MAIMBOUItG, man"bur', LOUIS: French Jesuit and ecclesiastical historian; b. at Nancy in 1610; d. in Paris Aug. 13, 1686. In his sixteenth year he entered the Society of Jesus, and after completing his theological studies in Rome was made professor at the Jesuit college in Rouen. Although he had no high oratorical gifts, he acquired considerable renown as a preacher; but it is as a historian that his name survives. Here again his equipment was quite ordinary; his works, tedious by their length, full of inaccuracies, and totally lacking in impartiality, served him as weapons to strike at those from whom he differed or as means to win favor for himself. His most valuable service to posterity consists in his having, by his Histoire du Luth,6ranisme (Paris, 1680), called forth the remarkable work of Seckendorf. In his Histoire de l'Arianisme (1682) he indirectly attacks and ca, lumniatea the Jansenists of Port Royal; in the Histoire de t'he3rdaCe des Iconoclasles (1674) he seeks to
131 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Mahaa
win the favor of Louis XIV. by upholding his rights
against the Roman see, and then attempts to soothe
Innocent XII. by his Histoire du schisms den Greca
In 1190 he published his religio‑philosophical work,
Moreh Nebhukhim, and soon afterward his treatise
on the resurrection of the dead; both works were
in Arabic. He was buried at Tiberias in Palestine.
Maimuni's importance rests on his writings. The
first important work was his " ° Commentary on the
Mishna." Before him, aside from the two Tal
muds, only glossatory expositions of the Mishna
existed. He assumed the task of classifying and
explaining the matter contained and implied in
that work. In elaborate introductions he dis
coursed on the nature of prophecy, interjecting re
marks on the natural sciences and philosophy. In
the special introduction to the chapter called He‑
lek in the treatise Sanhedrin, he for the first time defined and formally laid down thirteen articles of the Jewish creed, which in an abbreviated form were received into the Jewish ritual. These articles state: (1) That there is one God, creator of all things; (2) that he is One in the sense that no other shares his divinity (a disavowal of the doctrine of the Trinity); (3) he is incorporeal and formless; (4) he is eternal; (5) he alone is to be worshiped and without any mediator (against Christianity); (6) he ordained prophecy; (7) Moses was the greatest prophet, to whom revelation was delivered in a most complete manner (against Islam); (8) law and tradition are the complete expression of the revelation of God; (9) neither can ever be changed (against Christianity and Islam); (10) God is omniscient; (11) he rewards and punishes the acts of men; (12) Messiah is still to be expected (against Christians and unbelieving Jews); (13) the dead shall rise again. A truly monumental work was his Miahneh Torah, i.e., " Deuteronomy," also called Yadit ha.,Hozakah, i.e., "The Mighty Hand," or simply Yadh. It is a cyclopedia comprising every department of Biblical and Jewish literature. [Portions of this work have been translated into English by Bernard: Main Principle of the Creed and Ethics of the Jews, Cambridge, 1832.] As an appendix to the Yadh be published the " Book . of Laws " on the  precepts. His third and most important work was the " Guide for the Perplexed," Arabic DalZlat elhairin [translated into Hebrew under the title Marsh NebuJcim], consisting of three parts. The fiCSt pact 18 devoted to the explanation of all expressions which are employed in the Bible in connection with deity. The second part develops his theory of creation, and shows Gen. i. iv. to be in accord with his cosmology; it deals also with prophecy. The third part deals with the first vision of the prophet Ezekiel, the relation of God to the world, treats of the opposition of good and evil in the world, of God's providence and omniscience, all with the purpose of encouraging the more intelligent to a thorough investigation of the Old Testament. This work contributed more than any other to the progress of rational reformatory efforts in Judaism. Being translated into Latin a short time after its composition, it influenced Christian scholasticism. But it must be stated in praise of the latter that it never explained away the contents of revelation in favor of " reason " to the
against the study of the " Guide " and its burning
by the .Inquisition on the basis of its condemnation
in 1233 were indeed foolish and without effect, but
not without occasion in the rationalizing notions of
the author. (G. De1.MwN.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The editions of the works of Maimonides are numerous, mostly published in parts which deal with sections of his productions. The editio prineepa of the Miahnrh Torah is without place and date; numerous editions followed, e.g., 8oncino, 1490; Constantinople, 1590; 4 vole., Amsterdam, 1702; Hebrew and Eng, H. H. Bernard, Cambridge, 1832; Hebrew and German, Vienna, 1889; Eng by J. w. Peppercorns, London, 1838, 1883. His " Guide for the Perplexed " appeared firet without pleas or date (before 1480); then in Hebrew, Venice, 1551; Berlin, 1791; in Latin, Paris, 1520; Basil, 1829;
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 182
in Arabic sad French, 3 vole., Paris, 1858‑88; in German,
statement of Irenaeus ( Hcer. L, x. 2) that Christian
communities existed in Germany in his time renders
it probable that Christians then lived in Mainz. Old
Christian inscriptions from the city are almost en
tirely lacking, but Amxnianus Marcellinus (xxvii.
