Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house



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MAIMBOUItG, man"bur', LOUIS: French Jesuit and ecclesiastical historian; b. at Nancy in 1610; d. in Paris Aug. 13, 1686. In his sixteenth year he entered the Society of Jesus, and after com­pleting his theological studies in Rome was made professor at the Jesuit college in Rouen. Although he had no high oratorical gifts, he acquired con­siderable renown as a preacher; but it is as a his­torian that his name survives. Here again his equipment was quite ordinary; his works, tedious by their length, full of inaccuracies, and totally lacking in impartiality, served him as weapons to strike at those from whom he differed or as means to win favor for himself. His most valuable serv­ice to posterity consists in his having, by his His­toire du Luth,6ranisme (Paris, 1680), called forth the remarkable work of Seckendorf. In his Histoire de l'Arianisme (1682) he indirectly attacks and ca, lumniatea the Jansenists of Port Royal; in the His­toire de t'he3rdaCe des Iconoclasles (1674) he seeks to



131 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Mahaa

ZfeCaimonideo


win the favor of Louis XIV. by upholding his rights

against the Roman see, and then attempts to soothe

Innocent XII. by his Histoire du schisms den Greca

(2 Vols., 1680); but soon after he took such a

strong stand in favor of Louis XIV. against the

pope that he was obliged to leave the order. The

king named him historiographer, and used his prac­

tised pen against the Huguenots in the Hisloire du

Calvirtisme (1682). His collected historical wri­

tings (14 vole., 1686‑87) include histories of the

League (Eng. transl. by Dryden, History of the

League, London, 1684), the Crusades (Eng. transl.,

1686), the Wycliflites, Gregory the Great, and Leo

the Great.

(C. PFENDER.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. Ellies Dupin, Bibliothbque den auteura

ecc(kaiaatiquea, Paris, 1689‑1711; P. Basle, Dictionary

Historical and Critical, iv. 63‑88, London, 1737; idem,

Critique p6nCrale de Z'hiatoire du calviniame de M. Maim­



bourp, 2 vole., Amsterdam, 1714; F. H. lieusch, Index

der verbotenen Biicher, pp. 583‑882, Bonn, 1885; Liehten­

berger, ESR, viii. b54‑5b8.

MAIMONIDES, mni‑men'idr3z or ‑dfz, MOSES

(Grecized from Maimuni), also celled Rambam (form­

ed acrostically from Rabbi Moses ben Maimun),

and by the Arabians Abu Amraa Muse Obeidallah

alkortobi: Jewish rabbi and philosopher; b. at

Cordova Mar. 30, 1135; d. at Old Cairo, Egypt,

Dec. 13, 1204. He received his early education in

the house of his father, and was instructed in nat­

ural science and philosophy by Mohammedan

teachers. When in 1148 the Almohade Abdel­

muman took Cordova and interdicted Judaism,

his father fled, and finally settled in 1159 at Fez

with his family, where they lived as Mohamme­

dans. The first work of young Maimuni was a jus­

tification of this position. In the Iggereth ha­



shemadh, written in Arabic about 1162, he showed

that Mohammedanism required neither idolatry,

murder, nor unchastity, but simply acknowledgment

of Mohammed as prophet, a mere formality, by

which one may avoid martyrdom, though it is best

to seek a country where one can live according to

his religion. [Rome good authorities doubt the

genuineness of this work.] In April, 1165, Maimuni's

family left Morocco and after a short residence in

Palestine settled at Old Cairo. There Maimuni spent

the remainder of his life. For a time he practised

medicine, at the same time preparing his commen­

tary on the Mishna which he completed in 1168.

Two years later the government appointed him head

of all Jewish congregations in Egypt, and ten years

later, about 1180, he completed his legal code, the

Miahneh Torah, which soon spread his fame abroad.

In 1190 he published his religio‑philosophical work,

Moreh Nebhukhim, and soon afterward his treatise

on the resurrection of the dead; both works were

in Arabic. He was buried at Tiberias in Palestine.

