123 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA ~Ma~a.gasoa,r, l~itsuraioina in
at Seville in 1550, and at. Rouen and Bordeaux
At first the discipline in the convents for magda
lens was extremely severe, but gradually it grew
lax, especially through the admission of those for
whom the order was not originally intended, until
in 1637‑40 a reformation was enforced at Paris,
Marseilles, Bordeaux, Rouen, and elsewhere by St.
Vincent de Paul. According to the new rule, which
was officially approved in 1640, the order was to be
divided into three grades. The first of these was
the Congregation of St. Mary Magdalene with strict
vows, which were assumed after a novitiate of two
years, and required fasting throughout Advent,
and on all Fridays, as well as frequent retreats, and
other acts of penance. The second grade of the
order was the Congregation of St. Martha, which
required no vows and permitted those who were
truly penitent and reformed to reenter the world
and marry. The third grade was the Congregation
of St. Lazarus, which forcibly detained those who
were entrusted to its care for reformation.
Numerous other Roman Catholic orders of more
recent times have devoted themselves to the rescue
of fallen women, noteworthy. among them being the
Order of Our Lady of Refuge, founded at Nancy by
Elisabeth de la Croix (d. 1649), the Sisters of St.
Joseph, established in 1821, and the Order of the
Good Shepherd, founded at Angers in 1828. The
first impulse toward similar work in Evangelical
circles was given by the work of Theodor Fliedner
(q.v.; see also DEACONE69, IIL, 2, a, § 2) at Kaisers
werth beginning with 1833, and his example has
since found numerous followers. (O. ZtScxr.Eat.)
MAGDEBURG, ARCHBISHOPRIC OF: A
former archbishopric, named from an ancient city
of Germany, situated on the Elbe, 88 m. w.s.w. of
Berlin. The town was an important commercial
center as early as the reign of Charlemagne, and its
oldest church is supposed to date from this period.
In the tenth century, when the city belonged to
the diocese of Halberstadt, it contained a parish
church, and on Sept. 21, 937, Otho I. founded there
a Benedictine monastery, which he endowed richly.
Later he conceived the plan of transferring the
episcopal palace from Halberstadt to Magdeburg,
incorporating the monastery with it, and trans
forming the bishopric into an archbishopric for the
Wends. In 955 he assured himself of the papal
sanction through Abbot Hadamar of Fulda, but
his plans failed on account of the opposition of
Archbishop William of Mainz, who refused to re
linquish Halberstadt and proposed to separate
Magdeburg from the diocese of Halberstadt and
create of it a new bishopric among the Wends.
This plan was carried out. In the Roman synod
of Feb. 12, 962, Magdeburg was made an archbish
opric with jurisdiction over all future Wendish di
oceses, according to the emperor's wish. The final
negotiations took place at Ravenna in Oct., 968,
when Archbishop Hatto IL, who had succeeded
William seven months previously at Mainz, agreed
to the creation of the new archbishopric. Otho
appointed Adalbert, abbot of Weiasenburg in Al
sace, the first archbishop. The archdiocese of
Magdeburg comprised the dioceses which already existed in Brandenburg and Havelberg, as well as the new bishoprics of Merseburg, Meissen, and Zeitz, thus stretching from the Saale and Elbe in the west to the Oder in the east. (A. Hwucg.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY'. Sources are the Geata archiepiscaporum Mapdeburgenaium, and the Catalogi, ed. W. 8chum, in MGH, Script, xiv (1883). 381 aqq., 484‑488; Annales Magdeburpenais, ed. G. H. Pertz, ib., xvi (1859), 105‑198; G. A. von Mtilverstedt, ReOesta arcAiepiscopatus Magdeburpenaie, 4 vole., Magdeburg, 1878‑99; and Die Mapdeb. 3ch6ppenchronik, ed. W. Janieke, in Chroniken der deutschen Stttdte, vol. vii., Leipaic, 1889; Gams, Series episcoporum, p. 288. Consult: F. W. Hoffmann, Geschichte der Stall Magdeburg, 2 vole., Magdeburg, 1885‑86; W. Kawerau, Aua Mapdeburpa Verpangenheit, Halls, 1888; K. Uhlirz, Oeschichte lea Erzbistums Magdeburg, Magdeburg, 1887; C. Eubel, Hierarchic catholica medii a'uii, 2 vole., Miinater, 1898‑1901; Hauck, KD, vole. iii.‑iv.
