ner in which grace works its effects; (4) predestina
tion. Malan refused at first to submit, but at the
close of the year, after some confused explanations
and somewhat uncertain promises had been given
him, he yielded and was allowed to preach. Malan,
however, was not able to suppress his personal con
victions and soon was definitely excluded from all
pulpits of the canton. He still kept his position as
teacher of the Latin school where his instruction
was greatly appreciated. But after he tried to in
troduce here also his own Christian principles, he
was threatened with removal unless he changed his method, and was finally deposed. As he was not willing to stop preaching, he began to hold meetings at his residence, and, as the number of his hearers increased, he built a chapel on his premises at his own expense. The building of the chapel was looked upon as an act of insubordination, and Malan was deprived of the right to exercise his ministerial functions. He wrote to the council of state that he intended to leave the Protestant church of the canton as she then existed, whereupon he was dismissed as preacher on the eighteenth of Sept., 1828. But these violent measures did not induce Malan to cause a split in the church. He ceased to administer the Lord's Supper in his own church and participated in the celebration in the national church, where he also had his children baptized. Similarly, he did not join the newly established Church du Bourg de four because he was averse to its principle of separation. Nevertheless, his spiritual activity increased from day to day. His chapel grew into a church. His dootrinal differences with the Church du Bourg de four became more pronounced in the course of time and led in 1830 to a rupture in consequence of which a third of the members of his congregation left him. But his activity was in no way restricted by this event. He became a missionary. Without leaving Geneva permanently, he frequently undertook extensive travels to different countries where numerous friends awaited him. His fame spread especially in England and Scotland, and he found there an enthusiastic reception in his six visits, 18263. He was endowed with peculiar gifts as an itinerant preacher and often preached daily for several weeks. He traveled also through France, Belgium, Holland, some parts of Switzerland and Germany, and through the valleys of the Waldenses in Piedmont, preaching everywhere. In his conversations, as well as in his sermons, he manifested the dogmatic character of his mind. In his method he conceded perhaps too prominent a place to reason; salvation was with him almost a logical conclusion. He clung to the harshest formulas of Calvinism, and yet loved souls so fervently that his benevolence often conquered the people who were at first repelled by his theology. He preached predestination without glossing even the most repulsive features, without shrinking from the consequences, but still with the simplicity of a child and the joy of a conqueror. His severance from the state church caused him great pain, and he was willing to reenter it whenever the free preaching of the Gospel should be permitted. Several attempts were made by him to be received again into fellowship, but without avail. He succeeded, however, in becoming a member of the Scottish Church. It is only just to ascribe to him since 1830 a beneficent and lasting influence upon the religious movement in the countries where French is used and even in Holland. It was chiefly through him that the religious awakening of that period was not lost in mere sentimentality. Of his works may be mentioned a polemical treatise, Jesus Christus ist der eurige im Fleisch geoffenbarte Gott (1831), Malan's reply to a treatise of Professor Chenevi6re, who had openly
denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. Another po
lemical treatise, Pourrai‑je entrer jamais daps
l'eylise romainef (Paris, 1837), was directed against
Abby Baudry. Other works of Malan are, Cluatre
vingt fours d'un missionaire (Geneva, 1842); Le
veritable ami des erkjants (4th ed. in 4 vole., Geneva,
1844); rtes‑vows heureux, mais pdeinemeni heureuxi'
very considerable number of them being translated,
as were many of his stories and sermons, into Eng
lish. He composed more than a thousand hymns,
some of which have become the common property
of all Christian churches. (E. BAxDEt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Malan (his son), La Vie et lea travaux de Ceaar Malan, Geneva, 1889, Eng. tranal.. The Life, Labours, and Writings of Cwaar Maian London, 1889; iYistoire veritable lea mBmiera de Geu2ve, Paris, 1824; The Late Rev. Dr. Cesar Maian of Geneva, London, 18&4. MALAN, SOLOMON QESAR: Orientalist; b. at Geneva Apr. 22, 1812; d. at Bournemouth (24 m. w.s.w. of Southampton), England, Nov. 25, 1894. He was of an old Waldensian family, and the son of C6sar Henri Abraham Malan (q.v.). He was educated at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford (B.A., 1837; M.A., 1843), and was ordered deacon in 1838 and ordained priest in 1843. From 1838 to 1840 he was classical lecturer at Bishop's College, Calcutta. He was then curate of Alverstoke, Hampshire (1843‑44); Croweombe, Somersetehire (1844‑45); vicar of Broadwindsor, Dorsetshire (1845‑85); rural dean (1846‑53); and prebendary of Salisbury cathedral (1870‑75). Mala,n was a good linguist, being acquainted with twenty‑five to thirty languages. He made two or