Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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BIBLIOGRAPHY: Donald Macleod (his brother), Memoir o1 Norman Macleod, London, 1878; A. Strahan, Norman Macleod, ib. 1872; Stanley, in Good Words, 1872; Jean L. Watson, Life of Norman Macleod, ib. 1881; R. Flint, in Scottish Divines (St. Giles Lectures), London, 1883; A. H. Japp, Good Men and True, ib. 1890; J. Wellwood, Norman Macleod, Edinburgh, 1897; John N. Macleod, Memorials of Rev. Norman Macleod, ib. 1898; DNB, xzxv. 217‑218.
MACMILLAN, HUGH: United Free Church of Scotland; b. at Aberfeldy (22 m. n.w. of Perth) Sept. 17, 1833; d. in Edinburgh May 24, 1903. He was educated at the University of Edinburgh and was minister at Kirkmichael (1859‑64), Glas­gow (1864‑78), and Greenock (1878‑98). He made his reputation by his first two books, Footnotes from the Page of Nature, or First Forms of Vegetation (Cambridge, 1861), and Bible Teachings in Nature (London, 1866), of which 30,000 copies had been sold in Great Britain up to 1907, and which had been translated into French, German, Italian, Da­nish, and Norwegian,, and reprinted and widely sold in America. In these two books he first re­vealed his ability to interest persons in his favorite theme, the intimate relations between the natural and the spiritual. This was the theme of many subsequent volumes, some of which were travels and many of which were collections of sermons and essays. Of these may be mentioned: Holidays in High Lands, or Rambles and Incidents in Search of Alpine Plants (1869); The Sabbath of the Fields (1876); Two Worlds are Ours (1880); Roman Mo­saics (1888); Gleanings in Holy Fields (1899); his book of verse, The Christmas Rose (1901); his two volumes of collected addresses to children; The Gate Beautiful (1891), and The Corn of Heaven (1901); posthumous were Rothiemurchua (1907), and The Isles and the Gospel (1907, with a prefatory memoir by George A. Macmillan).
M'NEILL, JOHN: Mission Preacher; b. at Hous­ton (11 m. w, of Glasgow), Renfrewshire, July 7, 1854. He received his early education in the Free Church schools at Houston and Inverkip, after which he was in the railway service from 1869 to 1877. In the latter year he resolved to prepare for the ministry, and studied successively at Edinburgh University (1877‑80), Glasgow University (1880‑$1), and Free Church Divinity Hall, Glasgow (1881‑‑85). In 1886 he was ordained to the ministry and became pastor of M'Crie‑Roxburgh Free Church, Edinburgh, where he remained until 1889, when he went to London as minister of Regent Square Presbyterian Church. In 1892 he left the regular ministry to become a mission preacher, and in this capacity traveled throughout Great Britain, in addition to visiting India, South Africa, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, the United Staten, and Canada. In 1908 he became pastor of Christ Church (Congre­gational), London. He has written: Sermons (3


21adagstoar, Missions is


vole., London, 1890‑91); The Brazen Serpent, and other Addresses (1893); and The Lord our Shepherd, and other Addresses (1898).
MACON (MATISCO): A city of Burgundy, in which three synods were held. One, in 581, at which twenty‑one bishops were present, issued nine­teen canons, of which the seventh threatens with excommunication any civil judge who dares to pro­teed against a clerk, except in criminal cams, while canons 13‑16 are aimed at the Jews. Another, in 585, at which forty‑three bishops were present in person, and twenty were represented by deputies, issued twenty canons, of which the eighth forbade any one who had sought refuge in the sanctuary to be touched without the consent of the priest; while the ninth and tenth forbade the civil power to pro­cued against a bishop, except through his metro­politan, or against a priest or deacon, except through his bishop. The third was held between 617 and 627, and decided against an attempt to do away with the rule of St. Columban. The acts and canons are not extant.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hefele ConciZienprarhichte, iii. 36‑41, 74,

Eng. tranal., iv. 402‑409, 444.
MACRIftA, ma‑cri'na: The name of two female saints of the early Church.

