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BIBLIOGRAPHY: DNB, xcxiv. 429‑430.


XcBURAEY, ROBERT ROSS: General secretary of the New York City Young Men's Christian Associ­ation; b. at Castleblayney (12 m. a.e. of Monaghan), County Monaghan, Ireland, Mar. 31, 1837; d. at Clifton Springs, N. Y., Dec. 27, 1898. He was the son of a physician of repute. When seventeen he came to New York, where he learned the hatter's trade. Eight years later he became "librarian" of the New York Y. M. C. A., then occupying rooms on the second floor at 859 Broadway. Here he was associated with a group of young men who later became leading business men in the city, and to­gather they were instrumental in building up the organisation till in Dec., 1869, its first building, at Twenty‑third Street and Fourth Avenue, coating with site =487,000, was completed and occupied. The following figures briefly contrast the work at the time he took charge of it and near the end of






10 M'Cabe


his secretaryship: In 1862: 150 members, two

small rented rooms, and an annual expenditure of

$1,700; in 1897: 7,309 membership, work con­

ducted at fifteen points, nine buildings valued at

E2,000,000, annual budget $175,000.

McBurney was for thirty years a member of

the Y. M. C. A, International Committee; and as

its corresponding member he in 1866 called the first

New York State convention which he for three years

served as president. He was seven times a dele­

gate to the triennial World's Conference, held in

Europe; in 1871 he was one of the founders and till

his death was a leader of the Association of General

Secretaries of North America. He was active out­

side of the association; he was a lifelong member

and for many years an official of St. Paul's Metho­

dist Episcopal Church; from 1867 an active mem­

ber of the executive committee of the Evangelical

Alliance. Besides these activities, he was an ac­

tive participant and director in many enterprises

and institutions directed to philanthropic and re­

ligious ends. He was not a college graduate, but

he read widely and carefully. He was a close

student of the Bible and a successful teacher. He

traveled extensively in America, visited Europe

many times, and made a tour of Egypt and the Holy

Land. He was distinguished for his sturdy Scotch

character, strong common sense, energy, tact, and

executive ability, with an integrity and conscien­

tiousness that were never questioned. He was

above all a lover of young men and his largo­

hearted and practical sympathy never failed. Per­

haps no other man in his generation touched and

helped so many young men. RICHARD C. MoxsE.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. L. Doggett, Life of Robert R. McBurney,

Cleveland, O., 1902.

McCABE, CHARLES CARDWELL: Methodist

Episcopal bishop, better known as Chaplain Mo­

Cabs; b. at Athens, O., Oct. 11, 1836; d. in New

York City Dec. 19, 1906. He entered Ohio Wes­

leyan University, Delaware, O., in 1854, but did

not complete the course, which he frequently in­

terrupted to do evangelistic work. His health gave

way and on his recovery he taught the high school

at Ironton, O., 1858‑60. He joined the Ohio con­

ference and was ordained deacon Sept. 23, 1$60,

and appointed to Putnam, since incorporated into

the city of Zanesville, O. He pleaded the Union

cause so vigorously and successfully that it was

largely owing to him that the 122d regiment of

Ohio Volunteers was raised. He was ordained

elder at Zanesville Sept. 7, 1862, and appointed

chaplain of the regiment on Oct. 8, 1862. He

proved himself efficient; indeed has been styled

" the most popular and distinguished chaplain "

in the volunteer army. He was during the rest of

his life called " chaplain," whatever other desig­

nation his office entitled him to. On June 16,

1863, he was captured on the field of battle at

Gettysburg, Pa., and sent by Major General J. A.

Early to Libby Prison, Richmond. He did much

to relieve the tedium of confinement, showed him­

self indefatigable in getting up entertainments, a

son of consolation to the downcast, and ardent in

impressing religious truth upon his associates. But




on Sept. 25 he came down with typhoid fever and was very ill. In October he was exchanged and allowed to leave the prison. He resigned his chap­la,incy, Jan. 8, 1864, received his commission as a delegate of the United States Christian Commission (Mar. 29; 1864) and was one of its most active members. " Whether pleading for money through­out the North or singing (he had a remarkable gift of song) and preaching to the soldiers in Southern camps, he was equally happy and successful." At the close of the war he was appointed (Sept., 1865) to Spencer Chapel in Portsmouth, O., and had a series of revivals until he left it to be centenary agent of Ohio Wesleyan University in 1866. He exhibited great ability as a money‑raiser and was continuously employed by his denomination for this purpose. In 1868 he was elected financial agent of the Church Extension Society, in 1872 the title was dropped and he was elected assistant cor­responding secretary. In 1884 he was elected sec­retary of the missionary society of his church. He stirred great enthusiasm by proposing that the so­ciety should raise a million dollars for missions, for­eign and domestic, in 1885: Unsuccessful in the first effort, although nearly $96,000 advance had been made, he renewed the effort and reached his point in 1887. In 1896 he was elected s bishop. To this office he brought his great popularity and tire­less energy, his spiritual enthusiasm and Evangelical fervor. He did noteworthy service in Mexico and South America, in 1899‑1902. In Dec., 1902, he was elected chancellor of the American University. But under this accumulation of duties and under the strain of trying to finance his gigantic schemes he sank and died of apoplexy. He was able to raise large sums by his lecture, frequently repeated and yet never wholly repeated, " The Bright Side of Life in Libby Prison."

