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Malay Archipelago

Burg in Byzantinische Zeitschrift, vi., 1897, pp.

219‑230). G. KRt1VEH.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Krumbacher, (ieschichte, pp. 325‑334 (con­

tains a very full and adequate list of the earlier litera­

ture); E. Patzig, in Byaantinieche Zeitechrift, vii (1898),

I11‑128; C. E. Gleye, in the same, viii (1899), 312‑327;

J. Iiaury, in the same, is (1900), 337‑358; DCB, iii.

787‑788; AL, viii. 544‑645.


Swiss Reformed preacher; b. at Geneva July 7,

178?; d. there May 18, 1864. He descended from

a family which settled in the twelfth century at

M6rindol in Dauphin. Expelled from France by

the annulment of the edict of Nantes, Peter Malan,

grandfather of CAsar, settled in 1722 at Geneva.

At an early age C6sar showed a strong inclination

for study. The example of his parents fostered

this, and be developed a strong feeling for art and

a vivid sense of the beautiful in nature. At the

age of seventeen he served a short time as appren­

tice in a business house and the following year re­

turned to Geneva, where he began his theological

studies. The theological instruction which he re­

ceived there was not congenial, since the Bible was

almost entirely neglected; however, he passed his

examinations successfully. In 1809 he received a

position as teacher in the fifth class of the Latin

school in Geneva, where he soon proved himself

to be an excellent pedagogue. In 1810 he was or­

dained, and in 1811 he married the daughter of a

merchant who had settled in Geneva; his wife be­

came an important aid in the development of his

faith. Some genuinely Evangelical sermons which

he heard, conversations with genuine believers and

the influence of a society called " friends," modeled

after the congregation of Brethren, were the means

of leading him to the truth. His new faith as­

sumed that decided character and determined form

which never left him, by which his standpoint in

theology became essentially dogmatic. While it

is true that his inability to appreciate fully the

ideas of others was in some respects an element of

weakness, such a man was needed at a time when

the fundamental principles of Christianity were

controverted. The conversion of Malan may be

dated from 1816. It was strengthened and con­

firmed in the following year by a visit of the Hal­

danes (see HALDANE, ROBERT and JAMEa Al.>Exnrr­

nER) in Geneva. The fearless promulgation of

Christian truth on the part of Malan gave great

offense to the clergy of Geneva. In 1817 he was

forbidden to preach in town and country. An

order had been issued by a union of clergymen in

which the preaching of the following themes was

prohibited: (1) Union of both natures in the per­

son of Jesus Christ; (2) hereditary sin; (3) the man­

ner in which grace works its effects; (4) predestina­

tion. Malan refused at first to submit, but at the

close of the year, after some confused explanations

and somewhat uncertain promises had been given

him, he yielded and was allowed to preach. Malan,

however, was not able to suppress his personal con­

victions and soon was definitely excluded from all

pulpits of the canton. He still kept his position as

teacher of the Latin school where his instruction

was greatly appreciated. But after he tried to in­

troduce here also his own Christian principles, he

was threatened with removal unless he changed his method, and was finally deposed. As he was not willing to stop preaching, he began to hold meet­ings at his residence, and, as the number of his hearers increased, he built a chapel on his premises at his own expense. The building of the chapel was looked upon as an act of insubordination, and Malan was deprived of the right to exercise his ministerial functions. He wrote to the council of state that he intended to leave the Protestant church of the canton as she then existed, where­upon he was dismissed as preacher on the eight­eenth of Sept., 1828. But these violent measures did not induce Malan to cause a split in the church. He ceased to administer the Lord's Supper in his own church and participated in the celebration in the national church, where he also had his children baptized. Similarly, he did not join the newly es­tablished Church du Bourg de four because he was averse to its principle of separation. Neverthe­less, his spiritual activity increased from day to day. His chapel grew into a church. His doo­trinal differences with the Church du Bourg de four became more pronounced in the course of time and led in 1830 to a rupture in consequence of which a third of the members of his congregation left him. But his activity was in no way restricted by this event. He became a missionary. Without leaving Geneva permanently, he frequently undertook ex­tensive travels to different countries where numer­ous friends awaited him. His fame spread espe­cially in England and Scotland, and he found there an enthusiastic reception in his six visits, 18263. He was endowed with peculiar gifts as an itinerant preacher and often preached daily for several weeks. He traveled also through France, Belgium, Hol­land, some parts of Switzerland and Germany, and through the valleys of the Waldenses in Piedmont, preaching everywhere. In his conversations, as well as in his sermons, he manifested the dogmatic character of his mind. In his method he con­ceded perhaps too prominent a place to reason; salvation was with him almost a logical conclusion. He clung to the harshest formulas of Calvinism, and yet loved souls so fervently that his benevo­lence often conquered the people who were at first repelled by his theology. He preached predestina­tion without glossing even the most repulsive fea­tures, without shrinking from the consequences, but still with the simplicity of a child and the joy of a conqueror. His severance from the state church caused him great pain, and he was willing to re­enter it whenever the free preaching of the Gospel should be permitted. Several attempts were made by him to be received again into fellowship, but without avail. He succeeded, however, in becom­ing a member of the Scottish Church. It is only just to ascribe to him since 1830 a beneficent and lasting influence upon the religious movement in the countries where French is used and even in Hol­land. It was chiefly through him that the relig­ious awakening of that period was not lost in mere sentimentality. Of his works may be mentioned a polemical treatise, Jesus Christus ist der eurige im Fleisch geoffenbarte Gott (1831), Malan's reply to a treatise of Professor Chenevi6re, who had openly

denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. Another po­

lemical treatise, Pourrai‑je entrer jamais daps

l'eylise romainef (Paris, 1837), was directed against

Abby Baudry. Other works of Malan are, Cluatre­

vingt fours d'un missionaire (Geneva, 1842); Le

veritable ami des erkjants (4th ed. in 4 vole., Geneva,

1844); rtes‑vows heureux, mais pdeinemeni heureuxi'

Sincerer aveux de quelqum arms (Geneva, 1851);

Vingt tableaux auisaea, loos eaquisaes d'aprrss nature

(Geneva, 1854). Malan wrote also a large number

of religious tracts which had great popularity, a

very considerable number of them being translated,

as were many of his stories and sermons, into Eng­

lish. He composed more than a thousand hymns,

some of which have become the common property

of all Christian churches. (E. BAxDEt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Malan (his son), La Vie et lea travaux de Ceaar Malan, Geneva, 1889, Eng. tranal.. The Life, La­bours, and Writings of Cwaar Maian London, 1889; iYis­toire veritable lea mBmiera de Geu2ve, Paris, 1824; The Late Rev. Dr. Cesar Maian of Geneva, London, 18&4.
MALAN, SOLOMON QESAR: Orientalist; b. at Geneva Apr. 22, 1812; d. at Bournemouth (24 m. w.s.w. of Southampton), England, Nov. 25, 1894. He was of an old Waldensian family, and the son of C6sar Henri Abraham Malan (q.v.). He was educated at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford (B.A., 1837; M.A., 1843), and was ordered deacon in 1838 and ordained priest in 1843. From 1838 to 1840 he was classical lecturer at Bishop's College, Calcutta. He was then curate of Alverstoke, Hampshire (1843‑44); Croweombe, Somersetehire (1844‑45); vicar of Broadwindsor, Dorsetshire (1845‑85); rural dean (1846‑53); and prebendary of Salisbury cathedral (1870‑75). Mala,n was a good linguist, being acquainted with twenty‑five to thirty lan­guages. He made two or three journeys to the East after his return from India, one in particular to Nin­eveh, passing through the Caucasus and preaching in Georgian at Kutais. Among his numerous works may be mentioned: Outline of Bishop's College arid of its Missions (London; 1843); Plain Exposition of the Apostles' Creed (1847); Systematic Catalogue of the Eggs of British Birds (1848); Vindication of the Authorised Version of the English Bible (1856); Aphorisms on Drawing (1856); Magdata: a Day by the Sea of Galilee (1857); Bethany: a Pilgrimage (1857); Coasts of Tyre and Sidon (1858); Letters to a Young Missionary (1858); On Ritualism (1867); Outline of the English Jewish Church (1867); Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, According to Scrip­ture, Grammar, and the Faith (1868); Parables of Jesus Christ, Explained t0 Co9b?it1`y ChUf21t (2 VOL4., 1872); Miracles of Our Lord, Explained to Country Children (1881); and Original Not, on the Book of Proverbs (3'voLs. 1889‑93). He also translated many works, chiefly religious, from the Russian, Welsh, Armenian, Arabic, Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, Georgian, Chinese, Japanese and other languages; among them: the San Taxe King (from the Chinese; 1856); the Gospel according to St. John (from the eleven oldest versions; 1862); History of the Georg­ian Church (from the Russian; 1866); Life and Times of St. Gregory the Illuminator (from the Ar­menian; 1868); Conflicts of the Holy Apostles (from the Armenian; 1871); Misamo, the Japanese air,



Malay Archipelago

(from the Japanese; 1871); History of the Copts, and of their Church (from the Arabic; 1873); and The Book of Adam and Eve (from the Ethiopic; 1882).

