished and the discussion of the loci communes is consequently somewhat vague. This criticism applies also to the loci theologici of his famous Loci communes rerum theologicarum (1521), which are primarily basal concepts appearing in the science of theology, to which all in it must be referred. .He accordingly begins with his favorite list " God,"
« ., <.
one, triple,„ and creation,„ and closes with " condemnation " and " beatitude." Although this list was derived from Peter Lombard, Melanchthon's treatment is not only more clear than that of his predecessor, but he draws his examples from the Bible instead of from the Church Fathers, and under Pauline influence deduces, in addition to loci communes, certain loci communiraimi, such as " sin," " grace," and " law." In view of the long and powerful influence of this book, the result of his failure to give a methodical proof of his series of loci was that Lutheran dogmatics was slow in reaching inherent unity. The term loci theologici gradually came to denote the content, and thus the chief passages of the Bible as included in the individual loci, although this meaning was forced into the background when Melanchthon laid more stress on the development of doctrine.
For Lutheran theology Melanchthon's book had
the same importance which the work of Peter
Lombard possessed for scholasticism. His loci
were the subject of commentary as late as Leon
hard Hatter, and the term loci communes came to
connote any work dealing with the sum of Christian
LOCK, WALTER: Church of England; b. at Dorchester (8 m. n. of Weymouth), Dorsetshire, July 14, 1848. He was educated at Marlborough College and Corpus Christi, Oxford (B.A. 1889), and was fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1869‑72, where he has been honorary fellow since 1897. He was assistant to the professor of humanity
at St. Andrews in 1889‑70, and from the latter yeas to 1897 was tutor of Keble College, Oxford, as well as aubwarden in 1880‑97 and warden since 1897. Since 1895 he has been Dean Ireland's professor of the exegesis of Holy Scripture in the University of Oxford, and was also examining chaplain to the bishop of Lichfield in 1881‑91 and to the archbishop of York since 1891, examiner in the Honour School of Theology in 1885‑87, and select preacher to the university in 1889‑90. He has edited Keble's Christian Year (London, 1895) and Lyres Innountium (1899), and has written the essay on The Church in Lux M'undi, (London, 1890); and on The Bible and The Old Testament in Oxford House Papers (1888‑97); John Keble, to Biography (1892); St. Paul, the Master Builder (1899); and The Bible and Christian Life (1905).
LOCKE, JOHN: English philosopher; b. at Wrington (10 m. s.w. of Bristol) Aug. 29, 1632; d. at Oates, Essex, Oct. 28, 1704. He studied at the College of Westminster (1646‑52), and at Christ Church, Oxford (B.A., 1655‑56; M.A., 1658), there making the acquaintance of a circle of eminent men which included Edward Pococke and Robert Boyle (qq.v.), and continuing his residence there for. some years. The Aristotelian‑scholastic philosophy then dominant at Oxford left him unsatisfied; meanwhile, he was teaching privately, became Greek lecturer in 1860, lecturer on rhetoric in 1682, and censor in moral philosophy in 1663. He had . also pursued the study of medicine, and had become interested in physical science. In 1665 Locke went as secretary of the English mission to the elector of Brandenburg, but the next year settled as a physician at Oxford, through his profession becoming a friend of the first earl of Shaftesbury, to whom he was in large part indebted for political preferments which continued to come to him through life. Thus, in 1672 Locke was appointed to a secretaryship which was, for the times, moderately well compensated. His health was not good, however, and he resided in France 1675‑79, not in idleness, however, but making investiga^ tiona along scientific, political, and social lines. After that he was in England until 1684, principally at Oxford, and then h0 went to Holland, remaining abroad till 1888‑89, when he returned and became commissioner of appeals, an office which he retained till death.
The moat important event in his life was the publication of the work which brought him lasting fame as a philosopher, his Essay concerning Human Understanding (London, 1690; five editions by 1706). The purpose was to investigate the origin, certainty, and extent of human knowledge. In this work Locke sought to prove that innate ideas do not exist, and that all knowledge comes through experience by sensation and reflection. He was thus the originator of the empirical philosophy of the eighteenth century which spread over England, France, and Germany and greatly influenced both the political and social theories of his times. His letters on Toleration (1889‑90), Tim Treatises of Government (1690), a work on the national currency (1692), and Some Thoughts concerning Education
(1893) are further weighty ‑ productions of this period. Locke was a member of the council of trade (1696‑1700), but because of failing health was obliged to decline other preferments.
