LIUTPRAND, It1t'prand: Medieval Italian historian; d. about 970. He was of Lombard descent and was educated at the court of Pavia, where he attracted the attention of King Hugo, and later became the chancellor of King Berengar. In 949 he went to Constantinople on a mission for the king, but afterward became opposed to Berengar and went to the court of Otto L, who made him bishop of Cremona in 962. Six years later he made a second journey to Constantinople to gain the hand of a Greek princess for Otto II. His three works, none of which are complete, are as follows: Ayttapodosis, a history from 887 to 949, designed to requite the good and evil which he had experienced and directed especially against Berengar and Wills; Liber de rebus gestis Ottonis magrti imperatoris, a history from 960 to 964; and Relatio de legations ConstantinoPolitanca, describing his second visit to the city. His style is attractive, but the subjectivity and unreliability of his writings render their historical value only secondary. (A. HAUCK.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: His works are collected in MGH, Script., iii (1839), 284‑383, and in MPL, cxaxvi. 787‑938. Consult: R. A. Kopke, De vita et scriptie Liudprandi, Berlin, 1842; C. Dandliker and J. J. Willer, Luidprand non Cremona and seine Quellen, Leipaic, 1871; F. KShler, Beilrtin NA, viii (1883), 49‑89; A. Zanelli, Una Zegazione a Coatantinopoti net aecolo x., Brescia, 1883; Wattenbach, DGQ, i (1885), 347, 391‑398, i (1893), 372, 42328; L. von Ranks, Weltpeachichte, viii. 834‑655, Leipaie, 1887; Potthsat, Wegmeiaer, 742‑744 (for further literature).
LIVERMORE, ABIEL ABBOT: American Unitarian; b. at Wilton, N. H., Oct. 30, 1811; d. there Nov. 28, 1892. He was graduated at Harvard College (1833) and at the Harvard Divinity School (1836). He was pastor at Keens, N. H. (1836‑50), Cincinnati, O. (1850‑56), and at Yonkers, N. Y. (18573); editing while he was in Yonkers The Christian Inquirer. He was president of the Meadville, Penn., Theological School (1863‑89). He wrote: Commentaries on the Gospels (2 vole., Boston and New York, 1850), Acts (1844), and Romans (1854); Lectures to Young Men (Keens, 1846); and the Marriage Offering (Boston, 1848).
LIVIffG GOD, CHURCH OF THE: An organization founded in 1894 in Indianapolis, Ind., by John Vinson (q.v.) and his mother, Mary Jane Vinson, and by others in other places. It is Congregational in polity; has as officers elders and deacons, serving the local churches; and believes in annual associations of all local churches by dele‑
gates. It lays stress upon the fact that its ministry is composed of men and women called by the Holy Spirit; makes the Bible its creed and book of discipline; and its ordinances are baptism of converted believers by immersion, the Lord's Supper, washing of feet, and the kiss of salutation, and it regards as of special importance the visitation of the sick and needy. The church also decals of special importance the doctrine of sanctification. It holds that Adam and Eve were created holy in soul, spirit, and body, and were posed of free will; that both were allured by Satan and being led by him they disobeyed God's command, after which Satan in spirit entered into, and depraved them wholly. The depravity to which they were thus subjected affected by heredity only the bodies of their descendants, but soul and spirit of all infants, being the creation and gift of God at conception (Eccl. xii. 7; Zech, xii. 1; Heb. xii. 9), are pure until by voluntary yielding to Satan's temptations they become defiled by their can first act of sin, after the fashion of Adam and Eve. To meet this doctrine of sin and depravity they regard the true doctrine of sanctification to be the following. The act itself is a " setting apart," a " separation," in which there are six steps: (1) Universal Salvation through the blood of Jesus Christ of all infants from conception until the time when they voluntarily sin (Rom. v. 18; Matt. xix. 14). (2) Regeneration‑conversion, by faith and repentance through the blood of Jesus, whereby the indwelling Satan, installed by the commission of the first act of sin, is turned out, when Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit and love enter the believer by faith in the risen Lord (Luke xi. 24‑26; Eph. ii. 2, iv. 22‑23; Col. iii. 9‑10; John i. 13; Rom. v. 5). (3) Instantaneous cleansing of soul, spirit and body, of all depravity, thus resulting in perfect holiness (II Cor. vii. 1; Heb. vi. 1), by the blood of Jesus Christ and the believer's faith and consecration (Rom. xii. 1; Heb. xii. 14, etc.). (4) Baptism by the Holy Spirit resulting in the full manifestation of the fulness of the Holy Spirit and of the fire of love (Matt. iii. 11; Acts i. 5, 8, ii. 1‑21). (5) Resurrection, affecting the body on the final judgment day, the body being changed, cleansed from its vileness into the likeness of Christ's glorious body (Dan. xii. 2; Rom. viii. 23; I Cor. xv. 52‑55; Phil. iii. 21). (0 The healing of the physical body from all diseases by and through the blood of Jesus and by the prayer of faith, diseases being caused directly or indirectly
by Satan and his demons (Isa. liii. 4‑5, R. V. margin; Matt. viii. 17; James v. 14‑15; Mark ix. 2129; Luke xiii. 11‑17).
