Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house



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return from a foreign land' after contact with a,


corpse, after being bitte


e, after being n by a snake or a wild ani­

m or w


al, s or whheen a ceremony has been omitted. In the corpse,


Eucharist are used two elements, corresponding to


corpse, after being bitte


r

O.t and ne




t Eucharist

thee Host and wine of Catholic ceremonial. Its pur‑




p;

ose is to consecrate the participant by imparting




N P ‑ ngth. rrerequisities an baptism, good

,ial Ntrp

, L


special stien rth


repute, and adherence to the Mandsean faith. It is received at the festivals. The bread is prepared from fine white flour by priests, without salt or leaven, divided into small portions, and baked in a new oven. It is kept in the priest's house, and is received directly into the mouth from the priest's fingers. Another usage connected with baptism and with Sunday observance is the giving of the hand, called by the Mandaeans kusta (" fidelity "), which may be understood from a corresponding Manichean custom to signify mutual support. As a provision against sudden death, unprovided with the common consecration, there is a sort of mesa for the soul by the bishop, by which the beneficiary is obligated to an ascetic life. The church building proper of the Mandieans is for the priests and their


helpers only; the laity remain at the entraneo. I!

is small, holding only a very few persons, has only two windows, and the door is always at the south, so that the entrant may look at the North Star. It contains no altar and no ornament, but has a few shelves in the corners for vessels. It is al­ways near running water. At the consecration of a church a dove is sacrificed‑a trams of the old Ishtar worship. The injunction to marry and peo­plc the earth is stringent, and condemnation of Christian asceticism severe.

The Mandeean ministry has three grades. The first is that of Shkanda, deacon. The candidate must be without physical blemish, and is generally taken from the family of a priest or a bishop. He undergoes a preliminary training of twelve years under priests, accompanying them on their jour‑

neys, and at the age of nineteen ii wa;ned and

begins to assist the priest or bishop in & The the services. After a year in this Clergy, grade, he is admitted to the second grade that of Tarrrcida, priest or pres­byter, being ordained by a bishop and two priests or by four priests empowered by the bishop, but only on condition that the candidate is approved by the community. The period of probation in­volves a trial lasting over at least sixty‑two days, and may through inadvertence or accident in the conduct of the trial be prolonged for several months. A part of the ceremony is bathing three times daily in a river in full clothing, the wet robes being changed only after the candidate has completed a ritual of prayer. The ordination is terminated by baptism, in which the candidate's wifo liq,mal

participate, if they are sill jiving, and a feast in




which presents are given to the poor, The highest grade is Ganxivrd, '° treasurer," or bishop. The candidate, who is chosen from among the presby­ters, must show his ability to explain difficult pas.


sages in the Mandaean scriptures. Still another grade 's''ep°rted by Petermann , that of Risk camp, " head of the people," a rank corresponding to that of patriarch or pope. This grade, according to the


Mandarans, has been filled only twice, ones before




Mandeeane

Xande THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 150


John the Baptist by Pharaoh, and once since, by a certain Adam abu al‑farash, both of whom were not of this world but came from the upper world. Women are admitted to the clergy. They enter the diaconate as virgins and become presbyters only after marriage with one of the higher orders. The official dress of the clergy is white throughout, consisting of breeches, tunic, girdle, stole, and tur­ban, and on the little finger of the right hand the priest wears a gilt and the bishop a golden ring, on which is inscribed chum Yawar ziwar, " name of Yawar Ziwa," i.e., of Hibil Ziwa. In exercising their ministerial functions the clergy go barefooted.

Man consists of three parts, the body, the ani­mal soul, and the heavenly soul. On the approach of death a Mandwan is attended by a deacon and two or more nurses, is bathed with warm and then with cold water, and then clothed in the funeral robes consisting of seven pieces. The body is laid

out with the head to the south so that g. Last the eyes are directed to the polar star,

Rites; the and the grave is dug so that the body Soul's Hap. maintains the same position, and

prayers are offered at the interment. The soul of the dead passes out of the earth‑region into the sphere of light, and according to some pas­sages of the scriptures is accompanied by an Uthra, who comes for that purpose from the kingdom of light, finally passing a stream which constitutes the last hindrance to its approach to the " house of life." At the door of this house sits Abathur with his scales to weigh the deeds of the departed; after passing this ordeal, the soul is received and clothed in garments of light. Those whose deeds do not permit their reception are remitted to the lower regions, there to receive punishment of stripes without end. The end of the world is called " the day of the end " and " the second death," and is brought about by the serpent Leviathan which destroys all' not belonging to the world of light and the earth itself. Mandaeans are not willing to dis­close their beliefs to strangers for fear of arousing the fanaticism of the Mohammedans. Part of the knowledge gained came through the son of a priest who became a convert to Roman Catholicism and communicated information to M. N. SiouBi, the French consul in Mosul 1A74‑75.

