Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house



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arses belief in witches and the devil. With his adoption of the later view Thomas Aquinas pro­pared the way for the bull issued against witches by Innocent VIII. in 1484 and for the Omnipoteruia of Gregory XV. in 1623, which condemned magic re­sulting in death to punishment by the secular arm and requited minor magic injuries with imprison­ment for life. The freedom of thought and doo­trine prevailing from the time of the Reformation gradually destroyed belief in devils and demons, while it developed medicine and surgery from the magic art of healing and the doctrines of Paracel­sus, sad evolved astronomy from astrology, and chemistry and physics from alchemy and the her­metic art.

The term " black magic " has been applied, es­pecially by the humanists and during the period of the Reformation, to the practise of these occult sciences which profess to invoke the aid of evil spirits or to make a compact with the devil. The

Reformers, Luther, Melanchthon,. Car

:3. Black merarius, and Bullinger, all expressed

Magic. their belief in the black art, while at

the same period many asserted that

they had formed compacts with the devil and had

thus acquired supernatural power. With the de­

cay of the belief in witches after the eighteenth

century, however, the idea that superhuman power

might thus be gained gradually disappeared, al­

though certain Roman Catholic theologians, such

as Oswald and Heinrich, still adhere to the

older view.

The name " white magic," on the other hand, was given to the occult arts practised, especially in the sixteenth century, by various scholars, by which they professed to .produce supernatural results either by the aid of good spirits or by peculiar gifts and powers of the human soul. The acme of this form of magic was reached by the De trcculta phi losoPhia of Agrippa von Nettesheim (Cologne, 1510),

which distinguished between " natu‑

:4. White ral magic," " celestial magio" (tietrol‑

Magic, ogy and the casting of nativities), and

" religious magic " (meditation and

purification of the heart). Through " natural

magic," which is based on a knowledge of the

" quintessence," or all‑pervading cosmic spirit, the

human soul may gain the " hidden powers " by

which it can often control nature, and rule the

souls of the departed. Proceeding from the same

theory of the " quintessence " or " macrocosm,"

Paraoelsus made the concept of the mystic sym­

pathy of all things the basis of his art of healing.

Increasing rationalism and the advance of science,

however, has caused the meaning of the term " white

magic " to degenerate until it now connotes little

more than legerdemain.

The adherents of modern occultism protest strongly against the interpretation of all phenom­ena of magic by .rationalism, although they do not wish to be considered representatives of common superstition, since they regard the secret doctrines which they profess and practise as equal in dignity to other sciences of the present day. In their judgment a large residue of mysterious facts and phenomena do not fall within the scope of ordinary


investigations of nature, but are to be reserved

for the future science of the spirit. The en­

deavor to realise such a higher magic or occultism

must be admitted to be legitimate,

r5. Magic but as yet there is no uniformity re­

and Modern garding principles or method, sad even

Occultism. the name is not decided. Two tenden­

cies may be distinguished, one extend­

ing into the obscure realm of the future life and

the world of spirits (see PSYCHICAL REBgARCH



AND IMMORTALITY), and the other restricted to the

sphere of the human soul. Leaving out of consid­

eration the former class, there remains a long list

of names and methods for the purely anthropolog­

ical system of occultism, which has variously been

termed " animal magnetism," " mesmerism,"

" electrobiologp," " somnambulism," " psychic

power," " psychism," " transcendental physics,"

" practical magic," " occultism," " cryptic science,"

" frontier science," and even " cryptology," " so­

rology," " adelology," and " horology." Among

the various subdivisions of natural magic mention

may also be made of hypnotism and miad­

reading. (O. ZScsr.>sat.)