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. M. Bristol, The Life of Chaplain McCabe, New York, 1908 (it contains a summary of the famous lecture).

M'CABE, JOSEPH: English ex‑Franciscan; b. at Macclesfield (15 m. s.e. of Manchester), Chesh­ire, Nov. 11, 1867. He was educated at St. Francis' College, Manchester (1883‑84), Holy Trinity, Killarney (1884‑85), St. Anthony's, Lon­don (188rr91), and the University of Louvain (1893‑94). In 1891 he was ordained to the Ro­man Catholic priesthood and appointed professor of scholastic philosophy at St. Anthony's College, London, where he taught in 1891‑93 and 1894‑95. In 1895‑96 he was rector of St. Bernardine's Col­lege, Buckingham, but in the latter year aban­doned the Church on account of his adoption of agnostic views, and since that time has been a private secretary, lecturer, journalist, and author. Besides translating E. Hasckel's Riddle of the Uni­verse (London, 1900); Wonders of Life (1904); Evolution of Man (1905); and Last Words on Evo­lution (1906); F. K. C. Buchner's Last Words on Materialism (1901); and W. BSlsche's Haeckel (1906), he has written From Rmne to Rationalism (London, 1896); Modern Rationalism(1897); Twelve Years in a Monastery (1897); Life in a modern Monastery (1898); Can we Disarms (1899); The Re­ligion of the Twentieth Century (1899); Peter AbB.



Maccabees

McClure THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 108


lard (1901); Saint Augustine and his Age (1902); Haeckel'$ Critics answered (1905); Religion of Woman (1905); The Origin of Life (1906); Secular Ed­ucation (1906); Tolleyrand (1906); The Bible in Europe; an Inquiry into the Contribution of the Chris­tian Religion to Civilisation (1907); Life and Letters of George Jacob Holyoake (2 vole., 1908); and The Decay of the Church of Rome (1909).
MACCABEES. See HAaMONEAx$.
MACCABEES, BOOBS OF: See APOCRYPHA, A, IV., 9‑11.
MACCABEES, FESTIVAL OF THE: The celebra­tion on Aug. 1 of the martyrdom of the seven brothers and of their mother under Antiochua Epiphanes (cf. II Mace. vii.). The festival dates from the fourteenth century.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Waee, The Apocrypha, ii. 689 eqq., in



" Speakers Commentary," London, 1888.
111acCARTHY, WELBORE: Church of England, bishop of Grantham; b. at Cork, Ireland, Apr. 11, 1840. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and St. Aidan's Theological College, Birkenhead, and was ordered deacon in 1867 and ordained priest in the following year. He was successively curate of Preston‑Patrick, Westmoreland (1867‑68), Ulver­eton (1868‑71), Christ Church, Battersea (1871‑72), and Balham, Surrey (1872‑73). He then went to India, where he was chaplain at Jhansi, Northwest­ern Provinces (1874‑75), Rangoon, Burma (1875­1877), St. Paul's Cathedral, Calcutta (1877‑82 and 1889‑98), Mussooree (1882‑84), Meerut (1884,85), Shahjahanpur (18857; all three in the North­western Provinces), and Lucknow (1888,89). He was likewise commissary to the bishop of Calcutta in 1879,82 and 1891‑98, as well as acting archdeacon of Calcutta in 1891‑92 and archdeacon in 1892‑98. Returning to England in 1898, he was rector of Aahwell in 1898‑1901 and vicar of Gainaborough in 1901‑05, besides being assistant chaplain of St. George's, Cannes, France, in 1900‑05, and rural dean of Corringham and prebendary of Lincoln in 1901‑1905. In* 1905 he became vicar of Grantham, and in the same year was consecrated bishop of Grantham (suffragan to the bishop of Lincoln).
McCAUL, ALEXANDER: Church of England; b. at Dublin, Ireland, May 16, 1799; d. at London Nov. 13, 1863. He studied at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1819), and in 1821 went to Warsaw, Poland, as a missionary of the London Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews. At the close of 1822 he returned to England, took orders and became curate of Huntley, near Gloucester, but on his marriage in 1823 he returned to Warsaw, where he lived as head of the Jewish mission and English chaplain till 1830. Settling in London he continued to cooperate with the London Society, which in 1840 made him principal of the Hebrew college in London. In 1841 he was given the pro­fessorship of Hebrew and rabbinical literature m King's College, London, to which the chair of di­vinity, was added in 1846. He became rector of St. James's in 1843, prebendary of ,$t. Paul's in I