Maimuni's importance rests on his writings. The

first important work was his " ° Commentary on the

Mishna." Before him, aside from the two Tal­

muds, only glossatory expositions of the Mishna

existed. He assumed the task of classifying and

explaining the matter contained and implied in

that work. In elaborate introductions he dis­

coursed on the nature of prophecy, interjecting re­

marks on the natural sciences and philosophy. In

the special introduction to the chapter called He‑


lek in the treatise Sanhedrin, he for the first time defined and formally laid down thirteen articles of the Jewish creed, which in an abbreviated form were received into the Jewish ritual. These arti­cles state: (1) That there is one God, creator of all things; (2) that he is One in the sense that no other shares his divinity (a disavowal of the doctrine of the Trinity); (3) he is incorporeal and formless; (4) he is eternal; (5) he alone is to be worshiped and without any mediator (against Christianity); (6) he ordained prophecy; (7) Moses was the great­est prophet, to whom revelation was delivered in a most complete manner (against Islam); (8) law and tradition are the complete expression of the revela­tion of God; (9) neither can ever be changed (against Christianity and Islam); (10) God is omniscient; (11) he rewards and punishes the acts of men; (12) Messiah is still to be expected (against Chris­tians and unbelieving Jews); (13) the dead shall rise again. A truly monumental work was his Miahneh Torah, i.e., " Deuteronomy," also called Yadit ha.­,Hozakah, i.e., "The Mighty Hand," or simply Yadh. It is a cyclopedia comprising every department of Biblical and Jewish literature. [Portions of this work have been translated into English by Bernard: Main Principle of the Creed and Ethics of the Jews, Cambridge, 1832.] As an appendix to the Yadh be published the " Book . of Laws " on the [613] pre­cepts. His third and most important work was the " Guide for the Perplexed," Arabic DalZlat elhairin [translated into Hebrew under the title Marsh Ne­buJcim], consisting of three parts. The fiCSt pact 18 devoted to the explanation of all expressions which are employed in the Bible in connection with deity. The second part develops his theory of creation, and shows Gen. i. iv. to be in accord with his cosmology; it deals also with prophecy. The third part deals with the first vision of the prophet Ezekiel, the re­lation of God to the world, treats of the opposition of good and evil in the world, of God's providence and omniscience, all with the purpose of encourag­ing the more intelligent to a thorough investigation of the Old Testament. This work contributed more than any other to the progress of rational reforma­tory efforts in Judaism. Being translated into Latin a short time after its composition, it influenced Christian scholasticism. But it must be stated in praise of the latter that it never explained away the contents of revelation in favor of " reason " to the


game degree as did the Jewish scholasticism which

preceded it, whose most prominent representative

was Maimuni. The anathemas of French rabbis

against the study of the " Guide " and its burning

by the .Inquisition on the basis of its condemnation

in 1233 were indeed foolish and without effect, but

not without occasion in the rationalizing notions of

the author. (G. De1.MwN.)


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The editions of the works of Maimonides are numerous, mostly published in parts which deal with sections of his productions. The editio prineepa of the Miahnrh Torah is without place and date; numerous edi­tions followed, e.g., 8oncino, 1490; Constantinople, 1590; 4 vole., Amsterdam, 1702; Hebrew and Eng, H. H. Bernard, Cambridge, 1832; Hebrew and German, Vienna, 1889; Eng by J. w. Peppercorns, London, 1838, 1883. His " Guide for the Perplexed " appeared firet without pleas or date (before 1480); then in Hebrew, Venice, 1551; Berlin, 1791; in Latin, Paris, 1520; Basil, 1829;



THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 182



xajai


in Arabic sad French, 3 vole., Paris, 1858‑88; in German,

Krotoachin, 1839; Italian, Livorno, 1879‑81; English,

3 vole., London, 1885 and 1904. The Commentary on

the Miahna was first published Naples, 1492, and is accea­

aible in the Latin travel. of $urenhuaius, in his Miahna,

Amsterdam, 1898‑1703. Great activity has been mani­

fested in recent years in publishing the works of Maimoni­

dea. This activity can be traced and the places and dates

of publication learned by combining Hauck‑Herzog, RE,



sii. 80, with the SehlapwarhKatalop (described in this work,

vol. i., p. xiij.; the SchlapworbKatalop was brought down

to 1907 in 1909) under " Maimonides "; cf. also Baldwin,

Dictionary, vol. iii., part i., p. 358. For the life and work

of Maimonides consult: T. Grossman, Maimonidea, Vienna,

1892; Maimonidea, in Jewish Worthies Series, London,

1903; P. Beer, Leben and Wirken des Rabbi Moses ben Mai­



mon, Prague, 1834; $. B. Scheyer, Daa paychologischa Sys­

tem des Maimonidea, Frankfort, 1845; A. Beniseh, Two

Writings on the Life and Writings of Maimonaatea, London,

1$47• A. Geiger, Moses ban Maimon Rosenberg, 1850;