Statistics are not at hand, but the church reports two congregations in Indianapolis, Ind., and many scattered adherents elsewhere. JOHN VINSON.
LIVINGSTON, JOHN HENRY: The "father of the Reformed Dutch Church in America, "; b. at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., May 30, 1748; d. in New Brunswick, N. J., Jan. 20, 1825. He attended Yale College (M.A., 1762) and began the study of law, but went to Holland in 1766 to study theology at the University of Utrecht (D.D., 1770). He was licensed by the Classia of Amsterdam in .1769, and in 1770 he became second English preacher. in the Reformed Dutch Church in New York. Driven from the city by the Revolution, he preached at Kingston 1776, at Albany 1776‑79, at Livingstone Manor 1779‑81, and at Poughkeepsie 1781,83. In 1784 he was appointed by the general synod professor of didactic and polemic theology; and in 1810 the synod called him to New Brunswick to open a theological seminary there, and at the same time he was elected president of Queen's (now Rutger'a) College. These two offices he held until his death. By his learning, piety, and dignity, he won the respect of both parties then existing in the church; and under his skilful management "the Conferentie" and "the Coetus" were united (1771). Thus the credit of forming the independent organization of the Reformed (Dutch) Church in America (q.v.) moat be given to him. It was he, also, who principally shaped the constitution of this church, and prepared its first psalm‑ and hymn‑book (1787). As a preacher he was much admired. His theological lectures are preserved in manuscript in the Sage Library, New Brunswick, but an abstract of them was published by the Rev. Alva Neal,‑New York, 1831, 2d ed. 1832. His publications include several sermons, also Funeral Service, or Meditations adapted to Funeral Addresses (New York, 1812); and A Dissertation on the Marriage of a Man with his Sister‑in‑Law (strongly condemning it as unlawful; New Brunswick, 1816).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Gunn, Memoirs qJ John Harry Liroinp
aWn, New York, 1829, condensed by T. W. Chambers, 1868.
LIVIftGSTONE, DAVID: Explorer and mis
sionary in Africa, was born at Blantyre (8 In. s.e.
of Glasgow) Mar. 19, 1813, and died in Ilala,
Central Africa, May 1, 1873. He grew up amid
the austere Scotch piety of his home, with very
limited schooling. At ten he went to work in a
cotton factory, and formed the habit of putting
most of his earnings into the acquisi
Early tion of books (a Latin grammar, works
Life and on natural .aeienoe, etc.), which he
Education. studied far into the night. His studies
were so successful that in 1830 he was
able to enter the University of Glasgow, with the
object of studying medicine, supporting himself by
factory work in the summer months. To this pe
riod belongs his awakening to personal Christian
ity. He describes his inner transformation as be
ing similar to the curing of color‑blindness. His
desire to serve the kingdom of God was directed
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
by an appeal of Giitzlaff's toward the mission in China. He began to study theology with the design of going to China as an independent missionary. Some friends, however, induced him to join an organized mission. In 1838 he entered the service of the London Missionary Society, at whose expense he continued his studies. When these were completed, his proposed expedition to China was prevented by the outbreak of the Opium War. Through the influence of Robert Moffat, then in England, his thoughts were turned to South Africa, for which he was duly commissioned on Dec. 8, 1840.