MAGDEBURG CENTURIES: The first attempt to write the history of the Church from the Evangelical point of view. The plan of this work was conceived by Matthias Flaciua (q.v.). He projected a church history from the original sources showing that the Church of Christ since the time of the apostles had deviated from the right course, a documentary history of anti‑Christianity in the church of Christ from its beginnings to its highest development up to the restoration of true religion in its purity by Luther. From 1553 Flacius gave his efforts to the securing of patrons to aid the work financially, whom he found among German noblemen and wealthy citizens, in Augsburg, Niiremberg, and elsewhere, and in obtaining collaborators. The active interest and assistance manifested by the Imperial Councilor Niedbruck, curator of the Royal Library in Vienna, proved especially valuable. Libraries had to be searched for sources and documents; for this purpose Flacius himself undertook journeys in Germany, and his assistant Marcus Wagner of Friemar near Goths with great success traveled through Denmark, Scotland, Austria, Bavaria, and other territories, while many manuscripts and books were purchased or donated by patrons. In Magdeburg Flacius, Johann Wigand, and Matthiius Judex stood at the head of the project and worked out the details of the plan. The Councilor Ebeling Alemann, and the physician, Martin Copus, were treasurers; assistants were trained in furnishing the necessary excerpts, which two learned masters put into shape. From Jena Flacius directed the entire work. Thus there appeared in Basel, 1559‑74, the Eccleaiasticd histtmia . secundum singulas certturicts . . . Per aliquot studiosos et pios viros in urbe Magdeburgica, hence called the Magdeburg Centuries. Centuries seven to thirteen were elaborated especially by Wigand in Wismar. Wigand and subsequently Stangewald afterward worked on the three following centuries without completing them (the sixteenth century, compiled by Wigand, is in Wolfenbiittel in manuscript form); attempts made by several persons in the eighteenth century to bring the work down to date were also without result. The " Centuries " mark immense progress in ecclesiastical historiography, not only by the tracing of the sources and the completeness with which the material was collected, but also because there is ap‑
Xasee THE NEW
plied in them the pragmatic method of historical
development. The anti‑Roman interest sharp
ened the vision and helped the authors of the work
to critical achievements that marked a new epoch.
While the division into centuries was an obstacle
to a good grouping of the material, and the one
sided polemical anti‑Roman interest formed a bar
rier to an unprejudiced appreciation of the develop
ment of church history; nevertheless, there was
achieved the utmost that was possible within the
limits of the sharply defined dogmatic standpoint,
and the work furnished the weapons which Protes
tantism needed in its struggle. The work, pestilenr
tisaimum opus, as it was called by the Roman op
ponents, made a very strong impression upon the
Roman Church. Canisius urged the most learned
theologians to attack it, and many pens were set
in motion until in Cmsar Baroniua (q.v.) there was
found an able opponent who drew his material from
the Roman sources themselves. (G. KAwERAU.)
BxaLxoaaArny: F. C. Baur, Die Epochcn der kirchtichen
Geachichtaachreibunp, pp. 39 eqq.,
Haar, De Hiatoriopraphie der Kerkpeschiedenia, pp 121
eqq., Utrecht, 1870‑73; A. Jundt, Lea Centuries de Mapde
bourg, Paris, 1883; 9ehaumkell, Beitrap zur Entatehunpa
peachichte der Mapd. Centuries, Ludwigaburg,1898; Schaff,
Christian Church, i. 37‑38.