1845, and rector of the parish of St. Magnus, St. Margaret, and St. Michael on Fish Street Hill, in 1850. On the revival of Convocation in 1852 he was elected proctor for the London clergy, whom he represented till his death. He published a large number of single sermons and pamphlets, but his principal works are two aeries of Warburtonian lec­tures: Lectures on the Prophecies (London, 1846) and The MessiahshiP of Jesus (1852). He wrote also Rationalism and the Divine Interpretation of Scripture (1850); Notes on the First Chapter of Genesis (1861); Testimonies to the Divine Authority of the Holy Scriptures (1862), and An Examination of Bishop Colenao'a Difficulties with Regard to the Pentateuch (2 parts, 1863‑‑64).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. B. MCC8UI, A Memorial Sketch of . Alexander MeCaul, Oxford, 1883; DNB, xxzv. 1‑2.


McCHEYNE, mak‑shGn, ROBERT MURRAY: Church of Scotland; b. at Edinburgh May 21, 1813; d. at Dundee Mar. 25, 1843. He studied at the University of Edinburgh, where he distinguished himself by his poetical talent, being awarded a prize by Professor John Wilson (" Christopher North ") for a poem on The Cmenanters. In 1831 he took up the study of theology, at the Divinity Hall of the university under Thomas Chalmers and David Welsh, and on Nov. 7, 1835, he began his ministerial labors at Larbert, near Falkirk, as as­sistant to John Bonar. On Nov. 24, 1836, he was ordained to the pastorate of St. Peter's Church, Dundee, which he held till his death. In 1839 he was a member of the committee sent to Palestine by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland to collect information respecting the Jews. On his return he entered upon a successful evangelistic campaign, first at Dundee, then at other places in Scotland and northern England. In the contro­versy that finally led to the disruption of the Scot­tish Church he took very decided ground on the non‑intrusion side. McCheyne was a fine example of the true Gospel preacher. Long after his death he was constantly referred to as " the saintly Me­Cheyne." His principal works are, Narrative of a Mission of Inquiry to the Jews . . . in 1889 (in col­laboration with A. A. Bonar; Edinburgh, 1842); Expositions of the Epistles to the Seven Churches of Asia (Dundee, 1843); The Eternal Inheritance . . . two Discourses (1843); Memoirs and Remains (ed. A. A. Bonar, Edinburgh, 1843, and often; new ed., 1897); and Additional Remains, Sermons, and Lec­tures (1844). The Remains, which have done much to perpetuate McCheyne's memory, consist of ser­mons, fugitive pieces, and hymns, including the popular " When this passing world is done."

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The principal work is the Memoir and Re­mains by A. A. Bonar, ut sup., abridged ed., Edinburgh, 1885. Consult further the short Life by J. L. Watson, London, 1881; DNB, xxxv. 3.



MACCHI, ma"chl, LUIGI: Cardinal; b. at Vi­terbo (42 m. n.n.w, of Rome), Italy, Mar. 3, 1832; d. at Rome Mar. 29, 1907. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1859, and was soon appointed privy chamberlain by Pius IX. After being made domestic prelate, vice‑president of the hospice for the poor in the Bathe of Diocletian, and an incum­bent of other offices, he was appointed, in 1875,





Maccabees

107 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA

McClure


mceatro di camera, an office in which he was confirmed by Leo XIII. In 1886 he became major domo and prefect of the apostolic palaces, and in the former capacity successfully carried out the jubilee of the Pope's ordination to the priesthood. In 1889 he was created cardinal‑deacon of Santa Maria in Aquiro, and after 1896 was ca,rdina,l‑deacon of Santa Maria in Via Later. Although not a bishop, the cardinal was made abbot in commendam of San Benedetto di Subiaco in 1890, and was secretary of the Congre­gation of Briefs and great chancellor of all papal orders of knights, as well as a member of the con­gregations of the Council, Rites, Ceremonies, and Indulgences.
McCLELLAIY, JOHN BROWN: Church of Eng­land; b. in Glasgow, Scotland, Mar. 7, 1838. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1858; M.A., 1861). He was fellow of his college (1859‑81). Ordained deacon in 1860, and priest in 1861, he was vicar of Bottisham, Cambridge­shire (1861‑,80); and rural dean of first division of Camp's deanery (1871‑77). In 1880 he was ap­pointed principal of the Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester, Gloucestershire. He is the author of: Fourth Nicene Canon and the Election and Con­secration of Bishops (London, 1870); and The New Testament: A New Translation (only one vol. pub­lished; 1875).
McCLINTOCg, JOHN: Methodist Episcopalian; b. in Philadelphia Oct. 27, 1814; d. at Madison, N. J., Mar. 4, 1870. He was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1835 and was re­ceived as a traveling preacher in the New Jersey Annual Conference the same year. From 1836 to 1843 he taught in Dickinson College, Carlisle, Penn., holding the chair of mathematics 1836‑40, and that of Greek and Latin 18408. He was then editor of The Methodist Quarterly Review 1848‑56. In 1857 he went to England as a delegate to the Wes­leyan Methodist Conference. He was pastor of St. Paul's Methodist Church, New York, 18570, and pastor of the American Chapel, Paris, 1860‑64. During the Civil War in America his pen was con­stantly active in the interest of the Union cause. In 1864 he was recalled to St. Paul's, but ill health forced him to resign a year later. From 1867 till his death he was president of the newly established Drew ,Theological Seminary, Madison, N. J. He was an eloquent and impressive preacher and one of the best scholars that his denomination has pro­duced. In addition to a popular series of Greek and Latin teat‑books and numerous articles in peri­odicals, he published Analysis of Watson's Theo­logical Institutes (New York, 1842; a translation of. Neander's Life of Christ (1847); Sketches of Eminent Methodist Ministers (1852); The Temporal Power of the Pope (1853); and a translation of Bungener's History of the Council of Trent (1855). His most important work, however, was the Cycloptadia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature (10 vo1s. and Supplement 2 vole., New York, 1867‑87). In collaboration with James Strong he began to col­lect materials for this work as early ere 1853, but lived to see only three volumes through the press. After his death there appeared Living Words (1870), a