10) states that in 368 a large portion of the popu
lation was Christian. According to Jerome (Epist.
ex7tiii. 16), thousands were killed in the church
when Mainz was taken by the Germans in the early part of the fifth century, yet the effects of this disaster were only transitory, and ancient churches were still standing about the middle of the century, the Christian community having become Teutonized in the mean time.
Although the bishopric of Mainz certainly existed
as early as 550, Christianity scarcely flourished
there, for the local church was involved in the de
cay of the Frankish Church in the closing years of
the Merovingians. The revival first began when
Boniface became bishop in 745 or 746, and it was
then that the bishopric commenced to extend.
Originally it seems to have embraced only the
Frankish territories on the Rhine and Main, for
bishoprics were erected in Buraburg and. Erfurt in
780 and 782 the successor of Boniface, Lullus (see
LULLUa OF MAINZ), was raised to the rank of an
archbishop and Mainz became the metropolitan city.
The province later comprised the Frankish bishop
rics of Wiirzburg, Eichat5tt, Worms, and Speyer;
the Swabian bishoprics of Augsburg, Constance,
Strasburg, and Chur; the Saxon bishoprics of Pad
erborn, Hildesheim, Halberstadt, and Verden; and
the bishoprics of Bamberg, Prague, and Ohniitz.
In 1047, however, Bamberg was detached from
Mainz and made immediately subject to the holy
see; and after the elevation of Prague into an arch
bishopric in 1343 the Czech sees were taken from
Mainz. (A. HAUCg.)
From the episcopate of Christian I. (1165‑83), who had been chancellor to Frederick Barbarossa before his consecration, this office became permanently connected with the see of Mainz; and when the electoral system had its first beginning in 1125, largely at the suggestion of Adalbert I. (1109‑37), it was natural that he should be one of the electors. When the number was later fixed at seven, of whom three were ecclesiastics (the archbishops of Mainz, Cologne, and Trevea), the archbishop of Mainz, who in any case took precedence over the other princes of the empire, ranked as the first. In the period of the Reformation, the fifty‑sixth and fiftyseventh archbishops, Albert II. of Brandenburg (1514‑45) and Sebastian von Heuaenstamm (15451555) governed with wisdom and moderation, and checked the spread of Protestantism without recourse to violence. The see maintained its dignity down to the French Revolution, at which period the archbishop had an income of 1,400,000 gulden, and was both temporal and spiritual ruler of a population of 400,000. The territory of the see was incorporated with the dominions of the French Republic in 1797; and by the Peace of Luneville (1801) a settlement was made which, when the last archbishop, Frederick Charles Joseph, Baron von Erthal (1774‑1802), died, allowed his coadjutor Dalberg to retain, with the title of arch‑chancellor, the principalities of Aschaffenburg and Regensburg
133 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA
and the county of Wetzlar, the see being transferred to Regensburg. After the Concordat of 1801 had gone into effect, Napoleon arranged for the elevation of Mainz once more to the position of a bishopric, and the cathedral, which had been almost ruined in the wars, was finally restored. The territory of the ancient see was incorporated in 1814 with the grand duchy of Hesse‑Darmstadt. The diocese was vacant from 1818 to 1830, when, on the creation of the ecclesiastical province of the Upper Rhine, it was placed under the metropolitan jurisdiction of the archbishop of Freiburg.