MAGEE, WILLIAM; Archbishop of Dublin;
b. at Enniskillen (70 m. s.w, of Belfast), County
Fermanagh, Mar. 18, 1766; d. at Stillorgan (5 m.
s.e. of Dublin) Aug. 18, 1831. He was educated at
Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1785), and became
fellow in 1788, and senior fellow and professor of
mathematics in 1800. Ordained deacon in 1790,
he became dean of Cork in 1813, bishop of Raphoe
in 1819, and archbishop of Dublin in 1822. He
was a determined opponent of the Roman Catholics
but still more of the Unitarians, against whom he
wrote several pamphlets. He wrote among other
works: Discourses on the Scriptural Doctrines of
Atonement and Sacrifice (London, 1801). His works
were collected in two volumes (London, 1842).
BIHLIOaIiAP87: Consult, besides the Memoir by A. H.
Kennet', prefixed to his collected Works, ut sup., DNB,
axxv. 313‑315, where further literature is given.
MAGEE, WILLIAM CONNOR: Archbishop of
York; b. at Cork Dec. 17, 1821; d. in London May
5, 1891. He was a grandson of William Magee
(q.v.). He was educated at Trinity College, Dub
lin (B.A., 1842; M.A. and B.D., 1854; D.D., 1860).
He became curate of St. Thomas', Dublin, in 1844;
of St. Saviour's, Bath, in 1848; minister of the Octa
gon Chapel, Bath, in 1850; perpetual curate of
Quebec Chapel in 1859; rector of Enniskillen in
1860; dean of Cork in 1864; dean of the Chapel
Royal, Dublin, in 1866; bishop of Peterborough in
1868; and archbishop of York in 1891. He was
Donellan lecturer at Dublin in 1865‑66. He was
the author of: Sermons Delivered al St. Saviour's
(Bath, 1852); Sermons at the Octagon
(Bath, 1854); The Gospel and the Age
(London, 1884); The Atonement (188?); Growth in
Grace (1891); Christ the Light of all Scripture (1892);
and Speeches and Addresses (1892).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. C. MaeDonnell, The Life and Correspond
ence of William Connor Magee, 2 vole., London, 1898;
idem, in DNB, xxxv. 313‑318,
Definition and Scope (§ 1). 7n Greece (§ 9).
Religion (¢ 2).
In Rome (§ 10).
In Babylonia (13).
In Egypt (§ 4).
Magic and the Early Church
Among the Hebrews ($ b). Medieval Magic (§ 12).
In India (§ 8). Black Magic (§ 13).
In Persia (§ 7). White Magic (§ 14).
Among Teutons and Celts Magic sad Modern Occultism
(4 8). (§ 16).
Magic is the alleged art of producing supernatural results by means of occult agencies, although in the widest sense of the term it includes Divination (q.v.), and thus coincides with occultism. In the present article, however, the discussion of magic is restricted to the causation of supernatural phenomena by mystic conjurations or incantations which may be either benevolent or malevolent. In this form magic coincides in great part with Witchcraft (q.v.), although it is distinguished, on the one hand, by a more scientific method, and, on the
other, by asocial trend which aims at a z. Definition unification of magic operations by oc‑
tlnd Scope. cult traditions. Magic is divided, ac
cording to the means employed, into
demonistic (operating with the aid of spirits), relig
ious (regulated by the priesthood and the cult),
and natural (working simply through hidden powers
of nature), while with regard to its beneficent or
maleficent intent it is termed " white " and " black "
Magic is an element of the empirical religion of all times and peoples, and belongs, like asceticism, sacrifice, and purification, to the constantly recurring and ineradicable factors of the social life of mankind (see COMPARATIVE RELIGION, VI., 1, a, § 5). Among many wild tribes religion seems to consist almost entirely of magic, although the theory that all religion is a development of witchcraft and magic is open to grave objections. The question may even be raised whether magic is not a phase of religious degeneration rather than evolution. The view prevailing in many circles that the religious conditions of modern savages constitutes the norm for reconstructing the religion of primitive man fails to recognize that the evidence in the life of ancient and of modern peoples shows a slow process of religious decay. It must be noted, furthermore, that savages are not found to advance from fetishism or animism (see COMPARATIVE RELlalorr) to a higher stage of religious life, nor are
magic and witchcraft (q.v.) the most a. Place in primitive forma of the religion of the
Religion, civilized nations of antiquity. Neither
in Egypt nor in Babylonia does religious development reveal polydemonistic magic as the source of their mythology and their cult, however early magic rites and formulas were used among both nations. Magic is, then, essentially a symptom of religious decay and belongs to the latest period of religious evolution. In cases where it appears at a relatively early stage in.a given people, it is seldom developed by the people in question, but is usually of foreign origin, being imported from degenerate neighboring tribes!