Branroaswraz‑: For primitive magic special attention is

called to the literature given under CoMPwswTrva Ra­

r.rarox, particularly to the works of Chantepie de la 8sus­

eaye, Tylor, Brinton, Frazer, Jevone, Manahsrdt, Bor­

chart, Haddon, Lenormant, King, Davies, Budge, Skeat,

and Lang, which together comprise s literature on the

subject. Most of the works on the religions of Assyria,

Babylonia and Egypt (see bibliographies under those

articles), and India (see bibliography under Bawaawx­

rarr; Hrxaurex) deal adequately with magic is those

countries. Note also the works named under Zoaoweraa,

ZOBOABTnrANra1L Much material will also be found in

the Hibbert Lectures (q.v.), and especially in the Annual

Reports of the American Bureau of Ethnology. Consult



further: P. Scholz, Die GStssndisnst and Zauberwesea bei

den alleA Hebrtier» and deren NachbarvGlksrn, Regene­

burg, 1877; J. Lippert, Die Religionen der europBischart

Xutturrobiker in ihrem peaekichEticAert Uraprunp, Berlin,

1881; J. Rkville, Die Religion in Rom untar den Bsoerern,

Leipeio, 1888; V. von Strauss, Dar alt?lpyptiadte Gdtter­

plaube, 2 vole., Heidelberg, 1889; B. du Prel, Bludien

Ober Gedeimwiasenachaften, 2 vole., Leipeio, 1890; idem.