1. Macrina the Elder: Grandmother of Basil the Great and Gregory of Nyasa; d. at Neoemsarea c. 340. Of her life little is known. She seems to have married into a rich and distinguished family of Pontus, and Basil assumes (Epist. cciv.) that she was remembered in Neocaesarea for more than a generation after her death. He says that she told him stories of Gregory Thaumaturgus, and influ­enced his life by her teaching in his childhood. Gregory mentions (Vita Macrince junioris, MPG, xlvi. 961‑980) that she suffered persecution, to­gather with her husband, for her faith; and Gregory Nazianzen in his panegyric on Basil. (Oratio sliii.; MPG, sxcvi. 501) states that they took refuge in the forest of Pontus and remained there consider­able time. Neither the date nor the duration of this voluntary exile is certain, since the statements of Gregory Nazianzen that it lasted seven years and took place during the reign of Maximinus (who ruled only from 311 to 313) do not agree with each other. Her day is Jan. 14.

2. Macrina the Younger: Granddaughter of the preceding and the sister of Basil the Great and Gregory of Nyasa; b. in Pontua c. 329; d. at a family estate on the Iris in the same province in the latter part of 379. She was the oldest of ten children and was betrothed at the age of twelve to a young jurist of distinguished family. He died, however, before the marriage, and Macrina seems to have seized this pretext to adopt a life of celi­bacy and asceticism. After the death of her father, Basilius, she remained with her mother Emmelia until Basil returned from his studies about 358, when she, together with her mother and her serv­ants and slaves (now ranked as her sisters), retired to the banks of the Iris to lead the life of a nun. To her brothers, particularly the youngest, Peter, who afterward became bishop of Sebaste, this place was a school of earnest Christianity, end it was also

visited by Gregory Nazianzen and Eustathius of Sebaste. When Emmelia died shortly before 370, Macrina became the head of the community. Her brother Gregory was present at her death and has preserved the memories of the scene both in his Vita Macrinte and in his treatise On the Soul and the Resurrection. Her day is July 1®. (F. Loops.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. The sources are indicated in the tent. Consult: ASS, Jan., i. 952‑3; DCB, iii. 779; and the literature under BASIL, SAINT; and GREnORy Or NYaaA. 2. The life is moat accessible in ASS, July, iv. b89‑804; DCB, iii., 779‑781; and ut sup. under 1.

McTYE1RE, HOLLAND NIMMONS: American Methodist Episcopal (South) bishop; b. in Barn­well Co., S. C., July 28, 1824; d. at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 15, 1889. He was educated at Randolph­Macon College, Va. (A.B., 1844) and entered the Methodist ministry in 1845. He was pastor at Williamsburg, Va., Mobile and Demopolis, Ala., Columbus, Miss., New Orleans, La., and Montgom­ery, Ala. (at the last‑named place during the Civil War). He was elected bishop in 1866, and made president of Vanderbilt University in 1873. He became editor of the Christian Advocate (New Or­leans) in 1851, and of the Christian Advocate (Nash­villa) in 1858. He wrote: A Catechism on Church Government (Nashville, 1869); A Catechism an Bible History (1869); Manual of the Discipline (1870); History of Methodism (1884); and Passing through the Gates (1889).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 0. P. Fitzgerald, Holland N. McTyeire, Nashville, 1898.

McVICBAR, WILLIAM NEILSON: Protestant Episcopal bishop of Rhode Island; b. in New York City Oct. 19, 1843. He was educated at Columbia College (A.B., 1865), the Philadelphia Divinity School (1865‑66), and the General Theological Seminary, from which he was graduated in 1868. He was ordered deacon in 1867, and, after being curate of St. George's, New York City, for a year, was advanced to the priesthood in 1868. From the latter year until 1875 he was rector of Holy Trinity, New York City, after which he was rector of Holy Trinity, Philadelphia, until 1897, declining both the rectorship of St. Paul's, Boston, and a tutor­ahip in Columbia. In 1898 he was consecrated bishop coadjutor of Rhode Island, and in 1903, on the death of Bishop Thomas M. Clark, became bishop of the same diocese. He was a deputy to the General Convention from 1883 to 1895, and was also president of the Southwest Convocation, a manager of the General Missionary Society, and a member of the Diocesan Board of Missions and of other diocesan bodies.