M.' J5e1, Die Relipionaphiioaophie des Moses ban Maimon­

ides, Breslau, 1859; $. Rubin, Spinoza and Ma%monidea,

Vienna, 1888; M. Eisler, Vorleaungen fiber die jfidiachea

PhiloaopAen des MiUelatlera, Vienna, 1870; D. Rosin, Die

Ethik des Maimonidea, Breslau, 1878; D. Kaufmann, Ge­

achachte der Attributenlehre, pp. 383 eqq., Goths, 1877;

J. H. Weiss, Rabbi Moses ban Maimon, Vienna, 1881; W.

Becher, Die Bibeiexepeee Mow Maimunis, Strasburg.

1897; L. Diinner, Die Itlteate astrono‑miache Schrift des



Maimonidea, WUrzburg, 1902; J. Misnz, Rabbi Moses ben

Maimon. 3ein Leben and seine Werke, part i., Mains,

1902; and W. Becher, M. Brann, D. Simonson, and J.

Guttmann, Moaea ban Ma%moa. Seen Lebea, seine Werke,

and vein Einfiusa. Zur Erinnerunp an dam 700. Todeatag,

Leipaic, 1908. An excellent article, with supplementary lit­

erature, is found in JE, ix. 73‑88. A considerable amount

of periodical literature, some of it important, is indicated

in Richardson, Encyclopaedia, p. 870, 1907.



MAINS, GEORGE PRESTON: Methodist Epis­

copalian; b. at Newport, N. Y., Aug. ?, 1844. He

was educated at Wesleyan University, Middletown,

Conn. (A.B., 1870), after having served under Ad­

miral Porter in the North Atlantic Squadron in

1864‑65. He was admitted to the New York East

Conference of his denomination in 1870, and his

pastorates were as follows: Hamden Plains, Conn.

(1869‑?1), Ansonia, Conn. (1871‑73), Chapel Street

Church, New Haven, Conn. (1873‑76), First Church,

New Britain, Conn. (1876‑79), First Church, Bris­

tol, Conn. (1879,80), Grate Church, Brooklyn,

N. Y. (1880,83), First Church, Waterbury, Conn.

(1883‑84), New York Avenue Church, Brooklyn,

N. Y. (1887‑92), and First Church, Mt. Vernon,

N. Y. (1896‑97). He was likewise presiding

elder of the New York District in 1884‑87, as

well as superintendent of Seney Hospital, Brook­

lyn, N. Y., in 1885‑87 and of the Brooklyn

Church Society in 1892‑96. Since 1897 he has

been publishing agent of the Methodist Book Con­

cern, New York City.

MAINZ, mainta: A city of Germany, 20 m. w.s.w.

of Frankfort, formerly the seat of an archbishopric

and once the moat important ecclesiastical center

of Germany. The beginning of the Christian

Church there is involved in obscurity, although the

statement of Irenaeus ( Hcer. L, x. 2) that Christian

communities existed in Germany in his time renders

it probable that Christians then lived in Mainz. Old

Christian inscriptions from the city are almost en­

tirely lacking, but Amxnianus Marcellinus (xxvii.

10) states that in 368 a large portion of the popu­

lation was Christian. According to Jerome (Epist.

ex7tiii. 16), thousands were killed in the church


when Mainz was taken by the Germans in the early part of the fifth century, yet the effects of this dis­aster were only transitory, and ancient churches were still standing about the middle of the cen­tury, the Christian community having become Teu­tonized in the mean time.


Although the bishopric of Mainz certainly existed

as early as 550, Christianity scarcely flourished

there, for the local church was involved in the de­

cay of the Frankish Church in the closing years of

the Merovingians. The revival first began when

Boniface became bishop in 745 or 746, and it was

then that the bishopric commenced to extend.

Originally it seems to have embraced only the

Frankish territories on the Rhine and Main, for

bishoprics were erected in Buraburg and. Erfurt in

741, although they seem to have lapsed after the

death of their first bishops and then formed part

of the bishopric of Mainz. The diocese thus be­

came larger than any other in Germany, stretching

from Donneraberg in the south to the Harz in the

north, and from the upper portion of the Saale in

the east beyond the Nahe in the west. Between

780 and 782 the successor of Boniface, Lullus (see

LULLUa OF MAINZ), was raised to the rank of an

archbishop and Mainz became the metropolitan city.