Die Maple ale NatururiaeereackaJt, Jews, 1899; J. 8epp,

Die Religion der o,Ztert DeuGe>te» and ihr Fortbeetand bin



our Gapenwart, Munich, 1890; R. timend, dlUeetamenE­

lichs Relipionapeaehiahte, Freiburg, 1893; F, T. Elworthy,

The Evil Eye, an Account of this Ancient and Widespread

superstition, London, 1895; )~'.. Rsc1ae, Le Mapieme. Paris,

1895; H. Zimmern, BsidBpe our Kenatnia der boby(p131dC1i­

aseWiachen Religion, Leipsio, 1898‑1901; W. Kroll, An­

tilcar Aberpiaube, Hamburg, 1897: Uriarte. Die Map is du

19. Jahrhundarte, Berlin, 1897; W. J. Flags, Yoga; or

Transformation: comparatiroe Statement of as various ro­

TiQiow Dogmas concerning the Soul . . . and of Maple,

New York, 1898; W. Celsad, AltindiaeAes Zauberritual,

Amsterdam, 1900; C. Grrfneieen, Der Ahnenkult and die

Urrdiflion laraels, Halls, 1900; R. C. Thompson, Reports

of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon,

2 vole., London, 1900; idem, The Devils and Evil Spirits

of Babylonia, London, 1903; idam, Semitic Magic, its

Origin and Development, London, 1908; A. J. Evens, The

Mycenean Tree and . Pillar Cult, London, 1901; d. Op•

fart, SeeluAundart drei and fUnJaip. Eine babylonischs

nwpischs Quadrattafel, Strasburg, 1902; J. Rune", Becher­

waArsapunp bet den Babylonisrn rwc7t moei ReilaehriJF

art sue der Hammurabi‑Zeit, Leipeie, 1903; F. L. Griffith

and H. Thompson, The Demotic Magical Papyrus of,Lon­

don and Leiden, 2 vole., London, 1904‑05; , V. Henry. La

Maple dana 1'Inde antique, Paris, 1904: A. Boiesier, Chair

de textee relative h 14 divination aseyro‑ba6ylanienne, Go­

nave, 1905; W. L. Hare, Babylonian Religion, ChaWaan

maple, London, 1906; K. L. Parker, The Eualtlayi'Tribe,



London, 1905; A. Wiedemann, Maple urd Zauberei im


M eter 8aori Palatif

John Pentland


THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG

ins



alien Aepypteu, Leipeic, 1905• A. C Haddon, Magic and Fetishism, London, 1906; Mary Hamilton, Incubation, London, 1908; W. Boueset, What is Religion, pp. 45‑47, New York, 1907; A. Bros, La Religion des peuplea non cdv3liala, chap. iii., Paris, 1907; E. Douttk, Maple et re­ligion dana l'Afrlque du Nord, Paris, 1908; T. Scher­man, Griechische Zauberpapyri, Leipsic, 1909. For later and modern magic consult: J. Braid, Magic, Witchcraft, Animal Magnetism, Hypnotism and Electrobiology, Lon­don, 1852; J. Burkchardt, Die Kultur der Renaissance in ltalien, vol. ii., Basel, 1860, Eng. tranal., Civilization of . the Renaissance in Italy, 2 vols., London, 1878; C: Pazig, Treatyae of Magic Incantations, Edinburgh, 1886; A. Dieterich, Abraxaa; Studien zur Religionageacharhte des aputeren Altertums, Leipsic, 1891; C. Kiesewetter Ge­achichfe des neuren Occultiamua, 2 vols., Leipaic, 1891‑94; F. Hartmann, Magic, White and Black, London, 1893; A. Thompson, Magic and Mystery, London, 1894; 8. L. M. Mathere, The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abra‑Melin the Merge, London, 1898; A. E. Waits, The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts, Edinburgh, 1898; H. Weinel, Die Wirkungen des Geiatea and der Geiater im nachapoatoliachen Zeitalter bra auf Irenceus, Freiburg, 1899; F. L. Gardner. Catalogue raiaonnk of Works on the Occult Sciences, Lon­don, 1903; F. Hartmann, Die weiaee and achwarzs Magic oiler daa Geaetz des Geiatea in der Natur, Leipsic, 1903; J. KSrmann‑Alaech, Schwarze and weieae Magic. Aepyp­tiache Myatarien, Hexenweaen, Faust's Hollenfahrt, Hol­lenzwang. Indiache Wonder. Die Fakirs, Leipaic, 1904; F. Unger, Die achwarte Magic, ihre Meister and ihre Of­fer, Cothen, 1904; L. Thorndike, Place of Magic in the intellectual History of Europe, New York, 1905; H. R. Evans, The Old and New Magic, Introduction by P. Carus, Chicago, 1906; F. C. Conybesre, Myth, Magic, and Morale, London, 1909. A copious magazine literature on magic is indicated in Richardson, Encyclopaxlia, p. 869. See also FansaieM; SurExeTTxioN. The reader will find the best materials for original study in books of travel among primitive peoples.

MAGISTER SACRI PALATII (" Master of the Sacred Palace ") : An official of the papal court, who unites the functions of chief chaplain and theo­logical adviser of the pope. The first incumbent of this office is said to have been St. Dominic, and it is still filled invariably by a Dominican. Perceiv­ing that the retainers of the cardinals and other dignitaries used to while away their time in idle amusements during the attendance of their mas­ters on the pope, St. Dominic is said to have urged the pope to appoint some one to instruct them during these intervals in the Bible and in Christian doctrine. The saint himself was commissioned to do this, and met with such success that about 1218 Honorius III., according to tradition, established the office of Master of the Sacred Palace. The legendary character of this tradition, however, is evident from the fact that the first incumbent whose existence can be indubitably established was Bartholomaeus de Brigantiis, who filled the office about 1236 under Gregory IX. Gradually other duties were added to homiletic instruction, and, in collaboration with the cardinal‑vicar, the Master of the Sacred Palace exercised a censorship over all books, while he also controlled the import and export, as well as the purchase and sale, of books in Rome, besides attending the sessions of the Con­gregation of the Index. These multifarious duties rendered the office of Master of the Sacred Palace very important. Its incumbent was a member both of the Holy Office and of the Congregation of Rites. In the course of time many of the duties and privileges of this official of the Sacred Palace became obsolete. The office has been filled by many Dominicans of distinction, such as Albertus Magnus




(supposed to have held this position in 1255‑56) and Thomas Aquinas (12628). (O. ZlScsr.Eat.)