three journeys to the East after his return from India, one in particular to Nineveh, passing through the Caucasus and preaching in Georgian at Kutais. Among his numerous works may be mentioned: Outline of Bishop's College arid of its Missions (London; 1843); Plain Exposition of the Apostles' Creed (1847); Systematic Catalogue of the Eggs of British Birds (1848); Vindication of the Authorised Version of the English Bible (1856); Aphorisms on Drawing (1856); Magdata: a Day by the Sea of Galilee (1857); Bethany: a Pilgrimage (1857); Coasts of Tyre and Sidon (1858); Letters to a Young Missionary (1858); On Ritualism (1867); Outline of the English Jewish Church (1867); Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, According to Scripture, Grammar, and the Faith (1868); Parables of Jesus Christ, Explained t0 Co9b?it1`y ChUf21t (2 VOL4., 1872); Miracles of Our Lord, Explained to Country Children (1881); and Original Not, on the Book of Proverbs (3'voLs. 1889‑93). He also translated many works, chiefly religious, from the Russian, Welsh, Armenian, Arabic, Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, Georgian, Chinese, Japanese and other languages; among them: the San Taxe King (from the Chinese; 1856); the Gospel according to St. John (from the eleven oldest versions; 1862); History of the Georgian Church (from the Russian; 1866); Life and Times of St. Gregory the Illuminator (from the Armenian; 1868); Conflicts of the Holy Apostles (from the Armenian; 1871); Misamo, the Japanese air,
(from the Japanese; 1871); History of the Copts, and of their Church (from the Arabic; 1873); and The Book of Adam and Eve (from the Ethiopic; 1882).
B7HLIoanePHr: A biography was written by his son, A. N.
Malan, London, 1897, and a notice by Macdonnell ap
peared in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1898;
cf. DNB, Supplement, vol. UL 133‑134r
MALAY ARCHIPELAGO: A chain of four large and numerous small volcanic islands, lying to the southeast of Asia, extending from the Malay Peninsula to New Guinea, also known as the Dutch East Indies. They are divided into the Larger Sunda Islands‑‑Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes; the Lesser Sunda Islands‑Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba, Sawu, Timor, etc.; and the Moluccas‑Buru, Ambon, Ceram, Alma,heira, Ternate, the Sangi, and the Talaut Islands, etc.; area, 943,000 square miles; population (estimated), 32,435,000. The Philippine Islands (q.v.) are sometimes included in the group. An area of about 84,000 miles on North Borneo is under British control, while Portugal has 7,500 square miles of territory on East Timor; the rest of the archipelago is under Dutch control. The majority of the inhabitants are Malays, divided into the savage and semi‑civilized tribes. There are over half a million Chinese, 60,000 Dutch, and about 3,000 Europeans and other foreigners.
A Hindu invasion antedating the Christian era was followed first by a Buddhist and later by a Brahmin wave, each leaving its impress on the natives. A Mohammedan invasion in the twelfth century resulted in a wide‑spread Mohammedanism, and Arab influence was paramount till the coming of the Dutch in 1521. In 1602 the Dutch East India Company established itself in the archipelago and at once began the work of civilizing and Christianizing the people, which was demanded by its charter. The Malay language was reduced to writing, and numerous schools were established; by 1688 the New Testament was given to the people, and in 1733 the Old Testament was also completed. But the work of these missionaries of the company was largely perfunctory; any person so desiring was baptized and ranked thereafter as a Christian, though heathen in habit. The company dissolved in 1795, and no further Protestant mission work was attempted till 1812, when the Netherlands Society sent its first missionaries. They were followed by the English Baptists (1820), the Amer‑
ican Board (1834)1 the Netheclagd§ MegapWt Mill
Sion Union (1847), the Java Committee (1855), the Ermelo Missions Society (1856), the Netherlands
Missions Union (1858), the Missions of the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (1859), the Utrecht Missionary Society (1859), and the Netherlands Lutheran Church (1882). Other societies
are the Rhenish Society (1835), the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1837), the Neukirchen Missions Institute (1882), and the Methodist Episcopal Society (1889).
However, the results of missionary work were meager, largely owing to the attitude of the gov ernment toward Mohammedanism, which flourished under Dutch rule, and to the fact that the missions
sionaries and 592 native helpers; 492 schools, with
23,168 scholars; 3 hospitals and dispensaries;
148,708 professed Christians. The Roman Catho
lics have 38 stations and outstations, 50 priests, 29
schools and 6 orphanages; and 50,000 communi
cants and adherents. Their missionaries are under
the apostolic vicar of Batavia, and come from the
Foreign Missionary Society of Paris. They are
working in both British Borneo and throughout
the Dutch possessions, making special efforts
in the islands where the Protestants are doing
least. Their work is noteworthy for the large
number of orphanages. The work throughout
the archipelago is noted for the number of con
verts from the Mohammedans. The number of
converts during the last twenty‑five years is esti
mated at 20,000. THEODORA CROSBY Buss.