B7HLIoanePHr: A biography was written by his son, A. N.

Malan, London, 1897, and a notice by Macdonnell ap­

peared in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1898;

cf. DNB, Supplement, vol. UL 133‑134r

MALAY ARCHIPELAGO: A chain of four large and numerous small volcanic islands, lying to the southeast of Asia, extending from the Malay Peninsula to New Guinea, also known as the Dutch East Indies. They are divided into the Larger Sunda Islands‑‑Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes; the Lesser Sunda Islands‑Bali, Lombok, Sum­bawa, Flores, Sumba, Sawu, Timor, etc.; and the Moluccas‑Buru, Ambon, Ceram, Alma,heira, Ter­nate, the Sangi, and the Talaut Islands, etc.; area, 943,000 square miles; population (estimated), 32,435,000. The Philippine Islands (q.v.) are sometimes included in the group. An area of about 84,000 miles on North Borneo is under British control, while Portugal has 7,500 square miles of territory on East Timor; the rest of the archipelago is under Dutch control. The majority of the inhabitants are Malays, divided into the savage and semi‑civilized tribes. There are over half a million Chinese, 60,000 Dutch, and about 3,000 Europeans and other foreigners.

A Hindu invasion antedating the Christian era was followed first by a Buddhist and later by a Brahmin wave, each leaving its impress on the na­tives. A Mohammedan invasion in the twelfth century resulted in a wide‑spread Mohammedanism, and Arab influence was paramount till the coming of the Dutch in 1521. In 1602 the Dutch East In­dia Company established itself in the archipelago and at once began the work of civilizing and Chris­tianizing the people, which was demanded by its charter. The Malay language was reduced to wri­ting, and numerous schools were established; by 1688 the New Testament was given to the people, and in 1733 the Old Testament was also completed. But the work of these missionaries of the company was largely perfunctory; any person so desiring was baptized and ranked thereafter as a Christian, though heathen in habit. The company dissolved in 1795, and no further Protestant mission work was attempted till 1812, when the Netherlands Society sent its first missionaries. They were fol­lowed by the English Baptists (1820), the Amer‑

ican Board (1834)1 the Netheclagd§ MegapWt Mill

Sion Union (1847), the Java Committee (1855), the Ermelo Missions Society (1856), the Netherlands

Missions Union (1858), the Missions of the Re­formed Churches in the Netherlands (1859), the Utrecht Missionary Society (1859), and the Nether­lands Lutheran Church (1882). Other societies

are the Rhenish Society (1835), the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1837), the Neukirchen Missions Institute (1882), and the Methodist Epis­copal Society (1889).

However, the results of missionary work were meager, largely owing to the attitude of the gov ernment toward Mohammedanism, which flourished under Dutch rule, and to the fact that the missions

Malay Archipelago THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 140


were uniformly poorly manned, with the exception

of those of the Rhenish Society. There was a lack

of aggressive work, and heathen remained heathen

or became Mohammedan. Even the Christian

communities that resulted from the early missions

were neglected. Dutch missionaries were scat­

tered throughout the archipelago, their most suc­

cessful work being in the Minshassa district of

Celebes, which is practically Christianized. The

Rhenish Society has worked among the Dyaka of

Borneo, the Bataka of Sumatra, and on the smaller

islands of Nias and Mentawei. The Society for the

Propagation of the Gospel occupies British Borneo,

with stations in North Borneo, Sarawak, and La,

buan, and the Methodist Episcopal Society (LT. S. A.)

has a small work in Java, Sumatra, and Borneo.