Btsi.toaRArav: Fontana, Syllabus magiatrorum aacrfi palatii apoatolici., Rome, 1863; J. Qudtif and J. chard, Scrip­torea ordinia prodicatorum, vol. ii., p. xxi., Paris, 1721; J. Catalani, De mapiatro aacri yalatid apoatolicd, Rome, 1751; F. A. Zaccaria, La Come di Rome, vol. ii., ib. 1774; G. Phillips, Kirchenrecht, vi. 548, Regensburg, 1857; F. H. Reuech, Der Index der verbotenen Bfirher, passim, Bonn, 1883; H. DeniHe, in ALKG, ii (1888), 187‑248; KL, viii. 183‑185.
MAGIYIFICAT: The common liturgical designa­tion of the hymn of praise in Luke i. 46‑55; so called from its initial word in the Latin. It is more formally called the Canticle of the Blessed Virgin, in accordance with the tradition which refers it to the lips of the Lord's mother, in verse 48. This tradition is based on all the Greek and the majority of the Latin manuscripts, and on countless ancient witnesses: notably Irenaeus (Hear. III., x. 2) and Tertullian (De anima, xxvi.), who confirm the tray ditionsl reading of verse 46. The authority for this designation has been recently questioned by G. Morin in his edition of the treatise De psalmodies bono, ascribed to Nicetas, bishop of Remeaiana in Dacia, about the close of the fourth century, which in two passages assumes Elisabeth to be the singer (for critical discussion see Revue B&kddidirte, xiv [1897], 385‑397). Both on thin ground and on the ground of the other evidences for the reading " Elisabeth " in verse 46, as well as on internal evi­dence, Fr. Jacob challenges the received inter­pretation; while, independently of Morin and Jacob, it has been decisively contested by A. Har­nack. On the other hand, the traditional view is supported by A. Durand, against Jacob and by O. Bardenhewer against Harnack. The contro­versy can not be here discussed in detail.

The use of the Magnificat in public worship dates back to the early Christian centuries. In the Eastern Church, it constitutes an element of the morning prayers. Between each verse is a response addressed to the Virgin. While it is being sung the deacon incenses the altar.

In the Western Church, the Magrtif cat certainly appears before 600, in the second Gallican liturgy, while Bingham (Origirtes, XV., ii. § 7) refers its in­troduction to Caesariua of Arles (d. in 542). Since the time of Gregory the Great or St. Bene­dict it has been assigned to the vesper service, which, as an " evening sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving," culminates in the Magnifuat, cor­responding to the Benedict2ta at lauds. While the Song of Zacharias proclaims the coming redemption, the Magnificat, at evening, celebrates the fulfilment of the promise. The Glorea patri, subjoined to the hymn, generalizes Mary's thanksgiving into the Church's. At the same time it receives a coloring appropriate to the special manifestation of salva­tion commemorated by the particular day or season, through the antiphon, which is sung entire both before and after it on all but the lowest class of festivals (see ANTIPHON).

With the vesper service the Evangelical Church also retained the Magnified, " forasmuch as it is an excellent hymn of praise " (Kirchertordnung of Brunswick‑Liineburg, 1544). Along with the Latin





129 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Xaeister 8aori Palatii

Mahaft, John Pentland


version of the Magnifical, assigned to the choir, or

instead of it, the German version was early used,

in accordance with the Evangelical principle of

having the congregation take part in divine wor­

ship. For instance, the Wittenberg Order of 1533

prescribes that " before a particular feast, and after

the (afternoon) sermon, they shall sing the German

Magnificat, as usual, with a German versicle, in

the midst of the Church, with the people." In

short, their first practise was to sing the plain Ger­

man version, adhering exactly to the Latin melody;

afterward, the metrical Mageiftcut, paraphrased

into the form of a German hymn: or both together,

sometimes in the guise that each verse of the Latin,

or German and Latin, Magniftcat would serve as

" text," to be followed by a German hymn strophe

by way of " elucidation."