BIHLIOGRAPHT: For description of the people consult: A. C.
Haddon, Headhunters, Black, White, and Brown, London,
1901; W. 13. Furness, Homo‑Life of Borneo Head‑Hunters,
Philadelphia, 1902; H. Breitenstein, tl Jahre in . . . Bor
neo, Java, Sumatra, 2 vole., Leipeie, 1899‑1900. For mis
sions consult: H. Needham, "Ood First "; or, Heater
Needham's Work in Sumatra. London, 1899; H. Dijkatra,
Hot enaugeZie in o»ze OoaE, 2 vols., Leyden, 1900‑01; $. Cooloma. De Zendingaeeuw voor Nederlandach Ooahlndie, Utrecht, 1901.
MALCOM, HOWARD: American Baptist; b. in Philadelphia Jan. 19, 1799; d. there Mar. 25, 1879. He was educated at Dickinson College, Pa., and Princeton Theological Seminary. Ordained in 1820, he was pastor at Hudson, N. Y. ('1820‑26), Boston (1827‑35), and Philadelphia (1849‑51). He was president of Georgetown (Ky.) College (184019), University of Lewisburg (18511857), and Hahnemann Medical College (1874‑79). He was general secretary of the American Sunday School Union (1828‑27); from 1835 to 1838, as deputy of the Baptist Missionary Society, he traveled in India, Burma, Siam, China, and Africa. He wrote: A Bible Dictionary (Boston, 1828); Travels in Southeastern Asia (2 vole., 1839); and Index to Religious Literature (Boston, 1868).
MALDOftATUS, mal"do‑ad'tas, JOHANNES (JUAN MALDONADO): Roman Catholic exegete; b. at Las Caws de la Reins (a village in the Spanish province of Estremadura) 1534; d. at Rome Jan. 5, 1583. He was educated at Salamanca; where he attained such distinction that on the completion of his studies in 1556 he was appointed professor, giving instruction for a short time in philosophy, and then accepting the chair of theology. He was prominently successful, but his very fame alarmed him, lest he should thus be won from the life of renunciation of the world on which he had long since determined. In 1562 accordingly he resigned his professorship and went to Italy, where on Aug. 10 he was received into the order of Jesus as a novice, and at the expiration of a year was ordained priest and appointed to a chair in the Collegium Romanum. In. 1563 he was sent by the general to Paris, where he was made professor in the College of Clermont, although the hostility manifested toward the Jesuits prevented him from beginning his lectures until the following year. He lectured at first on philosophy and attracted large audiences, but in Oct., 1565, he was appointed professor of theology, the Jesuits wishing to counteract the Gallicanism of the Sorbonne and disapproving of its too moderate opposition to Calvinism. Here again his popularity was phenomenal, but in 1570 his activity in Paris ceased for a time when he and nine companions were sent by the general of the order to Poitiers to establish a house for the instruction and conversion of young Calvinists. He met with little success, however, and on Oct. 10 resumed his lectures at Paris, interrupting his, activity only by a missionary trip of a few weeks to Sedan and Lorraine. Until Aug., 1576, he taught with ever‑increasing prestige, although he was confronted with the growing jealousy of the Sorbonne. He was accused of having influenced the dying Montbrun, president of St. Andr6, to make a will in favor of the Jesuits, but was speedily acquitted, only to have a more serious charge brought against him on account of doubts concerning the Immaculate Conception. Herein he was in accord with the Council of Trent, but the Sorbonne, which had so‑
cepted the dogma in 1497 in harmony with a de
cree of the Council of .Basel, was impatient of such
Brsrrooaera:: J. M. Prat. Maldoreat et l'univeraiti de Paris au xvi. aikte Paris, 1856 (somewhat one‑aided); R. Simon, Ifiatoire crit%que des princspaus comura du N. T., DP. 818‑832, Rotterdam 1893 ; L. E. Du pin, Nouvelle bytliolhdque des autcwa eeclesiaCti~ gvi. IZJ
Bayle Dictio a44~ Amster‑
dam 1710 P. . A~ gull anal Critical
iv. 78‑82, London, 1737 e, in TQ$, 1855 PP. 121
849.: A sad A, e Backer, BibliotALque des wins de
891cUsqq.~ Li teed. C Bommarvogel, v. 403 eqq . Paris,