At Moffat's station, Kuruman, Livingstone was to learn the language of the Bechuana, people. While astonished at the results already achieved there, he was obliged to modify his earlier conceptions. In many particulars he was
Early Mis‑ not in harmony with the existing
sionary methods. Before long his character‑
Labors.istic impulse to go further manifested
itself. A few months after his arrival
he made a journey of over 700 miles, winning the
confidence of the natives wherever he went by his
medical activity. Upon Moffat's return with the
young missionary Edwards, Livingstone migrated
with the latter to the Ba‑katla tribe. Here, with
great practical efficiency, he organized the Mabotsa
station, to which in 1843 be brought Moffat's
daughter as his wife. On account of difficulties
arising apparently out of the wounded vanity of
his colleague, who even brought charges against
him before the In. board of directors, Liv
ingatone proceeded in 1846 to the country of the
Bakwena, deserting the house and plantations at
Mabotsa. He now founded a station on the river
Kolobefi to which Setshele, the chieftain, trans
ferred his capital. This chief, who had known
Livingstone since his first journey, was deeply im
pressed by his teaching, and when he made up his
mind to abandon polygamy he was baptized.. Un
fortunately, but few of his subjects followed him.
Concerning Livingstone's personal missionary la
bors at this period little is known, as his diaries have
been lost. Since he refused ‑to_ take in any but
true believers, the congregation remained very
small. He himself seems to have been far from
satisfied with his labors here, which would never
have made him famous.
His great nature impelled him onward. There was no rest for him at KolobeH. At the coat of laborious journeys, he was continually seeking new tribes. The immediate occasion was furnished by the destruction of his station by the Boers, who, having retreated before the English power into the interior, kept a sharp watch to prevent the natives from obtaining firearms, while Livingstone, a thorough free‑trader, paid no attention to their wishes. So when Setshele failed to comply with the demand of the Boers that he should suppress this traffic in his tribe, a retaliatory expedition was undertaken against his capital, in which the mission station was destroyed. At the time Livingstone with his wife and child was on the journey in course of which he discovered Lake Ngami, and was paving the way by his acquaintance with Sebituane, chief of the Makololo, toward wider enterprises.
RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Livingston
After escorting his family to Cape Town, he returned, and in 1853 began some preliminary missionary labor with the tribe at Linyanti on the River Tahobe, which was in time to spread abroad to the Barotse race, then subject to the Makololo, in the luxuriantly fertile Zambesi plain. A mission of this kind‑, however, required a direct and easy way of communication with home. In order to seek ouch a way, Livingstone, supplied by Sekeletu (son and successor of Sebituane) with a great company of bearers, undertook the journey to Loanda, where he arrived May 31, 1854. After a short rest he returned to the Makololo, whose capital; by his advice, was transferred to the north bank of the Zambesi. Next he proceeded down stream to the east, discovered Victoria Falls, and in the spring of 1856 reached the Portuguese colony of Tete, where he left his Makololo companions and returned by way of Kiliinane to England.
Livingstone the missionary had become a worldrenowned explorer. While writing the accounts of his travels, and, in the midst of diverting influences, very extensive new plane took shape in his mind. A mission on vast lines, combined with colonization and trade, was contemplated. He severed his connection with the London Missionary Society,
after it had sanctioned the founding Ezplora‑ of a Makololo mission, which he promtions iced to support. He personally as‑
i8g8fi¢. sumed the leadership of an expedition
to the Zambesi with government support, in the capacity of British consul. With this was combined an enterprise of the Universities Mission looking toward the establishment of a " colonizing mission " in the Zambesi district. This second period of Livingstone's activity in Africa. (18584) was full of difficulties, disappointments, and failures. In the ascent of the Zambesi, the expedition found little support among the Portuguese. What proved the most serious obstacle to Livingstone's plans was their toleration of the slave‑trade. Meanwhile be explored the Shire, a left‑bank tributary of the Zambesi; discovered Lake Shirwa and reached, by way of the south, Lake Nyasa, which had been recently discovered along its eastern shore by the German explorer Roscher. He then journeyed overland to the Makololo, among whom in the mean time a mission had been founded by the London Society amid the greatest difficulties, but fever had carried off its entire staff. Shortly afterward, in an uprising of the subject tribes, the Makololo were exterminated. Their tribal lands were assigned to the Barotse, among whom eventually the Paris mission assumed the labor toward‑ which Livingstone had aspired in connection with that region. Bishop MacKenzie meanwhile had arrived with missionaries and colonists. The first station of the colonizing mission was founded near Lake Shirwa. But while Livingstone was occupied with the farther exploration of Lake Nyasa (1862), the new establishment once again succumbed to the ravages of fever, drought, famine, and the assaults of the savage slave‑hunter Ajawa. After the bishop's death, the few remaining members removed the colony to the Shire. They succeeded no better
here in effecting a permanent settlement; and thus
the realization of Livingstone's favorite . plan was
frustrated. Besides all this, he had been troubled
by dissensions among the officers of the expedition.