volume of sermons; and Lectures on Theological En­cyclopcedia and Methodology (1873).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. R. Crooks, Lifer and Letters of Rev. John McClintock, New York, 187.

McCLOSBEY, JOHN: American cardinal; b. in Brooklyn Mar. 20, 1810; d. in New York Oct. 10, 1885. He studied at Mount St. Mary's Col­lege, Emmitsburg, Md., was ordained priest is 1834, and then pursued postgraduate studies in theology at the Roman College. Returning to America in 1837 he was assigned for pariah duty to St. Joseph's Church, New York City. When St. John's College, Fordham, was opened in 1841 he was appointed its first president, but the year fol­lowing he returned to his parish work at St. Jo­seph's. In 1844 he was appointed coadjutor to Bishop Hughes of the diocese of New York, being made titular bishop of Axiere, in partitua infidel­ium. He was consecrated Mar. 10, and though as­sisting the bishop in his episcopal functions, he re­tained his position as pastor of St. Joseph's parish. In, 1847 he was transferred from New York to be­come the first bishop of the newly erected diocese of Albany, and this post he filled during the ensu­ing seventeen years. The new diocese included nearly all of the northern and eastern portions of the state of New York, and throughout this vast territory Roman Catholics were relatively few and without resources; there were in all only about forty churches and many of these were without priests. During his administration conditions were greatly improved and much was done by way of organization and development. Thus in Albany he built the fine cathedral of the Immaculate Con­ception, which was dedicated in 1852; new par­ishes were established in great numbers throughout the diocese; many schools and homes were erected, and in 1864 St. Joseph's Provincial Seminary for the training of ecclesiastical students was opened in Troy. In May of the same year he was ap­pointed to succeed Archbishop Hughes in the met­ropolitan see of New York. In this capacity he attended the Vatican Council in 1870, and was a member of the committee on ecclesiastical disci­pline. In 1875 he was made cardinal by Pius IX. with the title of Sancta Maria supra Minervam. On the death of Pius IX. in 1878 he left for Rome. in order to attend the conclave in which Leo XIII. was elected, but arrived too late to take part in the proceedings. He had a distinguished career as s churchman, having taken an important part in the remarkable development of the Roman Catholic Church in New York during that period. He was a prelate of more than ordinary scholarship, and though mild and gentle in character, he possessed the firmness necessary to the leader, together with great executive ability JAMEa F. DRISCOLL.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. G. Sheer, Hiat. of the Catholic Church



within the Limits of the United States, vol. iv., passim, New York, 1892; Lives of the Clergy of New York and Brooklyn, ib. 1874.

McCLURE, JAMES GORE KING: Presby­terian; b. at Albany, N. Y., Nov. 24, 1848. He was educated at Yale (A.B., 1870) and Princeton Theological Seminary, from which. he was gradu­ated in 1873. He was ordained to the Presbyte‑







