|parts, Gotha, 1893‑1903; W. M. Ramsay, Church in the Roman Empire, pp. 149,151,156,158, 180, London, 1893; idem, St. Paul the Traveller and Roman Citizen, chaps. ix.‑x., ib. 1897.
MACEDONIUS, mss"e‑do'ni‑us, AND THE
Early Accounts ($ 1). Apparent Facts in Life of Macedoniua ($ 2). Critical Account of His Life (§ 3). The Beet (§ 4).
Toward the end of the fourth century the name of Macedonius, bishop of Constantinople, became accepted as that of a hereaiarch. Jerome, writing in that city about 380, mentions him as intruded into the see by the Arian party, and says that the Macedonian heresy takes its name from him. About
the same time Damasus, in his twenty1;. Early four anathemas against various hereAccounts. tics, pronounced one against " the
Macedonians, who, coming out of the Arian stock, changed their name but not their perfidy "; and in 383 and 384 Theodosius enforced repressive measures not only against Eunomians and Ariana but also against Macedonians. From this time his name was known in the West as that of a heresiarch. Rufinus relates (c. 402) that the Ariana split about 361 into three groups, Arians proper, Eunomiana, and Macedonians, and Augustine about the same time enumerates the eastern heretics similarly, and afterward (428) places the Macedonians, " whom the Greeks call also Pneumatomachi," in his list of heretics. The term Macedonians must have been common in Constantinople about 380‑384; but it is not met in the older eastern literature‑neither in Athanasius, nor in Basil, nor in the list of heretics given by Epipbanius; nor is it used by the council of 381 in the canon (i.) which condemns the "SemiAriana or Pneumatomachi." Canon vii., which deals with the reception into the Church of " Mace‑
Maoedonine THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 112
donians," is some eighty years later than the council. Theodoret mentions briefly that after his deposition Macedonius became "the leader of a heresy of his own"; but otherwise he names him only in quoting the anathemas of Damaeus. The historians Socrates and Sozomen, writing in Constantinople, are the first to make frequent mention of him and his party, and it is through them that the Macedonians became a well‑known group of heretics in the East. The definite name of Macedonians can not be shown to have been used in the East before 380.
These and other similar facts can be explained only by saying that Maoedonius had an importance rather for Constantinopolitan than for general church history. The circumstances of his life are not easy to trace accurately; but a glance at the indications given will be useful. According to Socrates
and Sozomen, on the death of Alexanz. Apparent der of Constantinople (c. 340), MaceFacta in Life donius was put up by the Arian party of Macedo‑ as their candidate in apposition to the
niua properly elected and orthodox Paul,
whom the Emperor Constantius set
aside through a synod and replaced by Euaebius of
Nicomedia. After Eusebius' death there was an
other contest between the same two candidates.
Once more Constantius, at the cost of much popu
lar disorder, expelled Paul, and tacitly allowed
Macedonius to take possession of the see. Paul
went to Rome and Julius awarded him his see,
which he claimed in person, while the Ariana, gath
ered at Antioch, protested against the interference
of Julius in eastern matters. Constantius had Paul
seized and banished to Thessalonica, and Macedo
nius was forcibly installed, after a riot in which many
lives were lost. Constana took up the cause of Paul,
but without success until, after the Council of Sar
dica (347) had declared in favor of Paul, Athana
sius, and Marcellus, he induced his brother by actual
threats of war to restore them. When, however,
Constana died in 350, Constantius reversed his
action, and Paul was banished to Cucusus and
strangled there. Macedonius, now in undisturbed
possession, persecuted the orthodox party, but ulti
mately fell into disgrace with Constantius and was
deposed at a synod in Constantinople (360), after
which he broke away from the Acacians and founded
a sect of his own.