Locke's influence continued dominant until the spread of Kantian ideas, and he is called " the founder of the analytic philosophy of mind " (J. S. Mill, Logic, book L, chap. vi.). His principles were either so carried out or so misapplied in theology that. he became the object of sharp attack; to which he as sharply replied. This ass especially the case with Bishop Edward Stillingfleet (q.v.), whose Discourse in Vindication of the Doctrine of the Trinity (London, 1698) brought on a controversy with Locke which continued till 1699. Locke has sometimes been regarded as the father of late English skepticism (see DEISM, §§ 4‑5; ENLIGHTENMENT, THE, § 7). While in early life he had deliberately turned away from theology as a vocation, his interest never died out, and this came to its fruitage in his Reasonableness of Christianity (1695), and in his Paraphrase of the epistles to the Galatians, I and II Corinthians, Romans, and Ephesians (posthumous, 1705‑07). Of his Works many editions have appeared (3 vole., London, 1714; best ed. by E. Law, 4 vats., ib. 1777); and his Posthumous Works (ib. 1708).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources of knowledge are: Some Familiar Letters between Mr. Locke and Several of his Friends, London, 3d ed., 1737; Original Letters of Locks, Algernon Sidney and Anthony Lord Shaftesbury, ib. 2d ed., 1847; Shaftesbury. Life, Unpublished Letters, and Philosophical Regimen, ed. E. Rend, ib: 1900; J. Le Clere's EtZope hiatorique de Jeu Mr. Locks Amsterdam, 1705; and the life prefixed to Law's ed. of the Works, ut sup. Consult further: G. W. van Leibnitz, Nouveaux eeaaia our L'en. tendement, Amsterdam, 1765, Eng. tranal., New Essays concerning Human Understanding, London, 1898; J. G. Buhle, Geachichte der neuern Philosophic, iv. 238‑438, Gottingen, 1803; F. Bowen, Critical Essays, pp. I‑32, Boston, 1842; A. H. Everett, Critical and Miscellaneous Essays, pp. 381‑451, Boston 1848 J. D. 1lforell, Historical and Critical Review of the Speculative Philosophy of Europe in the 19th Century, i. 91‑147, London, 1846; R. Vaughan, Essays in History, Philosophy, and Theology, ii. 59‑120, ib. 1849; E. Tagart, Locke's Writings and Philosophy historically Considered, ib. 1855; T. E. Webb, The Intellectualism of Locke, Dublin, 1857; V. Cousin, La Philoaophie de Locks, Paris, 1863; J. Tulloeh, Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy %n England in the 77th Century, 2 vats., London 1872; T. H. Green, A Treatise on Human Nature byDavidHume(Introduction),ib.1878; H.Marion, J. Locks, so vie et son avuvre, Paris, 1879; J. Brown, Hora: aubsecivar, Locke and Sydenham, Edinburgh, 1882; P. King, Life and Letters of John Locks; with Extracts from his Commonplace Books, new ed., New York, 1884; H. Winter, Darlepung and Krilik der lockeachen Lehre vom empiriachen Uraprung der aiUlichen GrundaStze, Bonn, 1884; R. Falekenberg, Geachichte der neuren Philoaophie, pp. 111133, Leipsic, 1886; J. Fowler, Locks, London 1887; . M. M. Curbs, An Outline of Locke's Ethical Theory, Leipsie, 1890; W. L. Courtney, Studies at Leisure, London, 1892; G. F. van Hertling, John Locke and die Schule van Cambridge, Freiburg, 1892; P. Fischer, Die Religionsphiloaophie des John Locks, Erlangen, 1893; J. McCosh, Locke's " Theory of Knowledge," with a Notice of Berkeley, New York, 1894; E. Fechtner, John Locks, Stuttgart. 1898; W. Graham, English Political Philosophy, London, 1899; E. E. Worcester, The Religious Opinions of John Locks, Geneva, N. Y., 1899; A. C. Fraser, Locks, Edinburgh, 1901; idem, J. Locke as a Factor in Modern Thought, London, 1905; J. Riekaby, Free Will and Four English Philosophers, London, 1906. Of importance, also, are the works on the history of philosophy, particularly those of J. E. Erdmann, Eng. transl., London, 1893; W. Windelband, Eng. transl., ib. 1893; A. Weber, Eng. transl., ib. 1896; and F. Ueberweg, Eng. transl., New York, 1874.