* ^F‑or the presentation of another view of ethnic magic, 88e WaLPAHATIVE RELIGION, VI„ 1. 8, § 5.
The Babylonians are usually regarded as the nation among whom magic, in the strict sense of the term, first appeared, although it moat be borne in mind that Babylonian here connotes Sumerian, and that the Babylonian Semites first became acquainted with magic through their Sumerian neighbors. The Medea and Persians were strongly opposed to magic and sturdily resisted the priests of magic coming from Babylonia, India, and Egypt.
Neither the Medea nor the Persians
3. In can be regarded as the authors of the Babylonia. magic art which later spread from the Orient to Greece and Rome, but the real source of magic was the proto‑Babylonian priesthood of the region of the lower Euphrates, whose incantations, written in Sumerian, are doubtless the oldest documents of their class. The Sumerisns seem to have been a " Turanian " people who left their original home in Central Asia and became fused with the Aryan stock south of the Caspian, especially with the Medea, and also with the Semites of the Euphrates valley (see BwsxLONIw, V., §§ 1‑2). This worship of the elements and their spirits to which the peoples of central sad northern Asia were devoted thus penetrated into the southwestern part of the continent. In the older magic texts, preserved in numerous clay tablets in the library of Aeshurbanipal (see A88YRIw, VI., 3, § 14), witchcraft is essentially a system of incantation to avert the power of evil demons, while various gods, especially Es, Marduk, Gibil‑Nuaku, and Sin, are invoked as protectors. The entire object was the averting of physical ills and the exorcism of disease‑demons, thus presenting numerous parallels with the arts of shamanistic medicine men. It was only this older Babylonian magic, which was still influenced by Sumerian traditions, that was medical, for after the consolidation of the Babylonian kingdom in the second millennium B.c., divination superseded all other forms of magic in Babylonia while astrology spread from Chaldea throughout the west and made the terms Chaldean and astrologer almost synonymous.
In Egypt, which, like Babylonia, was one of the earliest homes of Oriental magic, witchcraft never became overlaid with divination, but always re‑
mained essentially a system of mad‑
;. In ical exorcism, practised by priestly
Egypt medical magicians, and based on sym
pathetic cures, the conjuration of hos
tile powers of nature, and the banishment of sick
ness by amulets and the like. The magic papyri
of the New Kingdom contain incantations against
crocodiles and other noxious creatures, especially
serpents, as well as against all sorts of demons,
against the evil eye, and against sickness of every
kind, and many of their mystic words of power are
Assyro‑Babylonian in origin.
The ancient Hebrews, surrounded and influenced by two neighboring peoples which were adepts in magic art, also showed a strong tendency to witchcraft, as is clear from the rigid but ineffectual prohibitions in the legal code (Ex. xxii. 18; Deut. xviii. 10‑11; comp. II Kings xxi. 6; Iso. viii. 19, 20, Ivii. 3; Micah v. il). Both the divination of the Babylonians and the medical exorcisms of
126 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA
the Egyptians seem to have exercised a strong influence on Israel, and the later development of pre‑
Christian Judaism favored an increased g. Among devotion to these forbidden arts. the Hebrews. This is shown by many of the Apoc‑
rypha and Peeudepigrapha of the Old Testament, especially Tobit iii., vi.; Enoch hzix., the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, the late Jewish Testament of Solomon and various other Solomonic legends and incantations connected with the tradition of the queen of Sheba based on I Kings x. i‑10.