As concerning the liturgically musical presenta­

tion of the Magnificdt, the Roman Catholic cus­

tom is to sing it, whatever the psalm tone em­

ployed, somewhat higher and slower, in its quality

of ‑a New Testament canticle, with a festival in­

tonation for each verse. The Evangelical Church

in Germany adheres to this custom as regards the

Latin Magniftcat; whereas, for the German version,

it is usual to select the ninth psalm tone (tones

peregrines). The Magnifical was made a favorite

theme for artistic elaboration, and masters in every

style of church music have applied their skill to it.

In the Evangelical Church, also, the Magnifu;at is

an attractive focus for the development and ex­

pansion of musical art.‑ Out of the practise of

playing organ interludes between the verses, there

grew up a special department of organ literature

(see ORGAN). The structure of the text itself be­

comes an important factor in the development of

Evangelical church music, and exhibits all forms

and styles of the same, from the closed choral

motet (as with Dietrich, Hassler, Vulpius, Frank,

Cruger, etc.); or, in case of the metrical Magnifuat,

from the polyphonic choral hymn, down to the

highly elaborate cantata, comprising all modes of

church music in one complicated artistic creation,

such as Johann Sebastian Bach's quintet Magnifir



C6t. See CHURCH MUSIC. (H. A. KSSTLIN f .)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Jacob, in Revue d'hiatoire et de Littera­

ture religieuae, ii (1897), 424‑432; A. Durand, in Revue

biblaque, vii (1898), 74‑77; A. Harnack, in SBA, xxvi



(1900), 538‑558; O. Bardenhewer, BibLiache Studien, vi

(1901), parts 1‑2; H. A. KSatlin, in Zeitaehrift fur die

NeuteatametttLiehe Wiseeaechaft, 1902, pp. 139 eqq.; Julian,

Hprnnolopy, p. 711. Consult also: B. Thalhofer, Hand­



bueh der katholischen Liturgik, ii. 478, Freiburg, 1883‑90;

S. Kiimmerle, Encyklopttdie der evangeliachen Kirchere­



musik, ii. 124‑127, 180‑186, Giitersloh. 1890; G. Riet­

echel, Lehrbuch der Liturpik, pp. 345, 443, Berlin, 1899.

MAGNUS: The name applied to a saint remark­

able for his early missionary labors among the Swan.

bians. The narrative of his life, however, by a

process of incorporation not uncommon in medieval

literature of the kind, is made up by the fusion of

incidents belonging to two distinct persons, one

in the seventh and the other in the eighth century

‑the former connected with St. Gall, the latter

with the monastery of Fiissen on the Lech, although

he also probably came originally from St. Gall.

Msginold and Theodo accompanied the Irish monk

VIL‑9


to the wilderness on the Steinach in 613; after his death they remained there, and Maginold is said to have lived until about the middle of the seventh century. The Fiissen legend speaks of a monk Magnus, from his name presumably of Romaic origin, not Teutonic, like Maginold, as a contem­porary of Wichbert, the first demonstrable bishop of Augsburg, toward the middle of the eighth cen­tury.. Wishing to convert a last pagan corner of his diocese, he sent to St. Gall for monks; and Magnus, with Theodo or Dieto (an analogy with the older legend), went forth to help him, the former working in the valley of the Lech and founding the monas­tery of Fussen, where he died about the middle of the eighth century. When about 851 Bishop Lanto of Augsburg translated his relics, a life was made up, based on tradition, but tradition a century old, and attributed to the contemporary Dieto, here called Theodore. In the last decade of the ninth century the abbot‑bishop Solomon III. erected the church St. Magnus at St. Gall, and obtained relics of the patron from Fiissen, together with the life, which then at St. Gall was fused with the story of the local Maginold. (G. MEYER VON KNONAU.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The literature is indicated in Pottheat, Weqweiaer, p. 1444. The Vita mentioned in the text is with other material in ASB, Sept., ii. 700‑?81, ef. ABM, ii., pp. 505‑510. Consult: Rettberg, XD, ii. 148‑151; Friedrich, KD, ii. 654‑658.