While in the seventeenth century the numbers of the Manda?ans were given at about 20,000 fam­ilies, at present there is only a small remnant of about 1,500 persons, living south of Bagdad along the Tigris and Euphrates and in Khuzistan, ply‑

ing the trades of goldsmiths, black­io. Present smiths, builders, and carpenters. They Conditions; are not to be confused with the Mo­ths hammedan sect of Nosairiyah in

Language. Lebanon. Externally the Manda;ana

do not distinguish themselves from Mohammedans. Since the. latter arrogate to them­selves white clothing, which the Ginza regards as holy, Manda'ans usually wear brown raiment or brown with white stripes. Mandsaana speak Arabic or Persian, but the language of their scriptures is an Aramaic dialect of great value for the student of language and is related lexically and grammatically to that of the Babylonian Talmud and to the Na‑


bataean tongue. It was probably the native tongue of Mani, and the Ginza doubtless contains long passages from the Manichean writings (see Mnivi, MnxicaF,ANs, § 13). Nevertheless, the pronuncia­tion as at present employed by Mandaeans has not been correctly transmitted. The vocabulary is Ara­maic in groundwork, with loan words from Jewish, Syrian‑Christian, and especially Persian sources, while the later writings are mixed with Arabic. The alphabet, which probably arose in Babylonia and combines the early Aramaic and Palmyrene ele‑

ele­ments, has twenty‑two letters.

The origins of Mandeean doctrine, it moat firmly

be maintained, are to be sought in the religion of

Babylonia; and Babylonia itself was the place

where it arose. A Jewish or Christian source in

Palestine is out of the question. Mandaeana are

not the descendants of the disciples of John the

Baptist, although he and the Jordan are so fre­

quently mentioned in their writings.

x z. Sources The tradition of the people themselves

of Man‑ that they arose in Galilee, were perse­daeaa toted in Jerusalem and driven thence

Doctrines. by the caliphs is historically worth­

less. They are to be compared with

such sects as the Hemerobaptiats of the Church

Fathers (Eusebius, Hiat. eccl., IV., xxii. 6; NPNF,

2 ser., i. 199; Epiphanius, Her. xvii.; " Clementine

Recognitions," i. 54: " Some even of the disciples

of John, who seem to be great ones, have separated

themselves from the people and proclaimed their

own master as the Christ "; ANF, viii. 92). The

reputed founder and other Biblical characters and

coloring have come into the religion through the

syncretistic process. To connect them with these

early sects is no more right than to associate them

with the Nazaraioi, of Epiphanius (Hcer. xviii.).

The mistake arose in the misapprehension of mis­

sionaries of the seventeenth century, who mistook

them for a kind of Christians on account of their

practise of baptism and related them with the Bap­

tist and with Galilee. It is true that during the

second and third centuries the religion passed

through a period of sympathetic feeling for Chris­

tianity and was influenced by its ritual. Thus

Biblical reminiscences and nomenclature, from

Adam to John and Jesus, including even the ter­

minology of parts of the Jewish ritual, went to the

bviiding of the Mandwan scriptures and teaching.

But the antiehriatian bias appears in making Moses

a false prophet, Jesus the evil planet Mercury, and

the Holy Ghost the most devilish evil spirit, as well

as in the polemics against Christian monasticism

and other Christian institutions. Still more ob­

servable is the antijudaic bias, especially in the

utter abhorrence of circumcision. While the con­

stant use of the name " Jordan " might seem to

imply derivation of the sect from people who once

dwelt on that river, the usage is to be compared

with that in Hippolytus (Her. v. 2; ANF, v. b2),

where the "great Jordan" is employed in the

Naassene system to express the idea of the great

sanctifying element of life in the world of light.

Thus the name of the Biblical Jordan was employed

in the earliest Gnostic systems, and notably in that



of the Peratse (who were in the Euphrates region),

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