A fresh reinforcement arrived, including Mrs. Liv
ingetone, who desired to .share her husband's
journeys. A few weeks later, he had to commit
his wife to the grave (1862). From the depth of
mourning he roused himself to new labor. He
sought to discover a better approach to Lake
Nyasa and the interior by way of the Rovuma.
Here again many difficulties and disappointments
were encountered. It grew plainer and plainer that
the objects of the expedition were not yet to be real
ized, and in 1864 it was recalled by the Government.
Livingstone remained only a year in England.
With the vigorous cooperation of persons of influ
ence, he formed new plans, which no longer had to
do with definite missionary labors, but contem
plated the solution of that great problem of civil
ization, the opening up of central
Final Africa, especial stress being laid on
Period of the suppression of the slave‑trade.
African Directly after completing his second
Work, book, The Zambesi and its Tributaries
:86g‑q3. (London, 1864), he sailed for Bombay
with the idea of organizing a new ex
pedition from that base. He recruited soldiers in
India; and two native Africans, Chums and Susi,
trained in an Indian mission school, became his
faithful servants. The bearers were recruited on
Johanna Island. Provision was made for beasts
of burden, including camels, buffaloes, mules, and
asses. This imposing expedition was led by Liv
ingstone, the sole European member of it, by way
of Zanzibar to the mouth of the Rovuma. His
plan was to pass around the Portuguese colony and
open a route for legitimate trade communication
and Christian influences all the way to the interior
of the continent. As the expedition proceeded
geographical exploration became more and more
prominent in its work. Again, and very soon,
unexpected difficulties occurred. In course of a
few months the Indian soldiers had to be sent back
as totally unserviceable. Livingstone: understood
the Africans very well, but not the Indians. The
animals perished down to the last one. Lake
Nyasa was reached with great efforts. Attacked
by the savage Mafitu, the carriers from Johanna
fled back to their home, and spread the report that
Livingstone had been murdered, but he and the
remnants of the caravan eluded the pursuers.
While all Europe was mourning over his death, he
still pushed on amid the greatest obstacles, sick,
without medicine or proper food; and, falling in
with an Arab caravan, arrived at Kasembe, thence
discovering Lake Moero, and reaching Ujiji on Lake
Tanganyika. Provisions were to await him here,
but the Arab agent, weary of the delay, squandered
them and embezzled the money. Despite all this,
Livingstone so promptly recovered his strength in
the wholesome air that he soon (1869), with his few
attendants undertook a new expedition westward
through the district of the cannibal Manyeina. At
Nyangwe lie reached the Lualaba, and supposed he
had discovered the upper reaches of the Nile. He
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 4
sought 'vainly to obtain a boat of some kind, fell
sick again, and wearily dragged himself, with three
attendants, back to Ujiji. Here he was met by the
intrepid explorer, Henry M. Stanley, who had been
sent out in search of him. Under his fostering care
Livingstone recovered, and they both undertook
a journey of exploration to the north end of Tan
ganyika, ascertaining that this lake was not con
nected with the Nile. The search for the source
of the Nile had come to be more and more Living
stone's preoccupation, and with this in view he
withstood Stanley's entreaties to return with him
to Europe. They parted with regret in Mar., 1872,
and Livingstone turned to the exploration of the
sources of the Lualaba. He discovered Lake Ban
gweolo, by a journey which took him largely through
swampy and flooded country. His servants car
ried their sick master day after day, many a time
through long reaches of water. At Tshitambo's
village in Ilala they built him a but and nursed
him faithfully, until one morning they found his
dead body in a kneeling posture by his couch. They
embalmed his corpse, packed it in a bale of mer
chandise, and carried it in a wonderful funeral pro
cession, amid many perils, to the coast. On Apr.
18, 1874, it was deposited in Westminster Abbey.