A thorough examination, however, of these statements shows that they are not reliable in several particulars; and a more trustworthy account may be made up from the acts of the Council of Sardica and the statements of Athanasius (Historic Arianorum, vii., and Apologia de fogs, iii.), and of Jerome
From these sources it appears that 3. Critical Paul had been banished to Pontus by
Account of Constantine, and that he had already
His Life. been bishop of Constantinople for some
time before Eusebius was set up (at latest in 338), and that Macedonius, who had once accused him in the presence of Athanasius, was then his presbyter. When Eusebius set his mind on winning the bishopric, the old charges were revived; Constantius banished him in chains to Singara in Mesopotamia, then to Emesa, and finally to
Cucusus, where his persecutors put him to death with the help of the Prefect Philippus. The letter of the Council of Sardica does not mention him, naming only Athanasiua, Marcellus, and Asclepas. The eastern bishops there asserted that he had assented to the condemnation of Athanasius; that he was himself condemned long before 342; that in 342 he went into exile; and that it was Maximin of Trevea who entered into communion with him and effected his restoration. Paul was, according to all the indications here given, not at Sardica, nor at the time bishop of Constantinople, but apparently in exile. The most probable conclusion from the Whole difficult matter is that Paul died at the earliest in 351. In any case Macedoniua was in sole possession of the see of Constantinople from 342 or 343. It is impossible to decide how much truth there is in the accounts by Socrates and Sozomen of his fierce persecution of the orthodox, though it is credible that he filled as many sees as he could reach with his partizans. 'The statement of Socrates and Sozomen that he adhered to the Acacian or court party until 360 is certainly wrong; Philostorgiua relates that Basil of Ancyra won him to his aide, Sabinus of Heraclea reckons him among the Homoiouaiane, Epiphaniua calls him a partizan of Basil, and the letter addressed to him in 358 by George of Laodicea proves that he was all along on the Homoiousian aide. With this party he supported Basil in Seleucia against the Acacians, and as a member of it he was deposed at the synod of 360. That his death followed soon afterward is a natural inference from the fact that he is not mentioned in connection with the actions of his party after 364. Thus he would scarcely have had time to found a separate sect after his deposition; and his views on the doctrine of the Holy Spirit were not peculiar to him, but were shared by all the Homoiousiana. Nor was this question much debated in Constantinople and Asia Minor before 367.
The development of the " Macedonian " sect, held to be heretical on this point, began in Alexandria. During his third exile (356‑362) Athanasius
hard of people who regarded the Holy 4. The Ghost as a creature, and in four letters
Sect. to Bishop Serapion of Thmuis defended
the hamoouaia of the Spirit as the only
true doctrine. To him, after his long residence in
the West (where since Tertullian this doctrine had
been firmly established) it could present no difficul
ties, and fell in easily with his general doctrine of
the Trinity. But the case was different with the
Homoiousians and with the so‑called " young Ni
cene " party, brought up in Origenistic traditions.
Hence it was possible for Gregory Nazianzen to say
about 381: " Of the wise amongst us, some hold the
Holy Spirit to be a power (energeia), others a crea
ture, others for God, and still others are unwilling
to decide, out of reverence (as they say) for the
Scriptures, which do not speak plainly on the mat
ter." The question how it came to an open breach
between the supporters of the various views is im
possible to answer with certainty; the decisive ele
ments were probably the authority of Athanasius,
the requirement of the Synod of Alexandria that
the homoousia of the Holy Spirit should be acknowl‑
113 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA XaceQoains
edged, and the prompt response of Meletius of An
tioch. The breach between Basil of Ciesarea and
Eustathius in 373 seems to have marked a turning
point in the controversy. The Pneumatomachi
were regarded as semi‑Ariana, and condemned as
such in 381, although it is doubtful whether any of
them were heterodox in their Christology. Greg
ory Nazianzen, preaching in Constantinople on the
Pentecost of that year, speaks of them as " sound
in regard to the Son," and efforts were made to
win them in a brotherly spirit by reminding them
of their acceptance of the Nicene Creed‑which, it
must be remembered, did not attempt to define the
doctrine of the Holy Spirit. Refusing to treat and
leaving the council to the number of thirty‑six,
they were condemned as heretics, and, after fruit
less negotiations in 383, became subject to the
edicts of Theodosius. But Macedonius had noth
ing to do with the development after 360. That
the Pneumatomachi in Constantinople were named
after him about 380‑387 was due to the fact that
his disciples there, holding aloof from the dominant
Homoians, were not strong enough after his death
to set up a bishop of their own, and were thus still
called after the man whose deposition had inaugu
rated their separation from the Homoiana. In a
word, it has seldom been the ill fortune of a man
to win the name of a heresiarch on such alight
grounds as have sufficed in the case of Macedonius.