all the evil traits of a heathen people, including in­

fanticide, polygamy, and the slave‑trade, the Mala­

gasy believed in a supreme being called

Prior to Zangahara, whom they greatly feared

:8r8. and reverenced. At death, good men

go to be happy forever with Zanga­

hara, while bad men go to be tormented by the evil

lord, Anggatyr. From 1540 to 1640 numerous

colonies were founded by the Dutch and English se

well as by the Portuguese, all accompanied by




Xadagssoar, Missions is

slavery, all preaching Christianity, and all result­ing in failure and repeated massacres in retaliation for ill‑treatment. From 1642 to 1686 several French companies also made efforts to colonize the island, enslave and Christianize the Malagasy, but these also failed, and for a time the island was left to become a rendezvous for pirates and buccaneers. In 1754 a further attempt at colonization was made by France, which was broken up by a general mas­sacre. During the next half century occasional French trading‑posts were established, which met with little success. The Malagasy were not at­tracted by the rapacity, licentiousness, and cruelty of the exponents of the new religion, and during 160 years but one convert is mentioned. Not until the accession of Radama I. in 1808 were there any successful relations with the outside world. In 1818 Radama entered into a treaty with England, in which, for certain considerations, he agreed to abolish the slave‑trade, while England was to re­duce the Malagasy language to writing, and estab­lish schools. This treaty was ratified in 1820, and Madagascar was open for Christian effort.

With the ratification of the treaty assured, in 1818 the London Missionary Society sent the Rev.

Thomas Bevan and David Jones with r8r8 to their families as their first missionaries

1835‑ in Madagascar. They opened a station

at Andovoranto, on the east coast; but

within two months all of them, except Mr. Jones,

died of the fever, and he was obliged to flee for his

life. Returning in 1820 with Mr. Haatie, the gov­

ernment agent, with the consent of King Radama,

he located in Antananarivo, the capital, where the

first school was opened in Dec., 1820. A large force

of missionaries was sent out, the Malagasy language

was reduced to writing, and the beginnings of a

literature were made; more schools were opened,

and the work was developed and made rapid prog­

ress along educational, industrial, and evangelistic

lines. Before 1828 more than one hundred schools

had been established, and nearly 5,000 pupils had

received the rudiments of education. Preaching

services were held regularly is the capital and the

surrounding villages, and a beginning was made

in the Vonizongo district, a day's journey west­

ward. In Jan., 1828, the Gospel of Luke was

printed in the Malagasy language, and other Scrip­

tures were being translated as rapidly as possible.

The outlook was most promising, when in July of

this year Radama died, and was succeeded by one

of his twelve wives, Ranavalona L, an utter heathen

and of a turbulent disposition. A reign of terror

ensued. The British resident was ordered to leave

the country, and for several years a desultory war­

fare was maintained with the French. Expecting

opposition, the missionaries worked at high pres­

sure; in 1831 the first native churches were formed,

and within a few months there were nearly 2,000

members; by 1833 the translation and printing of

the New Testament was completed, and that of the

Old Testament was pushed as rapidly as possible.

But a crisis was approaching. In 1834 the queen

forbade any but the government employees to learn

to read or write. In Jan., 1835, formal accusations

were made against all Christians, and the following

month the missionaries were notified that Christian worship and teaching were banned. All natives were commanded to renounce Christianity, and the missionaries were ordered to leave the island.

In spite of this edict, David Johns and Edward Baker succeeded in remaining till 1836, finishing the translating and printing of the entire