BxHraoaHArar: J. F. BShmer, Repeats archiepiaeoporum Mapuntinenaium, ed. C. Will, 2 vole., Innsbruck, 1877‑86; G. C. Joannis, Rensm Moguntiacarum iibri. 3 vole.. Frankfort, 1722‑27; V. F. de Gudenus, Codes diplomaticua anecdotoru,m rea Moguntirws iRuatrantium, 5 vole., G5ttingen, 1743‑58; 8. A. Wiirdtwein, Dioeceaie Mopuntina in arrhidiaconatue diviaa, 4 vole., Mannheim, 1769; Monuments Moguntina, ed. P. Jaffe, Berlin, 1868; C. G. Bockenheimer, Die Mainxer Biach6Je des 18. Jahrhunderts, Mains, 1888; J. Jaeger, Beitrtige our Geachichte des Erzetifta Mainz, Oanabriick, 1894; J. Schmidt, Die kathdiache Reatauralion in den Kurnminzer Hernachaften, Erlangen, 1902; J. Simon, Stand and Herkurft der BiaehdJe der Mainzer Kirchenproainz im Mittelalter, Weimar, 1908; and literature under BoNxsecE, $AxNT; Lvrxoe os MAxNZ; RAHANxJB MAO$U8.
MAIR, mar, WILLIAM: Church of Scotland; b. at Savoch, Scotland, Apr. 1, 1830. He was educated at the University of Aberdeen (M.A., 1849), and was minister successively at Lochgelly (1861‑64), and Ardoch (1864‑69). From 1869 until his retirement from active life in 1903, he was minister of Earlaton. Since the latter year he has resided in Edinburgh. He was likewise moderator of the Church of Scotland in 1897, and has written, in addition to numerous briefer contributions, A Digest of Laws and Decisions, Ecclesiastical and Civil, relating to the Constitution, Practice, and Affairs of the Church of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1887); The Truth about the Church of Scotland (1891); Speaking (1900); Churches and the Law (1904); and The Scottish Churches (1907).
MAISTRE, m6tr, JOSEPH MARIE, COMTE DE: French Roman Catholic diplomat; b. at Chamb6ry (55 m. e. of Lyons) Apr. 1, 1754; d. at Turin Feb. 26, 1821. He was educated by the Jesuits and afterward studied law in Turin. In 1788 he became a member of the Piedmonteae senate, but when the French troops invaded the country in 1792 he took refuge in Lausanne, where he stayed until he was summoned to Turin by Charles Emmanuel II. In 1798, when the French took Turin, he had to retreat to Venice, but in 1799 the king called him to Sardinia as grand chancellor. From 1803 till 1817 he was ambassador of the king of Sardinia at St. Petersburg. He then returned to Turin and became regent of grand chancery and minister of state for Victor Emmanuel I, Maistre was the leader of the Ultramontanista and a steadfast opponent of Gallicanism. In his works, especially in his Du papa, he maintained the doctrines of the infallibility of the pope, and of his supreme temporal power, and that the Reformation was the cause of all the evils that had overtaken France. He was also a vigorous advocate of legitimacy.
Among his numerous works may be named: Corn. siderations sur la France (Paris, 1796); Du papa (2 vole., Lyons, 1819; new ed., Tours, 1891; Eng. transl., The Pope, London, 1850); Les soirees de Saint‑Pttersbourg, ou entretiens sur le gouvernemertE temporal de la Providence, suivies dun traits sur lea sacrifices (2 vole., Paris, 1821; new ed., 1888); and Examen de la philosophic de Bacon (2 vole., Paris, 1836). His (Euvrea (7 vole., Brussels, 1838) have appeared in a new edition, including posthumous works and inedited correspondence, with a biographical preface by R. de Maiatre (14 vole., Lyons, 1884‑87).