Throughout the Aryan and non‑Aryan peoples which surrounded the Semites of southwestern Asia magic is seen to appear at a relatively early period, although it did not exist in the very beginning. Nor did it disappear with development of civilization and learning, but, on the contrary, increased in extent and refinement. So it was among the Hindus (see BsaHnswrnsM), whose earliest phase of religion, as represented in the Rag Veda, was a
simple nature worship free from magic 6. In India. accretion, while the rise of the Brah‑
manic priesthood produced an extreme formalism with a tendency to exercise power over the gods by means of a correct performance of the prescribed offerings, prayers, and invocations. The Atharva Veda contains a vast number of examples of formulas to be employed in such acts of magic, and the Sutras, or compendiums of ritual for the Brahmanic sacrifice, mark a still further advance in religious formalism. Even the Buddhistic reform was unable to suppress the witchcraft underlying Hinduism, and it was in Buddhism that the popular belief in a cult of magic appropriate to the spirits of earth, trues, mountains, fields, and houses found its most luxuriant development. If this be true of Hindu Buddhism it is still more characteristic of the Mongolian and Tatar neighbors of India, especially the Chinese and the shamanistic tribes of central and northern Asia. In modern China (q.v.) Buddhist bonzes vie with Taoist priests in the practise of magic and divination.
In Persia (see ZOROASTER, ZOROASTRIANISM), in like manner, magic forced itself upon a Mazdaism which was originally free from witchcraft. The Avesta bitterly opposed the magic arts of the " wizards " who derived their skill either from " Turan " or from Babylon, but toward the end of the Acheemenian period, as well as under the Arsacids, magic began to play so prominent a part in the popular religion of the Persians that the name
Magian became a designation for the y. In Persia. priesthood of Persia. Even the efforts
of the Sassanians to restore the ancient pre‑Magian faith had only temporary success. As far as this later Persian or Parthian magianism was predominantly astrological or mantic in character, it must be regarded as borrowed from Babylonia, but its magic elements in the narrower sense of the term, such se conjuration and amuleLa, doubtless came from the " Turanian " or Scythian peoples in the north.
Among the ancient Teutons a cult of the divinity of the fields and forte connected with the practise of magic was an important feature of religion at a
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 128
very early period, although it reached its zenith only to be crushed by Christianity. Among the
Celts, in like manner, religion was & Among strongly infused with magic elements
Teutons which had reached a degree of refineand Celts. went and complexity unknown to
the popular Teutonic witchcraft. This was due in great part to the organized priesthood of the Druids (q.v.), who were especially skilled in medical magic.
In Greece magic was an important religious factor even in the Homeric and early post‑Homeric periods, as is clear from the story of Media in Argonautic legend, Circe in the Odyssey, the magic goddess Hecate, Hermes the protecting herald of the gods and giver of dreams, and all other patron deities. That these ancient Hellenic traditions of magic were native in origin and not borrowed from
the East is shown by abundant eviy. In dente, especially that which alludes
Greece. either to Thrace or Thessaly as the
early home of witchcraft. Yet at an
early time foreign magic found its way into Greece
both from Egypt and Babylonia or Persia. Nor
did the refinement of Greek civilization prevent the
warmest welcome and the moat varied imitations
of the magic arts of oriental " barbarians." The
medical magic of Egypt found no bar to its en
trance, and neither the rationalism of the followers
of Hippocrates nor the mockeries of Lucian could
shake the pseudo‑philosophy of the wizards of the
Nile who flocked to Greece in increasing numbers.
Equally successful was the divination of Persia
and Babylon. All forma of prophecy, by astrology,
the raising of the dead, psychomancy, invocation
of the gods, clidomancy, hydromancy, lecanomancy,
and anthropomancy, were in constant use; while
the defense of " Persian " magicians as priestly sages
by Aristotle, Dio Chrysoatom, Apuleius, and Celsus
shows the esteem and influence enjoyed by these
adepts of eastern occult art among the Greeks during
the dynasty of the Diadochi and the Roman period.