According to Socrates, none of the separatist groups
were persecuted or disturbed in their worship except
the Eunomiana, and Neatorius was the first, at Con
atantinople and Cyzicus, to take away the churches
of the " Macedonians " and thus force some of them
back into the orthodox fold. The rent probably died
out by degrees. See ARIANISM. (F. Loolrs.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The sources are indicated in the text. Con
sult further: the Opera of Demesne in MPL, xiii. 109
442; J. Vogt, Bibliotheca hiatoricm harreaiolopicaa, i. 1, pp.
185‑199, Hamburg, 1723; F. Loofa, Euatathiua von So
boats, Halle, 1898; J. Gummerus, Die homtiuaianiahe
Partei bia sum Tode des Konetantiua, Leipeic, 1900; Nean
der, Christian Church, v. 188: Moeller, Christian Church,
i. 39?‑393; Schaff, Christian Church, iii. 839‑840, 864.
MacEWEft, ALEXANDER ROBERTSON: United
Free Church of Scotland; b. at Edinburgh May 14,
1851. He studied at Glasgow (1866‑70), Balliol
College, Oxford (B.A., 1874), Gottingen, and the
United Presbyterian Hall, Glasgow (1877‑80). In
1874‑75 he was deputy professor of Greek, and from
1875 to 1877 assistant professor of Latin in the
University of Glasgow, where he was also classical
examiner for degrees in 1881‑84. He was pastor
of the United Presbyterian Church at Moffat (1880
1886), of Anderaton Church, Glasgow (1886,89),
and of Claremont Church, in the same city (1889
1901). Since 1901 he has been professor of church
history in New College, Edinburgh. He is secre
tary of the Christian Unity Society for Scotland.
In theology he describes himself as liberal and
Evangelical, and as belonging to the historical
school, as well as a " resolute advocate of central
and unifying beliefs," although non‑controversial
and declining to be ranked with any party. He
has edited John Ker's Lectures on Preaching (Lon
don, 1886), and has written: Life of Alexander Mac
his father (Glasgow, 1875); Origin
Roman Satiric Poetry (Oxford, 1876); St. Jerome (London, 1878); The Eastern Church in Greece (1890); Life and Letters of Principal Cairns (1894); and The Erakines, Ebenezer and Ralph (Edinburgh, 1900).
McFADYEIY, JOHN EDGAR: Presbyterian; b. at Glasgow, Scotland, July 17, 1870. He was educated at the universities of Glasgow (M.A., 1890), Oxford (B.A., 1895), and Marburg, and at the Free Church College, Glasgow, and was successively Snell exhibitioner, Oxford (1890‑93) and George A. Clark fellow, Glasgow (1893‑97). Since 1898 he has been professor of Old‑Testament literature and exegesis at Knox College, Toronto. In theology he is "a believer in reverent but fearless investigation." He has written: The Messages of the Prophetic and Priestly Historians (New York, 1900); The Divine Pursuit (Chicago, 1900); In the Hour of Silence (1902); Old Testament Criticism area the Christian Church (New York, 1903); The Messages of the Psalmists (1904); Introduction to the Old Testament (1905); The Prayers of the Bible (1906) ; Ten Studies in the Psalms (1907); and The City with Foundations (1909).
McFARLAND, JOHN THOMAS: Methodist Episcopalian; b. at Mt. Vernon, Ind., Jan. 2, 1851. He was educated at Iowa Wesleyan University, Simpson College, Indianola, Ia. (A.B., 1873), and the School of Theology, Boston University (B.D., 1878). His principal pastorates, since be entered the ministry in 1873, have been at the First Methodist Episcopal Church, Peoria, Ill. (1880‑82), Grace Methodist Episcopal Church, Jacksonville, Ill. (1891‑96), New York Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. (1897‑99), and First Methodist Episcopal Church, Topeka, Han. (18991905). He was vice‑president of Iowa Wesleyan University from 1882 to 1884, and president from 1884 to 1891, and since 1894 has been secretary of the Sunday‑school Union and editor of the Sundayschool literature for his denomination.