From r835 Bible and also of the Pilgrim's Prog­to :883. rese. This year over a thousand peo­ple were massacred. The persecution continued till 1842; there was then a lull till 1849, when it broke out afresh and over 2,000 were tor­tured or slain outright. This continued with a short intermission in 1852, till the welcome death of the bloody queen in 1861. She was succeeded by her son Rakoto as Radama II. His first official act was to proclaim freedom of worship to all; Christians in captivity were released, the banished recalled, and the missionaries invited to return and continue their work. By 1862 three clergymen, a physician, a teacher, and a printer were busily gathering up the lines laid down in 1836; at this time there were some twenty‑five congregations with about 900 communicants and 7,000 adher­ents. Religious freedom continued during his short rule and that of his successor, Queen Rosar herina; and with the accession and conversion of Queen Ranavalona II. in 1868, there was a great revival especially in the central province of Imerina, from which it spread southward to the province of Betsileo. In 1869 the idols were publicly burned, and steps were taken toward building up a Chris­tian civilization. Up to this time the London Mis­sionary Society had been alone in Madagascar, but during the next decade several other organizations entered the field, the first being the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 1864, followed by the Norwegian Mission Society of Norway (Det Norske Missions Selskab) in 1866, the Friends of England and America, in 1867, the Church Missionary Society in 1868, and a number of Roman Catholic priests from France. The work developed rapidly. Me­morial churches were erected on the four sites where many martyrs fell, schools were multiplied. By 1870 there were 250,000 converts and at least 1,500; 000 people desiring Christian instruction. Mis­sionaries and teachers were sent by the queen to the still heathen tribes. Then followed a period of harvesting as well as seed‑sowing.

In 1883 France demanded a protectorate over northwestern Madagascar. On being refused war was declared, which resulted in a French protect­orate for the entire island, with an

Since 1883. influx of Roman Catholic priests who at once began an active propaganda against the Protestants. In 1892 the Norwegian Lutheran Church of America established a mission, followed three years later by the Lutheran Free Church. New openings came among the Sakalavas and several smaller tribes, while there were ex­tended revivals in the principal towns of Imerma and Betaileo, and Madagascar was making progress toward a Christian civilization when in 1895 France annexed the island, and two years later the queen was deposed. At this time there was a total of 75 Protestant missionaries representing 7 societies,

Madagascar Missions in THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 122

Magdeburg benturtee

over 1,000 native pastors, 97,800 communicants,

393,099 adherents, and 126,000 pupils in the schools.

There were 7 hospitals and 10 dispensaries. The

number of Roman Catholic Malagasy was estimated

at 60,500. Bitter opposition to the English Prot­

estant missions followed. Church buildings were

confiscated, and ruin threatened their schools

through the enforced use of the French language.

At this crisis, the Evangelical Society of Paris took

over some 1,200 schools and 62,000 pupils, and

much of the work of the London Missionary Soci­

ety in the two provinces of Imerina and Betsileo,

and finally succeeded in obtaining for the non­

French Evangelical societies a reasonable amount

of religious liberty. The work of the Friends suf­

fered but little from French control, and that of

the Norwegians hardly at all. For several years

there was friction through the Jesuits trying to gain

possession of the Protestant mission properties,

but this was stopped by the government. In 1905

and again in 1907 new laws were enacted aiming at

the absolute suppression of mission schools, and

ordering that no private school be located in build­

ings used for religious purposes, thus closing 270

of the 300 educational institutions of the Paris So­

ciety, and affecting the other missions in like de­

gree. Later the Y. M. C. A. was closed; family

prayers were prohibited if any but members of the

immediate family were present; an address could

not be made or a prayer offered at a public funeral;

Evangelists were forbidden to continue their work;

and many of the churches were closed. The

Paris Society, representing all the Protestant

bodies in Madagascar, entered a formal complaint

with the secretary of the French colonies, and the

governor‑general was called to France to explain

his actions, but the situation in 1908 was rapidly

becoming worse.

There were, in 1907, 51 Roman Catholic misaiona­

riea with 348 stations and outstations, and 79,000

communicants and adherents. Five Protestant socie­

ties had 227 missionaries and 5,816 native helpers,

1,852 stations and outstations, 355,717 adherents,

1,951 schools and colleges with 92,126 pupils, 9 hospi­

tals and dispensaries, 7 orphanages and 4leper settle­

ments. Many schools have been closed since these

statistics were obtained. THEODORA CROSBY BLISS.