Loshe THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
LOCUST: A common and familiar insect of the East. Locusts are counted among the small winged animals which " go upon all four" and were all regarded as unclean, with the exception of those which had two hind legs projecting above their feet " to leap withal upon the earth " (Lev. xi. 21‑22). These legs for leaping are a characteristic of the locust, while other marks are a head set at right angles with the body, armed with strong mandibles and having two antennae, large eyes, and a body formed of nine annulets. The four wings are of nearly equal length, but the rear ones are considerably broader than those in front. The female with her ovipositor throats the eggs, after they are fertilized, into the loose earth. In the spring, when the sun warms the ground, the larvae creep out, greenish white or black, small as flies, in shape like the full‑grown locusts, only without external sexual organs. They cast their akin four times; after the third casting the sexual parts appear and after the fourth the insects are able to fly. In Syria locusts begin to breed by the middle of April.
The two species which are moat common in Syria (Aeridium Peregrinum and (Edipoda migratoria) are particularly dreaded on account of their voracity and their great numbers. When the desert winds drive the immense swarms through the air (Ex. x. 13; Prov. sag. 27) they darken the sun like heavy clouds and the rattling of their wings sounds like the noise of chariots (Joel ii. 2, 5; Rev. ix. 9). Wherever they settle down, the verdure immediately disappears, even the Garden of Eden becomes a desert (Joel ii. 3). Those which are not yet winged crawl on the ground and no obstacle can atop them or divert them from the path they have chosen (Ex. x. 6; Joel ii. 7, 9). Broad ditches and large fires avail little to destroy the swarms, and even the red‑hawk and the rosy grackle (turdus roams), which fly along with them and devour many, scarcely lessen the swarms. Rain is their most dangerous enemy, as it destroys their eggs, and a severe storm does away with them altogether by sweeping them into the sea (Ex. a. 19; Joel ii. 20).
Locusts were looked upon as clean'according to Lev. xi. 22, and they were eaten by the poor as they are to‑day by the Bedouins (cf. Matt. iii. 4; Mark i. 5). By the Assyrians they were regarded as a delicacy. They are often mentioned in the Old Testament as a type of an enormous multitude (Judges vi. 5; Jer. xlvi. 23; Nah. iii. 15; Eccles. xliii. 17); of littleness, unimportance, and transitoriness (Nom, xiii. 33; Ps. cia. 23; Isa. xl. 22; Nah. iii. 17); of greed (Deut. xxviii. 38; Isa. xxxiii. 4), and of destruction (Amos vii. 1). Their advancing in bands is described in Prov. xxx. 27; in their leaping and in their appearance they are. compared to horses (Joel ii. 4; Rev. ix. 7). A plague of grasshoppers was one of the moat dreadful judgments of God (Deut. xxviii. 38; I Kings viii. 37; Amos iv. 9). A highly poetical description of a swarm of locusts and the destruction and waste they left behind them is given by Joel (chaps. i.‑ii).
The Old Testament has many names to designate locusts. The one most generally used, 'arbeh,
is a generic name (cf. Ex. x. 4 sqq.) as well as the
name of a particular species, probably the flying,
migratory locust (gryllus migratorius), which is
said to bear this name in Bagdad at the present
day. In Lev. xi. 22, sal'am, hargal, and haghabh
are named as different species; haghabh, however,
seems to be also a common designation. The
names in Joel (i. 4, ii. 25) are popular expressions
(cf. basil, " the devourer," Deut. xxviii. 38; Pa.
lxaviii. 46) which serve everywhere as general
designations (Jar. li. 27; Amos iv. 9; Nah. iii. 16).
To these may be added gebh and gobh (Isa. xxxiii. 4;
Amos vii. 1; Nah. iii. 17)‑an exceptional wealth of
synonyms easily understood from the great part the
locust played everywhere in the land. Some of these