McGARVEY, JOHN WILLIAM: Disciple; b. at Hopkinsville, Ky., Mar. 1, 1829. He was educated at Bethany College, Bethany, W. Va. (A.B., 1850), and after conducting a private school for boys from 1850 to 1852 and being the head of a boarding‑school from 1856 to 1858, besides holding pastorates at Fayette, Mo., Dover, Mo., and Lexington, Ky., was appointed professor of sacred history at the College of the Bible, Lexington, in 1865, a position which he still retains. Since 1895 he has also been president of the same institution. He was president of the Kentucky Christian Missionary Society for nearly forty years and of the Christian Education Society for over thirty, and has been editor of the department of Biblical criticism in The Christian Standard (Cincinnati) since 1893. In theology he is strongly conservative on questions connected with Biblical criticism. He has written: Commentary on the Arts of the Apostles (Cincinnati, O., 1863); Commentary on Matthew and Mark (1867); Lands of the Bible (1881); Text arid Canon of the New Testament (1886); Credibility arid Inspiration of the New Testament (1891); MeGarvey'a
Mackenzie THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 114
Sermons (1894); Jesus and Jonah (1897); and The Authorship of Deuteronomy (1902).
McGARVEY, WILLIAM: Roman Catholic; b. at Philadelphia Aug. 14, 1861. He was educated by private tutors and at the General Theological Seminary, from which he was graduated in 1886. He was ordained to the priesthood of the Protestant Episcopal Church (1886); was curate of the Church of the Evangelists, Philadelphia (1886‑96); rector of St. Elizabeth's, Philadelphia (1896‑1908); but in 1908, together with his assistant clergy, embraced Roman Catholicism, the immediate cause of his conversion being his fear that a so‑called " open pulpit " would be permitted in the Episcopal Church. While in his former communion he was superior of the Congregation of the Companions of the Saviour and chaplain general of the Sisters of Saint Mary in the United States. He has written: The Ceremonies of a Low Celebration (Milwaukee, 1891); Liturgite Americance (Philadelphia, 1895); The Doctrine of the Church of England on the Real Presence (Milwaukee, 1900); and Ceremonies of the Mass (in collaboration with C. P. A. Burnett; New York, 1905).
MeGIFFERT, ARTHUR CUSHMAN: Congregationalist; b. at Sauquoit, N. Y., Mar. 4, 1861. He was educated at Western Reserve College (A.B., 1882), Union Theological Seminary (from which he was graduated in 1885), and France, Italy, and Germany (Ph.D., Marburg, 1888). Returning to the United States in 1888, he was appointed instructor in church history in Lane Theological Seminary, a position which he held until 1890, when he was promoted to a full professorship of the same subject. Three years later (1893), he was appointed to his present position of professor of church history in Union Theological Seminary, New York. In theology he belongs to the critical school, and has written, in addition to translating the " Ecclesiastical History " of Eusebius (New Fork, 1890), Dialogue between a Christian and a Jew entitled 6vrtpoRil lIaviaKOV Kai obiAwvog 'Iovdafov rpos /c6vax6v rsva (New York, 1888); A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age (1897); The Apostles' Creed (1902); and The Christian Point of View (in collaboration with F. Brown and G. W. Knox; 1902).
McGREADY, JAMES: Presbyterian; b. in western Pennsylvania about 1758 or 1760; d. at Henderson, Ky., Feb., 1817. He was educated for the ministry at a school in Cannonsburg, Pa., and was licensed to preach on Aug. 13, 1788. His first parish was in Orange County, N. C., but in 1796 he moved to Logan County, Ky., where, beginning in 1797, he took a prominent part in the great revival, holding the first camp‑meetings there in July, 1800. It was partly due to his influence in ordaining young men who were without a classical education that the Cumberland Presbyterian Church seceded from the main body (see PRESBYTERIANS). McGready, who had really never seceded, was speedily reconciled to his church, having been prohibited from preaching for only a year or two, and was sent in 1811 as a missionary to found churches in southern Indiana. His sermons were edited by J. Smith (vol. i., Louisville,
1831; vol. ii., Nashville, 1833). See REVIVAI$ of RELIGION, IIL, 2, § 2.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. H. Gillett, Hi8t. of the Presbyterian Church, U. 3. A., passim, Philadelphia, 1884; R. V. Foster, in American Church History Series, xi. 280, 261, 288, 272, New York, 1894.