MAGOG. See Goo AND MAGOG; and TABLE OF THE NATIONS.

MAGUIRE, JOHN ALOYSILTS: Roman Cath­olic archbishop of Glasgow; b. at Glasgow Sept. 8, 1851. He was educated at St. Aloysius' College, Glasgow, Stonyhurst College, the University of Glasgow, and the College of the Propaganda, Rome, until 1875, and after being an assistant at the St. Andrew's Cathedral at Glasgow, from 1875 to 1879, was appointed secretary of the diocese, a position which he held four years. He was incumbent of Partick in 1883, but in the following year became canon of the cathedral of Glasgow, vicar‑general in 1885, and provost of the chapter in 1893. In 1894 he was consecrated titular bishop of Troo­mada) and appointed to assist the archbishop of Glasgow, whom he succeeded in the archiepiscopal office in 1902.
MAHAFFY, JOHN PENTLAND: Church of Ireland; b. near Vevey (11 m. e.s.e. of Lausanne), Switzerland, Feb. 26, 1839. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1859; M.A., 1863), and was ordered deacon in 1864 and ordained priest two years later. He was elected fellow of his col­lege in 1884, where he has been senior fellow and registrar since 1899, as well as a member of the University COUri011 since 1902. He was also pre­ceptor of Trinity College in 1867 and chaplain to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1880. He was assistant regius professor of Greek at Trinity Col­lege in 1864‑65, 1867‑68, 1870‑74, 1877, and 1896, assistant in Archbishop King's divinity lectures in 1870‑79, junior dean in 1869, junior proctor in 1871 Donellan lecturer in 1876, and examiner re­peatedly in various subjects, besides being evening preacher in 1865‑67 and university preacher in



biahan THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 130

Maimonidea


1868‑70: From 1869 to 1900 he was professor of

ancient history at Trinity College, and was also

High Sheriff of County Monaghan in 1901 and a

commissioner for intermediate education. In the­

ology he is a Broad Churchman. Among his numer­

ous publications, chiefly on classical subjects, special

mention may be made of the following: Twelve.

Lectures on Primitive Civilization (London, 1869);

Prolegomena to Ancient History (1871); Greek Social

Life from Homer to Menander (1874); Greek Antiq­

uities (1876); A History of Classical Greek Litera­

ture (1880); The Decay of Modern Preaching (1882);

The Story of Alexander's Empire (in collaboration

with A. Gilman; 1887); Greek Life and Thought from



Alexander to the Roman Conquest (1887); Greek Pic­

tures drawn with Pen and Pencil (1890); The Greek

World under Roman Sway (1890); The Empire of the

Ptolemies (1895); The Silver Age of the Greek World;

and What have the Greeks Done (1909); and con­

tributed vol. iv. to Petrie's History of Egypt; in

addition to numerous editions of classical, historical,

and philosophical works and The Petrie Papyri De­

ciphered and Explained (3 vole., Dublin, 1892‑1905).

MAHAN, ASA: American Congregationalist

educator; b. at Vernon, N. Y.; Nov. 9, 1800; d.

at Eastbourne (65 m. s. of London), England, Apr.

4, 1889. He was graduated at Hamilton College,

Clinton, N. Y., in 1824, and at Andover Theolog­

ical Seminary in 1827. He was pastor at Pitts­

ford, N. Y. (1829‑31); Cincinnati, O. (1831‑35);

Jackson, Mich. (1855‑57); and Adrian, Mich.