The province later comprised the Frankish bishop­

rics of Wiirzburg, Eichat5tt, Worms, and Speyer;

the Swabian bishoprics of Augsburg, Constance,

Strasburg, and Chur; the Saxon bishoprics of Pad­

erborn, Hildesheim, Halberstadt, and Verden; and

the bishoprics of Bamberg, Prague, and Ohniitz.

In 1047, however, Bamberg was detached from

Mainz and made immediately subject to the holy

see; and after the elevation of Prague into an arch­

bishopric in 1343 the Czech sees were taken from

Mainz. (A. HAUCg.)


From the episcopate of Christian I. (1165‑83), who had been chancellor to Frederick Barbarossa before his consecration, this office became perma­nently connected with the see of Mainz; and when the electoral system had its first beginning in 1125, largely at the suggestion of Adalbert I. (1109‑37), it was natural that he should be one of the electors. When the number was later fixed at seven, of whom three were ecclesiastics (the archbishops of Mainz, Cologne, and Trevea), the archbishop of Mainz, who in any case took precedence over the other princes of the empire, ranked as the first. In the period of the Reformation, the fifty‑sixth and fifty­seventh archbishops, Albert II. of Brandenburg (1514‑45) and Sebastian von Heuaenstamm (1545­1555) governed with wisdom and moderation, and checked the spread of Protestantism without re­course to violence. The see maintained its dignity down to the French Revolution, at which period the archbishop had an income of 1,400,000 gulden, and was both temporal and spiritual ruler of a pop­ulation of 400,000. The territory of the see was incorporated with the dominions of the French Re­public in 1797; and by the Peace of Luneville (1801) a settlement was made which, when the last archbishop, Frederick Charles Joseph, Baron von Erthal (1774‑1802), died, allowed his coadjutor Dalberg to retain, with the title of arch‑chancellor, the principalities of Aschaffenburg and Regensburg






133 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA


and the county of Wetzlar, the see being trans­ferred to Regensburg. After the Concordat of 1801 had gone into effect, Napoleon arranged for the elevation of Mainz once more to the position of a bishopric, and the cathedral, which had been almost ruined in the wars, was finally restored. The territory of the ancient see was incorporated in 1814 with the grand duchy of Hesse‑Darmstadt. The diocese was vacant from 1818 to 1830, when, on the creation of the ecclesiastical province of the Upper Rhine, it was placed under the metropolitan jurisdiction of the archbishop of Freiburg.

BxHraoaHArar: J. F. BShmer, Repeats archiepiaeoporum Mapuntinenaium, ed. C. Will, 2 vole., Innsbruck, 1877‑86; G. C. Joannis, Rensm Moguntiacarum iibri. 3 vole.. Frank­fort, 1722‑27; V. F. de Gudenus, Codes diplomaticua anecdotoru,m rea Moguntirws iRuatrantium, 5 vole., G5t­tingen, 1743‑58; 8. A. Wiirdtwein, Dioeceaie Mopuntina in arrhidiaconatue diviaa, 4 vole., Mannheim, 1769; Mon­uments Moguntina, ed. P. Jaffe, Berlin, 1868; C. G. Bockenheimer, Die Mainxer Biach6Je des 18. Jahrhunderts, Mains, 1888; J. Jaeger, Beitrtige our Geachichte des Erzetifta Mainz, Oanabriick, 1894; J. Schmidt, Die kathdiache Reatauralion in den Kurnminzer Hernachaften, Erlangen, 1902; J. Simon, Stand and Herkurft der BiaehdJe der Mainzer Kirchenproainz im Mittelalter, Weimar, 1908; and literature under BoNxsecE, $AxNT; Lvrxoe os MAxNZ; RAHANxJB MAO$U8.