rian ministry in 1874, and from that year until 1879 was pastor at New Scotland, N. Yi, after which he traveled in Europe for two years. He was then pastor at Lake Forest, Ill., until 1905, and also president of Lake Forest University from 1897 until his resignation in 1901. Since 1905 he has been president of McCormick Theological Sem­inary. He was also president of the College Board of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America in 1903‑04. He has written: Posax'bilities (Chicago, 1896); The Man mho Wanted to Help (1897); The Great Appeal (1898); Environment (1899); For Hearts that Hope (1900); A mighty Means of Llsefxdness (1901); Luring /'or the Best (1903); The Growing Pastor (1904); Loyalty the Soul of Religion (190b); and Supreme Things (sermons; 1908).
McCLYMOfIT, JAMES ALEXANDER: Church of Scotland; b. at Girvan (17 m. s.w. of Ayr), Ayrshire, May 26, 1848. He was educated at the universities of Edinburgh (M.A., 1867; B.D., 1870) and Tubingen, and was assistant in Dundee Pariah Church from 1871 to 1874. Since the latter year he has been minister of Holburn Parish, Aberdeen, as well as chaplain to the Gordon Highlanders. He was examiner in Hebrew in Aberdeen University in 1894 and in Hebrew and Biblical criticism in 1906‑08, and is also convener of the Business Com­mittee of the Aberdeen Synod and a member of the General Committee of the Church of Scotland. In theology he describes himself as an " Evangelical Broad Churchman." Besides his work as joint edi­tor (with A. H. Charteris) of the Guild Text‑Books (Edinburgh, 1890 sqq.) and the Guild Library (London, 1895 sqq.), he has translated J. T. Beck's Pastorallehren des Neuen Testamentes (Giltersloh, 1880) under the title Pastoral Theology of the New Testament (in collaboration with T. Nicol; Edin­burgh, 1885); and has written The New Testament and its Writers (1892); St. John's Gospel in The Century Bible (1901); and Greece (London, 1906).
McC00g, HENRY CHRISTOPHER: Presbyter­ian; b. at New Lisbon, O., July 3, 1837. He was educated at Jefferson College (B.A., 1859) and at the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa. (1859‑61). He was first lieutenant, and afterward chaplain, in the Forty‑first Regiment Illinois Volunteers. He has held pastorates at Clinton, Ill. (1861‑63) ; St. Louis, Mo. (1863‑69) ; and at Philadelphia, Pa. (1869‑1902; since 1903, pastor emeritus). He has written: Object and Outline Teaching: Guide Book for Sunday School Workers (St. Louis, 1871); Teacher's Commentary on Gospel Narrative of Last Year of our Lord's Ministry (Philadelphia, 1871); was a contributor to the Tercentenary Book (of the Heidelberg Catechism; 1863); Natural History of the Agricultural Ant of Texas (1879); Honey Ants of the Garden of the Gods and the Occident Ants of the American Plains (1881); Tenants of an Old Farm: Leaves from the Note­Book of a ‑Naturalist (New York, 1885 [1884]); Women Friends of Jesus (1886 [1885]); Gospel in Nature (Philadelphia, 1886); American Spiders, and their Spinning Work (3 vole., 1890‑93); Old Farm Fairies (1895); the Latimers: Tale of the Western


~oCr~e °at THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 108


Insurrection of 1794 (1898 [189?]); Martial Graves of our Fallen Heroes in Santiago de Cuba (1899); The Senator: a Threnody (1905); Nature's Crafts­men: Popular Studies of Ants and other Insects (New York, 1907); and Ant Communities (1909).

naProtestant Episcopal bishop coadjutor of western Michigan; b. at Richmond, Va., Feb. 1, 1863. He was edu­cated at Randolph‑Macon College, Va. (A.B., 1883) and Johns Hopkins University (1886,88). From 1883 to 1893 he was a Methodist Episcopal minis­ter, but entering the Protestant Episcopal Church he was rector successively of St. Paul's, Suffolk, Va., 1893 to 1895, of St. Luke's, Atlanta, Ga., 1895, and of St. Mark's, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1898. In 1906 he was consecrated bishop coadjutor of west­ern Michigan. He has written: Distinctive Marks of the Episcopal Church (Milwaukee, 1902); The Litany and the Life (1904); and Pain and Sympathy (1907).

McCOSH, JAMES: Presbyterian divine and educator; b. at Carekeoch (36 m. s.s.w. of Glas­gow), a farm in the parish of Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland, Apr. 1, 1811; d, at Princeton, N. J., Nov. 16, 1894. He was destined at an early age for the ministry by his father, who put him under the tui­tion of a pious man, one Quentin Smith. In 1824 he entered the University of Glasgow, and in 1829 he removed to the University of Edinburgh (M.A., 1834), where he studied divinity under Chalmers. $e was licensed by the presbytery of Ayr in 1834 and was settled first in Arbroath, a pariah of sailors and artizans, but in 1838 he was appointed pastor at Brechin, Forfarahire. At the disruption of 1843 he entered the Free Church and became superin­tendent of a mountainous district in Forfarshire. In 1850 he was called to Queen's College, Belfast, as professor of logic and metaphysics. There he not only devoted himself to the duties of his chair, but also interested himself in Evangelical work in Smithfield, establishing a church and founding schools. He took great interest in Irish affairs and was a firm advocate of the national system of schools. He desired the abolition of the Regium Donum, yet he suggested a suatentation fund, as he had done before in Scotland. In the summer of 1858 he traveled in Germany; and in 1866 he made a journey to the United States, investigating chiefly the system of education in use here. In May, 1868, he was elected president o£ the College of New Jer­sey, Princeton, which position he retained until his resignation in 1888. MeCosh was one of Prince­ton's most influential presidents; he introduced, but with more restrictions than at Harvard and. at Yale, the elective system. He was a firm, although kind, disciplinarian. After his resignation he still showed interest in the college, continuing his lectures there on philosophy for two years. As a philosopher McCosh takes a high rank; he was a firm believer in realism and strongly opposed both to idealism and to materialism. He always strove to keep abreast of the times, from the start giving his assent to the doctrine of evolution and showing how it could be reconciled with the Gospel teachings, in which he was always a firm believer. Of his voluminous