(1857‑60). He was president of Oberlin College

(1835‑50), Cleveland University (1850‑54), and

Adrian College, Mich. (1860‑71). In 1871 he re­

tired to Eastbourne, England, to devote himself to

literary work. His works include: Scripture Doc­



trine of Christian Perfection (Boston, 1839); Sys­

tem of Intellectual Philosophy (New York, 1845);

Doctrine of the Will (Oberlin, 1846); The True Be­

liever (New York, 1847); System of Moral Philoso­

phy (Oberlin, 1848); Election, and the Influence of

the Holy Spirit (London, 1850); Modern Mysteries

Explained and Exposed (Boston, 1855); The Sci­

ence of Logic (New York, 1856); Science of Natural

Theology (Boston, 1867); Theism and Antitheiam

(Cleveland, 1872); Phenomena of Spiritualism Sci­



entifically Explained and Exposed (1875); Misun­

derstood Texts of Scripture Explained and Eluci­

dated (1876); Critical History of the Late American

War (1877); System of Mental Philosophy (Chicago,

1882); Autobiography; Intellectual, Moral, and



Spiritual (London, 1882); and Critical History of

Philosophy (2 vole., New York, 1883).

>l3AHDI, mal'd%: The title given by Moham­

medans to the person who according to their ex­

pectation is to exercise functions not unlike those

attributed to the Jewish Messiah. He is to com­

plete the work of Mohammed, convert or destroy

the infidels, inaugurate the reign of justice and

truth upon earth, and lead the faithful to Paradise.

The word means " directed," hence, " orle fit to

guide others." The Mohammedan world is divided

between those who believe that Mahdi has already

come but is concealed until the time of his final



manifestation (Shiahsr see MOHAMMED, MoaeX‑


MEDANISM), and those who still await his appear­ance (Sunnis). As in the case of the cognate Jew­ish belief, from which in part it sprang, the posses­sion of the idea has led to many attempts to realize it. These attempts have been made both by im­postors and by those who were self‑deluded. One of these was the famous veiled prophet al‑Mokanna, Hakim ibn Allah, who conducted a revolt against Mohammed ben Mansur (c. 780 A.D.), while this Mohammed himself assumed the tale of Mahdi; another was Ubayd Allah al‑Mahdi in North Africa, 909‑934, founder of the Fatimid dynasty; almost as celebrated was Ibn Tumart, the founder of the Muwahhid Berber dynasty, also in North Africa. A recent example is Mohammed Ahmed (1843‑85), " the mad mullah," whose revolt in the region south of Egypt caused so great fear of a holy war, and to whose capture of Khartum the death of General Cordon was due. The head of the brotherhood of al‑Sanusi also claims to be the Mahdi. CEO. W. GILMORE.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Moller, Beitrtipe zur MahdilvJi.re des lalama, Heidelberg, 1901; J. Darmeateter, The Mahdi, Past and Present, New York, 1885; D. B. Macdonald, Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence, and Con­stitutional Theory, pp. 244‑249 et passim, New York, 1903.


MAI, md'3 or mai, ANGELO: Roman Catholic scholar; b. near Bergamo, Italy, Mar. 7; 1782; d. near Albano Sept. 9, 1854. He entered the Jesuit order in 1799, and taught in their college at Naples from 1804. At Orvieto, in the intervals of priestly duties, he applied himself to paleography, and es­pecially to the deciphering of palimpsests. His activity as an editor of ancient works dates from 1813, when he went to Milan as keeper of the Am­broaian Library; his field comprised both classical and ecclesiastical authors. In 1819 Pius VII. ap­pointed him prefect of the Vatican library; and he was made a cardinal in 1838. The writings he edited are mainly embraced in four general colleo­tions: Veterum seriptorum nova collectio (10 vole., Rome, 1825‑38); Classici, auctores (10 vole., 1828­1838); Spicilegium Romanum (10 vo1s., 1839‑44); Sanctorum strum nova btTiliotheca (6 vole., 1844­1871); and the posthumous Appendix ad opera edits ab Angelo Mai (1879).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: AL, viii. 483‑488 (appreciative).
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