The English Baptists and the American Board both

attempted to establish missions in Sumatra early

in the nineteenth century, but the English mission­

aries abandoned the field, and the Americans were

massacred by the natives. The moat successful

work of the Dutch societies in the Celebes, Moluo­

cas, and adjacent isles was taken over by the

Colonial State Church in 1865, but their " missions

helpers " were restricted to work among the nom­

inal Christians, and did nothing for the heathen

multitudes. In 1888 the secretary of state for the

Netherlands Colonies notified the Protestant Neth­

erlands societies that " the government would value

it highly if they would increase their staff of mis­

sionaries so as to counteract the growing influence

of Islam." Nothing came of it, and the Dutch

mission force still remained inadequate at the be­

ginning of the present century, and the Dutch gov­

ernment continued to obstruct the work of Chris­

tians while giving free scope to the Mohammedans.

At that time there were about 345,000 Protestant

and 30,000 Roman Catholic Christians. Of late

years the attitude of the government has been more

friendly, the spread of Mohammedanism has had

a decided check, and there has been progress all

along the line. There are 11 Protestant societies,

working in 521 stations and outstations; 269 mis­

sionaries and 592 native helpers; 492 schools, with

23,168 scholars; 3 hospitals and dispensaries;

148,708 professed Christians. The Roman Catho­

lics have 38 stations and outstations, 50 priests, 29

schools and 6 orphanages; and 50,000 communi­

cants and adherents. Their missionaries are under

the apostolic vicar of Batavia, and come from the

Foreign Missionary Society of Paris. They are

working in both British Borneo and throughout

the Dutch possessions, making special efforts

in the islands where the Protestants are doing

least. Their work is noteworthy for the large

number of orphanages. The work throughout

the archipelago is noted for the number of con­

verts from the Mohammedans. The number of

converts during the last twenty‑five years is esti­

mated at 20,000. THEODORA CROSBY Buss.

BIHLIOGRAPHT: For description of the people consult: A. C.

Haddon, Headhunters, Black, White, and Brown, London,

1901; W. 13. Furness, Homo‑Life of Borneo Head‑Hunters,

Philadelphia, 1902; H. Breitenstein, tl Jahre in . . . Bor­

neo, Java, Sumatra, 2 vole., Leipeie, 1899‑1900. For mis­

sions consult: H. Needham, "Ood First "; or, Heater

Needham's Work in Sumatra. London, 1899; H. Dijkatra,

Hot enaugeZie in o»ze OoaE, 2 vols., Leyden, 1900‑01; $. Cooloma. De Zendingaeeuw voor Nederlandach Ooahlndie, Utrecht, 1901.
MALCOM, HOWARD: American Baptist; b. in Philadelphia Jan. 19, 1799; d. there Mar. 25, 1879. He was educated at Dickinson College, Pa., and Princeton Theological Seminary. Or­dained in 1820, he was pastor at Hudson, N. Y. ('1820‑26), Boston (1827‑35), and Philadelphia (1849‑51). He was president of Georgetown (Ky.) College (184019), University of Lewisburg (1851­1857), and Hahnemann Medical College (1874‑79). He was general secretary of the American Sun­day School Union (1828‑27); from 1835 to 1838, as deputy of the Baptist Missionary So­ciety, he traveled in India, Burma, Siam, China, and Africa. He wrote: A Bible Dictionary (Boston, 1828); Travels in Southeastern Asia (2 vole., 1839); and Index to Religious Literature (Boston, 1868).
MALDOftATUS, mal"do‑ad'tas, JOHANNES (JUAN MALDONADO): Roman Catholic exegete; b. at Las Caws de la Reins (a village in the Span­ish province of Estremadura) 1534; d. at Rome Jan. 5, 1583. He was educated at Salamanca; where he attained such distinction that on the completion of his studies in 1556 he was appointed professor, giving instruction for a short time in philosophy, and then accepting the chair of theol­ogy. He was prominently successful, but his very fame alarmed him, lest he should thus be won from the life of renunciation of the world on which he had long since determined. In 1562 accordingly he resigned his professorship and went to Italy, where on Aug. 10 he was received into the order of Jesus as a novice, and at the expiration of a year was ordained priest and appointed to a chair in the Collegium Romanum. In. 1563 he was sent by the general to Paris, where he was made professor in the College of Clermont, although the hostility manifested toward the Jesuits prevented him from beginning his lectures until the following year. He lectured at first on philosophy and attracted large audiences, but in Oct., 1565, he was appointed pro­fessor of theology, the Jesuits wishing to counter­act the Gallicanism of the Sorbonne and disapprov­ing of its too moderate opposition to Calvinism. Here again his popularity was phenomenal, but in 1570 his activity in Paris ceased for a time when he and nine companions were sent by the general of the order to Poitiers to establish a house for the instruction and conversion of young Calvinists. He met with little success, however, and on Oct. 10 resumed his lectures at Paris, interrupting his, activity only by a missionary trip of a few weeks to Sedan and Lorraine. Until Aug., 1576, he taught with ever‑increasing prestige, although he was con­fronted with the growing jealousy of the Sorbonne. He was accused of having influenced the dying Montbrun, president of St. Andr6, to make a will in favor of the Jesuits, but was speedily acquitted, only to have a more serious charge brought against him on account of doubts concerning the Immacu­late Conception. Herein he was in accord with the Council of Trent, but the Sorbonne, which had so‑