BIHLIOa8AP8'.Y: Accounts of the life have been written by: R. de Chantelauze, Paris, 1859; J. C. Glaser, Berlin, 18&5; L. I. Moreau, Paris, 1879; A. de Margerie, ib. 1882; F. Deacostea, ib, 1893; and G. Cogordan, ib. 1894. Consult further: Mme. C. T, Woillez, Le OEnie de De Maiatre, Paris, 1861; R. de Sezeval, Joseph de Maiatre, ass dEtraoteura, ib. 1885; M. F. A, de Leseure, Le Comte Joseph de Maiatre et sa lamille, ib. 1892; F. Paulhan, Joseph de Maiatre et ea philoeophie, ib. 1893; and works on the history of modern philosophy.
MAITLAND, SAMUEL ROFFEY: Church of England; b. in London Jan. 7, 1792; d, at Gloucester Jan. 19, 1866. He studied at St. John's and Trinity colleges, Cambridge, and was called to the bar in 1816, but was ordained deacon in 1821 and appointed curate of St. Edmund, Norwich. In May, 1823, he became perpetual curate of Christ Church, Gloucester, but resigned in 1827. In 1838 he was appointed librarian and keeper of the manuscripts at Lambeth Palace, which position he retained until 1848, when he retired to Gloucester. Among other works he wrote: An Enquiry into the Grounds on which the Prophetic Period of Daniel and St. John has been Supposed to Consist of 1,60 Years (London, 1828); Eruvin, or Miscellaneous Essays on Subjects Connected with the Nature, History, and Destiny of Man (1831); Fads and Documents Illustrative of the History, Doctrines, and Riles of the Ancient Albigenses and Waldenses (1832); The Dark Ages (1844); An Index of such. English Books, Printed before the Year MDC, as are now in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth (1845); Essays on Subjects Connected with the Reformation in England (1849); and Illustrations and Enquiries Relating to Mesmerism (1849); and translated The Holy War of St. Bernard (Gloucester, 1827).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: An appreciative Memoir is in DNB, :oav. 371‑373, where references to other literature is given.
MAJAL, MATHIEU: French pastor of "the Desert," known as Ddaubas from his birthplace, D6aubas, near Vernouz (50 m. s. of Lyons), Department of Ardeiche; b. 1720; assented at Montpellier Feb. 2, 1746. As pastor of Vivarais he sat in the " national synod " of French Protestants which met in Bas Languedoc Aug. 18, 1744, and
which gave offense to the court at Vefoww lid
led to P1gOPOUS measures. Majal was arrested Dec. 12, 1745, and taken to Vernoux, where his arrival
occasioned a riot and several persons were killed (the " massacre of Vernoua "). On his trial at Montpellier he strenuously denied all treasonable acts or designs and convinced the court of his innocence, but was condemned by order of the king and shot. A ballad of the peasants
Major THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 184
of Vivarais relates the trial and death of the
Baraoaserax: D. Benoit, Une victims de 1'intolerance au
XVllle ailcte, Toulouse, 1879; Charles Coquerel, Histoire
des 8pliaea du desert, i. 287 aqq., 387 aqq., Paris, 1841.
MAJOR (MAIER), GEORG: Lutheran theo
logian; b. at Nuremberg Apr. 25, 1502; d. at Wit
tenberg Nov. 28, 1574. At the age of nine he was
sent to Wittenberg, and in 1521 entered the univer
sity there. When Cruciger returned to Witten
berg in 1529, Major was appointed rector of the
Johannisachule in Magdeburg, but in 1537 he be
came court preacher at Wittenberg and was or
dained by Luther. In 1545 he was made professor
in the theological faculty, in which his authority
increased to such an extent that in the following
year the elector sent him to the Conference of Re
BIBLIOaBAPHY: Major's Opera appeared in 3 vole., Wittenberg, 1589‑70, though the edition is incomplete. Some letters of his are in CR, vols. ii, vi, vii., and x.; in J. Voigt, Briefwedsaed der beriihmteaten Oekhrten der . .
Reformation, pp. 424 eqq., KSnigaberg, 1841; and in A. Schumacher, (ietehnter Msnner Briefs an die Konige in Dltntternark, 1688‑IB88, ii. 99‑247, 3 vole., Leipeic, 17b81759. A worthy biography is yet to be written. Consult bibliography under Mwaosrsmio CONTROVERSY.