109 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA XoCl at

Xacr3Tm°


works the more important are: The Method of Divine

Government, Physical and Moral (Edinburgh, 1850); ,

Typical Forma and Special Ends in Creation (1856),

in collaboration with G. Dickie; The Intuitions of



the Mind, Inductively Investigated (London, 1860);

The Supernatural in. Relation to the Natural (Cam­

bridge, 1862); A Defense of Fundamental Truth;



being an Examination of Mr. J. S. Mill's Philoso­

phy (London, 1866); .The Laws of Discursive

Thought (1870); Christianity and Positivism (New

York, 1871); The Scottish Philosophy, Biograph­



ical, Expository, Critical (London, 1874); The Emo­

tions (1880); Psychology: the Cognitive Powers

(1886); Psychology: the Motive Powers, Emotions,



Conscience, Will (1887); The Realistic Philosophy

Defended (1887); The Religious Aspect of Evolu­

tion (1888); Gospel Sermons (1888); The First

seed Fundamental Truths (1889): and Our Moral

Nature (1892).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Life of James McCosA, a Record chiefly

Aulobiopraphieal, ed. W. M. Sloane, New York, 1898 (con­

tains s list, by J. H. Duller, of the published writings of

Dr. MoCoah).

MACCOmus, ma‑Wvi‑us, JOHANNES (Jan



Makowsky): Polish Reformed theologian; b. at

Lobzenic, Poland, 1588; d. at Franeker, Holland,

June 24, 1644. After visiting various universities

as the tutor of young Polish nobles, and holding

disputations with Jesuits and Socinians, he entered

the University of Franeker in 1613. There he be­

came privat‑docent in 1614 and professor of theol­

ogy is 1615 Theologically he was a rigid Calvin­

ist of the extreme supralapea,rian school, and theses

of a corresponding character, defended in 1616 by

one of his pupils, involved him in a controversy

with his colleague Sibrandus Lubbertua (q.v.) which

was settled only by the Synod of Dort in 1619.

The synod, while neither approving nor condemning

his aupralapsarisniam, acquitted Maccovius of the

charges of heresy brought against him, but advised

him to be more cautious and peaceable. Never­

theless, he became involved in another controversy

at Dort with his subsequent colleague William Ames

(q.v.) by asserting that all things that moat be be­

lieved are not necessarily true, that no impulse

toward regeneration and effecting it exists in the

unregenerate, and that Christ is the object of faith

because of whom, but not in whom, man must be­

lieve. Maccovius' theory of Scripture was very

free, and he distinguished sharply between scholar­

ship and beliefs essential to salvation. His fame

attracted many students to Franeker. His chief

works are: Collegia theologica (Amsterdam, 1623);

and the posthumous Maccoviua rediarivus sine man­



uacripta eius typia ezacn:pta (Franeker, .1847) and

Loci communes (1650). (S. D. vwrr VEEN.)

Baitoassrai: A. Huyper, Jr., Johanna Macooniw, Ley­

den, 1899; E. L. Briemoet, Athenaeum Frisiacarum IiGri,

pp. lb1‑180, Leeuwarden. 1758; J. Herings Ex, in dr­

ehisf moor Kerketijke Otschiedenie, 1831, iii. b03‑b84; W.

B. 8. Boeh, Frieslanda 1Joopssdwot en keg Mike Atho­



norum to Fmnekar, ii 90‑94, Leeuwarden, 1889.

MacCRACBER, HENRY MITCHELL: Presby­

terian; b, at Oxford, O., Sept. 28, 1840. He was

educated at Miami University, Oxford, O. (A.B.,



1857), United Presbyterian Theological Seminary,


Xenia, O. (1880‑82), Princeton Theological Semi­nary (from which he was graduated in 1863), sad the universities of Tubingen and'Berlin (18678). In 1857‑b8 he was a teacher of classics in Grove Academy, Cedarville, O., and in 18580 was su­perintendent of the Union Schools of South Charles­ton, O., after which be was pastor of the Westmin­ster Presbyterian Church, Columbus, O. (1863‑67), and the First Presbyterian Church, Toledo, O. (1868,81). He was then chancellor of Western University, Pittsburg, Pa., for three years (1881­1884), and from 1884 to 1891 was professor of phi­losophy and vice‑chancellor of New York Univer­sity, and from 1891 to 1910 chancellor of the same institution. He was a deputy to the General As­sembly of the Free Church of Scotland in 1867 and to the General Assembly of the Irish Presbyterian Church in the same year and in 1884. He has edited, translated, and enlarged F. Piper's Evangelischer Calereder (Berlin, 1875) under the title Lives of the Leaders of our Church Universal (Philadelphia, 1880).