Rome also possessed its magic and divination, which in their beginnings reached back to the regal epoch and were domiciled among the tribes living on the banks of the Tiber. The Etruscans introduced the cult of the Dii Averrecm"i. and all forms of auguries into Rome, although other neighboring peoples, such as the Marsi, likewise contributed
their quota. The introduction of :o. In eastern magic was bitterly opposed by Rome legislation as early as the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, and Claudius, while Caracalla condemned magicians to be burned alive or thrown to the beasts. Nevertheless the occult wisdom of the East was irresistible, and the diatribes of Pliny and Tacitus proved unavailing. Even the emperors favored magic; Nero accepted invitations to magic feasts, and Otho was a pronpunced patron of magic, while Vespasian, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius were at least tolerant toward it and Alexander Severus gave it official subvention. In the reign of the latter and his immediate predecessors magic reached its climax in Rome, and not till the triumph of Christianity was it checked, and even then not extirpated.
The early Church was at times not unfavorable to magic. Thus Origen, in his commentary on Genesis (cited in Eusebius, Prceparatio Evangelica, book VI., chap. xi., Eng. transl., i. 280 aqq., Oxford, 1903), drew a distinction between divine and demonic astrology, and in his polemic against Celsus ascribed a' certain reality and justification to the power of those who healed through magic. It was especially the Christian Alexandrians who expressed such views, following, on the one hand, such Hellenistic predecessors as Philo, and, on the other,
such neo‑Platonic philosophers as
ii. Magic Iamblichua and Synesius, one of the and the earliest sources of this nature being Early the philastrological dialogue known as
Church. Hermippua (Anonymi Christians Her
mippus de astrologic dialogus, ed. W.
Knoll and P. Viereck, Leipsic,1895), which probably
dates from the fifth or sixth century. The New
Testament, however, except for the reference to
the " wise men from the East," which was regarded
as the fulfilment of Messianic prophecy (Ps. Lzaii.
10, 15; Isa. Ix. 1 sqq.), was unfavorable to magic.
Thus the Samaritan Simon is characterized as a
false prophet, as is the Jew Bar‑Jesus, who is termed
a "child of the devil" (Acts viii. 9‑11, xiii. 6‑11).
The tractate of " The Two Ways " at the beginning
of the Didache (q.v.) and at the close of the epistle
of Barnabas contains an explicit warning against
magic, which is ranked with witchcraft, idolatry,
drunkenness, impurity, and infanticide. After the
middle of the second century the Gnostics were con
demned by the Church Fathers as the representa
tives of accursed magic arts, and Irenaeus traced all
heretical Gnosticism back to Simon Magus. The
same charge of magic was made against Menan
der, the Carpocratians, the Marcosiana, the Elke
saites, the Ophitea, and heretics of every descrip
tion. Side by side with this gnostic magic ran the
ancient pagan belief in the power of witchcraft.
After the beginning of the fourth century influen
tial heads of the neo‑Platonic school sought to ex
tend both theurgic and mantic magic, and the op
posing measures of such Christian emperors as
Constantine, Valentinian L, Valens, and Theo
dosius I. had but temporary efficacy. Even during
the centuries of the barbarian ware the aid of Tus
can magicians was repeatedly sought, despite the
fulminations of Church Fathers like Ephraem Sy
rus, Isaac of Antioch, Chrysostom, Augustine,
Gregory the Great, and Isidore of Seville.
Throughout the Middle Ages the conflict continued. In the East collections of oracles and Apocrypha ascribed to Zoroaster, Daniel, Methodius, Leo the Wise, and other famous names were multiplied and formed the basis of commentaries of Psellus the Younger, Roger Bacon, and Albertua Magnus, and also of such protagonists of the Renaissance as Pletho sad Ficinus. The Cabala added
its quota to occultism, furnishing the
a. Medi‑ magic pentagram, the Shem ha‑Mephooval Magic. rash, and the Agla. Innumerable so‑
clesiastical prohibitions failed to crush magic, though the early disapproval of witchcraft as a foolish superstition gradually developed, after the period of the crusades, into attacks upon a
127 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA acsr:io