MACHERUS: A fortress in Peraea, nine miles east of the northern end of the Dead Sea, identified with the modern Mkawr. It was built by Alexander Jannaeus, destroyed by Gabinius, rebuilt by Herod the Great. Josephus points it out as the place in which the beheading of John the Baptist took place.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: Joaephus, War, L, v. 8, TL, xviii. 6, VII., vi. 1‑2, 4; Ant., XIV., v. 4, XVIIL, v. 1‑2; Pliny, Hiat. not., v. 16, 72. Consult: G. A. Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land, pp. b69‑570, London, 1897; Schiirer, Geschtchte, i. 438‑441 et passim, Eng. transl., I„ ii. 250‑251 et passim.
MACHPELAH: The name of the cave, or of the place near Hebron where the cave was situated, which Abraham bought of Ephron the Hittite for a family sepulcher. The name occurs only Gen. xxiii. 9, 17, 19, xxv. 9, xlix. 30, 1. 13; and according to these passages and their context Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Leah were buried there. The place which holds what is traditionally regarded as the cave is surrounded by a wall 194 feet long and fifty‑eight feet high, constructed of huge stones, and reminding one, both in design and workmanship, of the foundation of the temple in Jerusalem. Within this enclosure is a Mohammedan mosque; and strangers, that is, non‑Mohammedans, are rigidly excluded from the building. In 1862 the Prince of Wales, accompanied by Dean Stanley, visited Hebron; and, on special orders from Constantinople, the mosque was opened to them. In 1882 the same courtesy was extended during a visit paid by Princes Albert Victor and George of Wales, accompanied by Canon Dalton, Sir Charles Wilson, and Capt. Conder.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: An indispensable account, historical in method and summarizing the accounts of travelers from the fourth century on, as well as giving exact references to collections and sources, is found in DB, iii. 197‑202. Consult further: W. M. Thomson, The Land and the Book, ii. 381‑388, 586, New York, 1859; A. P. Stanley, Lectures on the History of the Jewish Church, i. 535 eqq., ib. 1863; J. Ferguason, Holy Sepulchre and the Temple, London, 1885; C. Ritter, Comparative Geography of Palestine, iii. 30rr323, Edinburgh, 1866; P. Schaff, Through Bible Lands, pp. 212 sqq., New York, 1878; PEF, Memoirs, Survey of Western Palestine, iii. 305, London, 1883.
McILVAINE, CHARLES PETTIT: Protestant Episcopalian; b. at Burlington, N. J., June 18, 1799; d. at Florence, Italy, Mar. 14, 1873. He graduated at Princeton in 1816, then spent two years in the Princeton Theological Seminary. He was minister of Christ Church, Georgetown, D.C., 1820‑25, chaplain to the United States senate 1822 and 1824, professor of ethics and chaplain in the United States Military Academy, West Point, 18251827, pastor of St. Ann's Church, Brooklyn, 18271832, professor of the evidences of revealed religion and sacred antiquities in New York University 1831‑32, and bishop of the diocese of Ohio 18321873. He was also president of Kenyon College,
115 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA MoGlarvey
Gambier, O., 1832‑40, and the head of the theological seminary of his diocese. During the Civil War he was a member of the sanitary commission, and in 1861, in company with Archbishop Hughes and Thurlow Weed, he went to England on a semiofficial mission in connection with the Trent affair. He was a pronounced " Evangelical," and for years he was regarded as the leader of the Low‑church party in the Protestant Episcopal Church. His principal works are, The Evidences of Christianity (New York, 1832), lectures delivered at New York University; Oxford Divinity compared with that of the Romish and Anglican Churches (Philadelphia, 1841), which was regarded as a good refutation of the Oxford school; The Holy Catholic Church (1844); and The Truth and the Life (New York, 1855), twenty‑two sermons.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. Carne, Memorials of Rev. C. P. Mcllvaine, New York, 1881; W. 8. Perry, The Episcopate in America, p. &5, ib. 1895.