McCRIE, THOMAS: The name of two prominent Scotch Presbyterians.


1. The biographer of John Knox; b. at Dun (36 m. e.a.e. of Edinburgh), Berwickshire, Nov., 1772; d. at Edinburgh Aug. 5, 1835. After teach­ing for a time in the neighboring elementary schools he studied at the University of Edinburgh (1788­1791), but did not graduate. In 1791 he opened an " anti‑burgher " school at Brechin, where he resided for three years, except during the few weeks which were annually required for attendance at the theological seminary of the General Associate Synod (anti‑burgher) at Whitburn. He was licensed in 1795 by the associate presbytery of Kelso, and in 1796 he was ordained pastor of the Potterrow Church, Edinburgh. In 1806, owing to differences about the province of civil magistrates in religious affairs, a schism occurred in the anti‑burgher de­nomination, and McCrie and three other ministers withdrew from the General Associate Synod and on Aug. 28, 1806, organized the Constitutional As­sociate Presbytery, which in 1827 was merged in the Synod of Original Secedera. At the end of a lawsuit McCrie was ejected from the Potterrow Church in 1809. His congregation then built him the bleat Richmond Street Church, where he con­tinued his ministrations till his death. During the years 1816‑18 he filled the chair of divinity in the theological seminary of his denomination. Mo­Cries works grew chiefly out of investigations which the controversies of the time led him to make into the early history of the Church of Scotland. His mgt important work is his Life of John Knox (2 vole., Edinburgh, 1812; 2d ed., enlarged, 1813), which not only placed McCrie in the front rank of the authors of his day, but also produced a great change of popular sentiment in regard to Knox. It was distinguished by original, painstaking re­search, independence of judgment, judicial fairness of mind, and singular clearness of style; and its effect on the general estimate of Knox among men was not unlike that produced, in the succeeding generation, in reference to Cromwell, by the publi­cation of Carlyle's monograph. There is reason to



Xsoedonins

THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 110


believe that the impulse given by it to the study of the history of the Scottish Reformation, and the principles involved in the subsequent conflicts of the Scottish Church, did much to bring about that movement which resulted in the disruption of 1843. Other works are, The Life of Andrew Melville (2 vole., 1819); History of the Progress and Suppres­sion of the Reformation in Italy (1827); and History of the Progress and Suppression of the Reformation in Spain (1829). Posthumous were, Sermons (1836) and Miscellaneous Writings, Chiefly Historical (1841). His son, Thomas MeCrie, edited his Works (4 vole., 1855‑57).

B:HUOaaerar: A Memoir, by his eon, was prefixed to the Works, ut sup., and s Life of Thomas McCrie, D.D., by the same, appeared Edinburgh, 1840; DNB, azv. 13­14. There is also s Memoir of Dr. McCrie by A. Crich­ton in the letter's ed. of MeCrie'e Life o1 John Knox, Edin­burgh, 1840.



2. Son and biographer of the preceding; b. at Edinburgh Nov. 7, 1797; d. there May 9, 1875. He studied at the University of Edinburgh, entered the ministry of the Original Secession Church in 1820, and, after holding pastorates at Crieff and Clola, succeeded his father in 1836 as minister of the West Richmond Street Church, Edinburgh. The same year he was given the chair of divinity at the Original Secession Hall. In 1852 he joined the Free Church of Scotland, at the union with it of the larger part of the Original Secession Church. He took a prominent part in the deliberations neces­sary for effecting this union and in 1856 was mod­erator of the Free Church assembly. In 1866 he became professor of church history sad systematic theology in the Presbyterian College, London. His principal works are, Life of Thomas McCrie (Edin­burgh, 1840); Sketches of Scottish Church History (1841); Lectures on Christian Baptism (1850); Me­moirs of Sir Andrew Agnew (1850); and Annals of English Prealrytxry, from the Earliest Period to the Present Time (London, 1872).