BIHLIO(SRAPHP: W. Ellis, Hiat, of Madagascar, . . Prop­

resa of the Christian Mission, 2 vole., London, 1838; idem,

Three Visits to Madagascar, ib 1880 idem, Madagascar

Revisited, ib. 1867; idem, The Martyr Church, ib. 1870;

J. Sibree, Madagascar aced its People, ib. 1870; idem, The

Great African Island, ib. 1879; idem, Madagascar before

the Conquest, ib. 1898; idem, Madagascar Mission, ib.,

1907; De Is Vaisaibre, Hiat, de Madagascar, sea habitants

et sea mieaionnairea, Paris, 1884; G. Shaw, Madagascar of

To‑day, London, 1886; W. E. Cousins, Madagascar of To­

day, ib. 1895; J. J. K. Fletcher, Sign of the Cross in Mada­

gascar, ib. 1901; C. Keller, Madagascar, Mauritius and

Other African Islands, ib. 1901; A. Froideraux, Lee Laza­

ristea h Madagascar au 17. aikcle, Paris, 1902; p. van

Gennep, Taboo et Tot€miame h Madagascar, Paris, 1904;

T. T. Matthews, Thirty Years in Madagascar, London,

1904; )3. O. Dwight, Blue Book of Missions for 1807, pp.

23‑24, New York, 1907.

MADHAVACHARYA: Hindu Philosopher. See

INDIA, L, 2, § 2.

MADRIGAL. See Mi7slc, SACRED, II, 2, § 3.

MADSEN, PEDER: Danish theologian; b. in Vinding parish near Holstebro (160 m. n.w. of Copenhagen), Denmark, Aug. 28, 1843. He studied at Viborg and was graduated from the University of Copenhagen, 1868; taught in private schools, 1868‑72; spent two years in travel and study; was called to teach dogmatics and exegesis at the Uni­versity of Copenhagen, 1874; was appointed pro­fessor of theology, 1875; was rector 1889‑90 and 1903‑04; and became bishop of Zealand 1909. He cooperated in working out a new series of Pericopes (q.v.), 1879‑51, and assisted in reconstructing the liturgical parts of the church hymnal; represented the theological faculty on the church council, 1884­1886; is on the committee directing Danish missions in America, assists in directing home missions, and is active in Sunday‑school work. He has also been for many years president of the Bethesda conven­tions which are doing for Denmark what the Eisenach Conference (q.v.) does for Germany. He is a member of the body which is considering new lines of polity for the Church in Denmark.

He gained his doctorate with the thesis De kristnes aandelige Preesteddmme (1879). Other works are his university programs: Det kirkelige Embeds (1890); Embedet og Menighedtms Samvirken i det kirkelige Arbejde (1894); .and Ordinatit»xens Betyd­ning indenfor den loth. Kirkeafdeling (1904), sup­porting the Lutheran traditional view of ministry and congregation. He had defended the same view in Borrtholmerne eller den saakaldte lvtherske Missionsforenirtg (1886). JOHN 0. EvjFN.
MAGARITA, MAGARITES: A name given by some writers of the Middle Ages to apostates from the Christian religion, particularly those who went over to Mohammedanism. The derivation of the term is unknown. Cf. Du Cange, s.v.
MAGDALENE, ORDERS OF ST. MARY: Several orders established at various times and in different places for the reformation of fallen women. The oldest community of penitents under the pa­tronage of St. Mary Magdalene was probably that established at Metz, which traces its history, doubt­less with some exaggeration, back to 1005, while a similar institution is said to have been founded at Trevea about 1148. In the early part of the thirteenth century several convents of magdalens were established, influenced in great part by the revival inaugurated by St. Francis, the most noteworthy being those at Goslar about 1215, and at Worms and Strasburg between 1220 and 1230. Bulls confirming the privileges of such orders were issued by Gregory IX. and Innocent IV. between 1227 and 1251. The inmates followed the Augustinian rule and were supervised by pro­vosts appointed by the general provost of the entire order. About the middle of the thirteenth century, convents of magdalens existed at Erfurt, Prenzlau, Malchow,Vienna, Regensburg, and elsewhere, attach­ing themselves now to one of the great orders and again to another. Refuges for fallen women were established at Marseilles in 1272, at Naples in 1324, and at Prague about 1372. One was founded at Paris in 1492, at Rome by Leo X. in 1520,

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