MAIR, mar, WILLIAM: Church of Scotland; b. at Savoch, Scotland, Apr. 1, 1830. He was educated at the University of Aberdeen (M.A., 1849), and was minister successively at Lochgelly (1861‑64), and Ardoch (1864‑69). From 1869 until his retirement from active life in 1903, he was minister of Earlaton. Since the latter year he has resided in Edinburgh. He was likewise moderator of the Church of Scotland in 1897, and has written, in addition to numerous briefer contributions, A Digest of Laws and Deci­sions, Ecclesiastical and Civil, relating to the Con­stitution, Practice, and Affairs of the Church of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1887); The Truth about the Church of Scotland (1891); Speaking (1900); Churches and the Law (1904); and The Scottish Churches (1907).
MAISTRE, m6tr, JOSEPH MARIE, COMTE DE: French Roman Catholic diplomat; b. at Chamb6ry (55 m. e. of Lyons) Apr. 1, 1754; d. at Turin Feb. 26, 1821. He was educated by the Jesuits and afterward studied law in Turin. In 1788 he be­came a member of the Piedmonteae senate, but when the French troops invaded the country in 1792 he took refuge in Lausanne, where he stayed until he was summoned to Turin by Charles Em­manuel II. In 1798, when the French took Turin, he had to retreat to Venice, but in 1799 the king called him to Sardinia as grand chancellor. From 1803 till 1817 he was ambassador of the king of Sardinia at St. Petersburg. He then returned to Turin and became regent of grand chancery and minister of state for Victor Emmanuel I, Maistre was the leader of the Ultramontanista and a stead­fast opponent of Gallicanism. In his works, espe­cially in his Du papa, he maintained the doctrines of the infallibility of the pope, and of his supreme temporal power, and that the Reformation was the cause of all the evils that had overtaken France. He was also a vigorous advocate of legitimacy.


Among his numerous works may be named: Corn. siderations sur la France (Paris, 1796); Du papa (2 vole., Lyons, 1819; new ed., Tours, 1891; Eng. transl., The Pope, London, 1850); Les soirees de Saint‑Pttersbourg, ou entretiens sur le gouvernemertE temporal de la Providence, suivies dun traits sur lea sacrifices (2 vole., Paris, 1821; new ed., 1888); and Examen de la philosophic de Bacon (2 vole., Paris, 1836). His (Euvrea (7 vole., Brussels, 1838) have appeared in a new edition, including posthumous works and inedited correspondence, with a bio­graphical preface by R. de Maiatre (14 vole., Lyons, 1884‑87).

BIHLIOa8AP8'.Y: Accounts of the life have been written by: R. de Chantelauze, Paris, 1859; J. C. Glaser, Berlin, 18&5; L. I. Moreau, Paris, 1879; A. de Margerie, ib. 1882; F. Deacostea, ib, 1893; and G. Cogordan, ib. 1894. Con­sult further: Mme. C. T, Woillez, Le OEnie de De Maiatre, Paris, 1861; R. de Sezeval, Joseph de Maiatre, ass dEtrao­teura, ib. 1885; M. F. A, de Leseure, Le Comte Joseph de Maiatre et sa lamille, ib. 1892; F. Paulhan, Joseph de Maiatre et ea philoeophie, ib. 1893; and works on the his­tory of modern philosophy.



MAITLAND, SAMUEL ROFFEY: Church of England; b. in London Jan. 7, 1792; d, at Glouces­ter Jan. 19, 1866. He studied at St. John's and Trinity colleges, Cambridge, and was called to the bar in 1816, but was ordained deacon in 1821 and appointed curate of St. Edmund, Norwich. In May, 1823, he became perpetual curate of Christ Church, Gloucester, but resigned in 1827. In 1838 he was appointed librarian and keeper of the man­uscripts at Lambeth Palace, which position he re­tained until 1848, when he retired to Gloucester. Among other works he wrote: An Enquiry into the Grounds on which the Prophetic Period of Daniel and St. John has been Supposed to Consist of 1,60 Years (London, 1828); Eruvin, or Miscellaneous Essays on Subjects Connected with the Nature, History, and Destiny of Man (1831); Fads and Documents Illus­trative of the History, Doctrines, and Riles of the Ancient Albigenses and Waldenses (1832); The Dark Ages (1844); An Index of such. English Books, Printed before the Year MDC, as are now in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth (1845); Essays on Subjects Connected with the Reformation in Eng­land (1849); and Illustrations and Enquiries Re­lating to Mesmerism (1849); and translated The Holy War of St. Bernard (Gloucester, 1827).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: An appreciative Memoir is in DNB, :oav. 371‑373, where references to other literature is given.

MAJAL, MATHIEU: French pastor of "the Desert," known as Ddaubas from his birthplace, D6aubas, near Vernouz (50 m. s. of Lyons), De­partment of Ardeiche; b. 1720; assented at Mont­pellier Feb. 2, 1746. As pastor of Vivarais he sat in the " national synod " of French Protestants which met in Bas Languedoc Aug. 18, 1744, and

which gave offense to the court at Vefoww lid

led to P1gOPOUS measures. Majal was arrested Dec. 12, 1745, and taken to Vernoux, where his arrival

occasioned a riot and several persons were killed (the " massacre of Vernoua "). On his trial at Montpellier he strenuously denied all treason­able acts or designs and convinced the court of his innocence, but was condemned by order of the king and shot. A ballad of the peasants



Major THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 184

Makemie


of Vivarais relates the trial and death of the

young pastor.