cepted the dogma in 1497 in harmony with a de­

cree of the Council of .Basel, was impatient of such

deviation from its views, and accused him of heresy

in 1574. The archbishop of Paris, Pierre de Gondy,

acquitted Maldonatus of the charge, whereupon the

Sorbonne again accused him of heresy for having

expressed the opinion, in a lecture delivered six

years before, that no soul would be required to re­

main in purgatory more than ten years in all, whereas

the usual view postulated seven years of expiation

for each sin unatoned for during life. Twisting

this mere opinion into a categorical statement,

the Sorbonne lodged charges against Maldonatua

before parliament, and the debate dragged wearily

on until Pope Gregory XIII., at the request of both

parties, interfered and declared Maldonatua orthodox

in his teachings. The latter accordingly resumed

his lectures, which he had declined to deliver

during the trial, on May 6, 1576, but his reluct­

ance to remain longer in Paris, combined with

the pope's desire to reconcile the Sorbonne and

Clermont, resulted in his transfer to the College of

Bourgea, where he found a little leisure to devote

to literary work. In the latter part of 1578 he

was appointed visitor of his order in the province

of France, and in this capacity devoted much en­

ergy to the development of the University of Pont­

h‑Mousaon, which had been founded by Cardinal

Guise in 1573 and placid under Jesuit control.

Exhausted by his duties, he retired for a brief rest

to Bourgea, but on Aug. 1, 1580, Everard Mercurian,

the fourth general of the order, died, and Maldona­

tus was sent to Rome as the deputy of the province

of France to attend the election fixed for Apr.,

1581. He accordingly hastened to Italy, was in­

vited to preside at the election, and in this capacity

proclaimed his compatriot, Aquaviva, the fifth gen­

eral of the Jesuits. His new superior detained him

in Rome at the Collegium Romanum to give him

leisure and materials for the completion of his com­

mentary on the Bible, and at the same time the

pope appointed him a member of the committee for

the revision of the Pentateuch, but he did not live

to complete the latter task. The works of Mal­

donatus are as follows: Commentarii in quatluor

Evangelia (2 vole., Pont‑i;,.Mousson, 1596‑97; new

ed. by F. Sausen, 5 vole., Mainz, 1840, abridged by

K. Martin in two vole., Mainz, 1850; Eng. traasl.

of the commentary on Matthew by G. J. Davie,

2 vole., London, 1888‑89); Comment4rii ire pro_

phetas q‑uattttor Jeremiam, Baruch, Ezechielem et

Ddnielem (Tours, 1G11); and Traclatus de cteri‑.

moniis missm (beat edited by P. Zaccaria, Btblio­

thecd Ritualis, iii., Rome, 1781). His Opera

varua thedogica were edited by two doctors of

the Sorbonne, Dubois and Faure (3 vola., Paris,

1677). (W. J. MANOOLDt.)

Brsrrooaera:: J. M. Prat. Maldoreat et l'univeraiti de Paris au xvi. aikte Paris, 1856 (somewhat one‑aided); R. Simon, Ifiatoire crit%que des princspaus comura du N. T., DP. 818‑832, Rotterdam 1893 ; L. E. Du pin, Nouvelle byt­liolhdque des autcwa eeclesiaCti~ gvi. IZJ

Bayle Dictio a44~ Amster‑

dam 1710 P. . A~ gull anal Critical

iv. 78‑82, London, 1737 e, in TQ$, 1855 PP. 121

849.: A sad A, e Backer, BibliotALque des wins de

891cUsqq.~ Li teed. C Bommarvogel, v. 403 eqq . Paris,

b47‑551. . E'8B, vi;;, bgg~pl; gL, viii.

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