Livingstone the missionary developed into the
pioneer of civilization, and ultimately into the geo
graphical explorer. But he never lost sight of the
fact that only the Gospel could bring true succor
to the peoples of Africa,. During his very last
journey, he still observed regular devotions with
his attendants, and, as long as his strength lasted,
divine worship on Sunday. The latest entries in
his diary evince unswerving profound piety. His
discoveries were carried further with much success
by Stanley, and the African continent was opened to
European civilization and to the colonial eiiterprisea
of ambitious nations. Although this is unhappily
not always directed by a Christian spirit, yet mis
sionary work also has received a great impetus and
achieved successful results in the spirit of the great
pioneer, whose name can never be forgotten by the
peoples of Africa. R. GRUNDEMANN.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The works of Livingstone consist of his
Missionary Travels and Researches %u South Africa, Lon
don, 1857; Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi and
its Tributaries, ib. 18&5; and Last Journals, ed. H. Walter,
2 vole., ib. 1874. Besides the standard biography by
W. G. Blaikie, London, 1888 and often, other lives have
been written by: J, $, Roberts, ib. 1874; $. Moe®an, in
Heroes of Discovery, Edinburgh, 1877; idem, Livingstone,
the Missionary Traveller, London, 1882; J. Marratt, ib.
1877; A. Gavard and A. Perier, Paris, 1878; T. Hughes,
London, 1891 and often; H. H. Johnston, ib. 1891; T.
B. Maclachlan, Edinburgh; 1901; B. K. Gregory, Lon
don, 1906; and in DNB, xxadii. 384‑396. Further ma
terial is found in: H. M. Stanley, How 1 Found Living
atone, London, 1872; W. D. Cooley, Dr. Livingstone and
the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1874; C. F.
Loriot, David Livingstone et as minion noeiale, Paris, 1881;
R. Noel, Livingstone in Africa, London, 1895; . and Sir
Bartle Frere, in Proceedings of the Royal Geographical
Society, vol. xviii., 1874.
LIVONIANS, CONVERSION OF THE. See AL
BERT OF RIGA; and BERTFIOLD OF LIVONIA.
LLORENTE, lyo‑ren'tk, JUAN ANTONIO:
rian of the Spanish Inquisition; b. at Rincon de
Soto (90 m. n.w. of Saragossa) Mar. 30, 1765; d. in
Madrid Feb. 5, 1823. He studied at Saragossa and became both doctor and priest before he had reached the canonical age. He was appointed a commissioner in 1785, and secretary general of the Inquisition ‑in 1789. The opportunity that was thus presented for becoming acquainted with the functions and the archives of those in authority was well utilized by Llorente. His endeavor to make the procedure public throughout was frustrated on the fall of his like‑minded patrons, the Grand Inquisitor Manuel Abad y la Sierra, and the Minister Jovellanoa. Llorente became so far involved in the tatter's fall that he, too, was subjected to prosecution, which resulted, however, in his acquittal. Upon the downfall of the Bourbon Government in 1808, Llorente took the side of the followers of King Joseph. As member from 1808 of the Council of State, Llorente assumed the supervision of the abrogation of the cloisters, at which time he began to write the history of the Spanish Inquisition. This highly important work was first published in French, Histoire critique de l'Irtquisition d'EsPagne (4 vole., Paris, 1817‑18); then is Spanish (10 vole., Madrid, 1822); then in German, English (London, 1826), Dutch, and Italian. The reactionary Government succeeded in punishing the author, for his ecclesiastical functions were annulled, and at the university there was even issued an order forbidding him to give instruction in his mother tongue, and when the Portrait polilique des Pages (2 vo1s., Paris, 1822) appeared, he was banished. But being included under the universal political amnesty of 1820, he returned to Spain; he had scarcely reached Madrid, however, when his death occurred. The value of his principal work lies in the fact that it supplies extracts from documents no longer accessible. K. BENRATH.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources for a biography are his own statements in the Notice biopraphique, Paris, 1818, and the life by his friend Mahul in Revue eneyelopEdique, xviii (1823). Consult further: C. J. von Hefele, Der Cardinal Ximenea, Tiibingen, 1851, Eng. tranel., London, 1860; P. Gams, Zur GeachichG der apauiachen Inquisition, Regensburg, 1878; idem, Die KirehengeaehichG van Spanien, iii., part 2, ib. 1879; KL, viii. b8‑59. The German transh of Llorente's history of the inquisition appeared in 4 vole., Gmiind, 1819, and after the 3d ed. of the original, Stuttgart, 1824. The 2d ed. of the Italian transl. appeared, 8 vole., Milan, 1854.