Baraoaserax: D. Benoit, Une victims de 1'intolerance au

XVllle ailcte, Toulouse, 1879; Charles Coquerel, Histoire

des 8pliaea du desert, i. 287 aqq., 387 aqq., Paris, 1841.

MAJOR (MAIER), GEORG: Lutheran theo­

logian; b. at Nuremberg Apr. 25, 1502; d. at Wit­

tenberg Nov. 28, 1574. At the age of nine he was

sent to Wittenberg, and in 1521 entered the univer­

sity there. When Cruciger returned to Witten­

berg in 1529, Major was appointed rector of the

Johannisachule in Magdeburg, but in 1537 he be­

came court preacher at Wittenberg and was or­

dained by Luther. In 1545 he was made professor

in the theological faculty, in which his authority

increased to such an extent that in the following

year the elector sent him to the Conference of Re­

genaburg (see REGENSBURG, CONFERENCE OF), where

he was soon captivated by the personality of But­

ter. Like Melanchthon, he fled before the disas­

trous close of the Schmalkald war, and found

refuge in Magdeburg. In the summer of 1547 he

returned to Wittenberg, and in the same year

became cathedral superintendent at Merseburg,

although he resumed his activity at the university in

the following year. In the negotiations of the In­

terim he took the part of Melanchthon in first op­

posing it and then making concessions. This atti­

tude incurred the enmity of the opponents of the

Interim, especially after he cancelled a number of

passages in the second edition of his PsalEerium in

which he had violently attacked the position of

Prince Maurice of Saxony, whom he now requested

to prohibit all polemical treatises proceeding from

Magdeburg, while he condemned the preachers of

Torgau who were imprisoned in Wittenberg on so­

count of their opposition to the Interim. He was

even accused of accepting bribes from Maurice. In

1552 Count Hans Georg, who favored the Interim,

appointed him superintendent of Eialeben, on the

recommendation of Melchior Kling. The orthodox

clergy of Grafschaft Mansfeld, however, immedi­

ately suspected him of being an interimist and

adiaphorist, and he tried to defend his position in

public, but his apology resulted in the so‑called

Majoristic Controversy (q.v.). At Christmas, 1552,

Count Albrecht expelled him without trial and he

fled to Wittenberg, where he resumed his activity as

professor and member of the consiatory. Thence­

forth he was an important and active member in

the circle of the Wittenberg Philippists. From

1558 to 1574 he was dean of the theological faculty

and repeatedly held the rectorate of the university.

He lived long enough to experience the first over­

throw of Crypto‑Calvinism (see PAILIPPIBT$) in

electoral Saxony, and Paul Crell, his son‑in‑law,

signed for him at Torgau in May, 1574, the articles

which repudiated Calvinism and acknowledged the

unity of Luther and Melanchthon. Among his

writings, special mention may be made of the fol­

lowing: A text edition of Justini ex Trogo Pampejo

historic (Hagenau, 1526); an edition of Luther's

smaller catechism in Latin and Low German (Mag­

deburg, 1531); Sententice veterum poetarum (1534);

Qumationes rhetoricee (1535); Vita Patrum (Witten­

berg, 1544); Psaltenum Davidis juxta tranala‑




tionem veterem repurgatum (1547); De origins et

auetoritate verbi Dei (1550); Commonefactio ad

ecclesiam catholicam, orthodoxam, de fugieradis . . .

blasphemiis Samosatenicis (1569); as well as com­

mentaries on the Pauline epistles and homilies on

the pericopes. (G. KAWERAU.)

BIBLIOaBAPHY: Major's Opera appeared in 3 vole., Witten­berg, 1589‑70, though the edition is incomplete. Some letters of his are in CR, vols. ii, vi, vii., and x.; in J. Voigt, Briefwedsaed der beriihmteaten Oekhrten der . .

Reformation, pp. 424 eqq., KSnigaberg, 1841; and in A. Schumacher, (ietehnter Msnner Briefs an die Konige in Dltntternark, 1688‑IB88, ii. 99‑247, 3 vole., Leipeic, 17b8­1759. A worthy biography is yet to be written. Con­sult bibliography under Mwaosrsmio CONTROVERSY.

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