BraicoossrHy: DNB, xcav. 14.
M'CURDY, JAMES FREDERICK: Presby­terian; b. at Chatham, New Brunswick, Feb. 18, 1847. He was educated at the University of New Brunswick (A.B., 1866), and after being principal of Aestigouche County Grammar School, Dalhousie, New Brunswick, in 1867‑88, entered Princeton Theological Seminary, from which he was gradu­ated in 1871 and where he studied two additional years (1871‑72). He was then assistant professor of Oriental languages in the same institution from 1873 to 1882, after which he studied at the uni­versities of Gottingen and Leipsio until 1884. He was lecturer at Princeton Theological Seminary on the Stone foundation in 1885‑86, and in. the latter year was appointed lecturer on Oriental literature in University College, Toronto, where he was pro­moted to his present position of professor of the same subject in 1888. In addition to numerous contributions to The Jewish Encyclopedia, Hastings Dictionary of the Bible, and the Standard Bile Dictionary, to theological periodicals, and besides preparing the sections on the Psalms, Hoses, and Haggai for the American edition of J. P. Lange's commentary on the Bible (New York, 1872‑76) he


has written: Aryo‑Semitic Speech: A Study in Lin­guistic Archeology (Andover, 1881); History, Proph­ecy, and the Monuments (3 vole., London, 1894­1901); and Life of D. J. Macdonnell (Toronto, 1897).
MACDONALD, DUNCAN BLACK: Presbyte­rian; b. at Glasgow, Scotland, Apr. 9, 1&33. He was educated at the university of his native city (M.A., 1885; B.D., 1888), where he was later scholar and fellow, and then studied Semitica at the University of Berlin (189U‑91, 1893). Since 1892 he has been professor of Semitic languages in Hartford Theological Seminary. He was Haskell lecturer in comparative religion in the University of Chicago in 1905‑06. He is editor of the Mohamme­dan section of J. Hastings' Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics, and is editor of the concordance of the Peshitta being prepared under the auspices of Hart­ford Theological Seminary. He has written: Devel­opment of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence, and Constitutional Theory (New York, 1903); and Re­ligious Attitude and Life in Islam (Chicago, 1909; Haskell lectures).
MACDONALD, FREDERIC WILLIAM: Eng­lish Methodist; b. at Leeds Feb. 25, 1842. He was educated at Owens College, Manchester (B.A., 1862), and after being a Wesleyan minister from 1862 to 1881, was professor of systematic theology in Handsworth College, Birmingham, from 1881 to 1891. From the latter year until 1905 he was sec­retary of the Wesleyan Missionary Society, of which he has since been honorary secretary, and in 1899­1900 was likewise president of the Wesleyan Metho­dist Conference. He was also joint editor of the London Quarterly Review from 1871 to 1875, and in 1880 represented the British Methodist Conference at the General Conference of the Methodist Episco­pal Church of America,. He has written: Life of Fletcher of Madeley (London, 1885); Life of Will­iam, Money Punshon (1887); Latin Hymns in the Wesleyan Hymn‑Book (1900); and In a Nook with a Book (1907).
McDOWELL, WILLIAM FRASER: Methodist Episcopal bishop; b. at Millersburg, O., Feb. 4 1858. He was educated at Ohio Wesleyan Uni­versity (A.B., 1879) and Boston University (S.T.B., 1882), and from 1882 to 1890 held successive pas­torates at Lodi, O. (1882‑83), Oberlin, O. (1883­188b), and Tiffin, O. (1885‑90), after which he was chancellor of the University of Denver for nine years (1890‑99). From 1899 to 1904 he was cor­responding secretary of the Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in 1904 was elected bishop of his denomination. He was a mem­ber of the Colorado State Board of Charities and Cor­rections in 1894‑99 and president of the Religious Education Society in 1905‑06, while since 1899 he has bin a member of the International Committee of the Young Men's Christian Association.
MACDUFF, JOHN ROSS: Church of Scotland; b. at Bonhard in the parish of Scone, Perthshire, May 23, 1818; d. at Chislehuret (10 m. s.e. of Lon­don), Kent, England, Apr. 30, 1895. He was edu­cated at the University of Edinburgh, end wee







pastor successively of Kettins, Forfarshire (1843­

11349), of St. Madoea, Perthshire (1849‑55), and of

Sandyford parish, Glasgow (1855‑70). In 1870 he

retired to Chislehurst and devoted himself to the

composition of religious literature. His publica­

tions were very numerous. They are mostly small

devotional manuals, characterized by a devout and

practical imagination, and have been read by thou­

sands in his own country and in America. Possibly

of these the two most famous volumes are The



Morning and Night Watches (in one vol., London,

323d thousand in 1904); and The Mind and Wards



of Jesus (in one vol., 341st thousand). He wrote

also verse, of which he issued a collected edition,



Matin and Vesper Bells (2 vole., 1898). Two of his

hymns have found their way into hymn‑books,

Christ is coming," and " Everlasting Arms of

love." His autobiography, Reminiscences of a



Long Life, by the Author of Morning and Night

Watches, appeared 1896.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Consult, besides the Reminiacenaea, ut. cup,

edited by his daughter, 8. W. Duffield, English Hymns,



pp. 88‑87, New York, 1888; Julian, Hymnology, p. 708.

MACEDONIA IN THE APOSTOLIC AGE: After

the battle of Pydna (188 B.C.) Macedonia passed

under Roman dominion and was divided into four

districts. In 146 B.C. it became a province, and

under Augustus it passed to the senate; under

Tiberius and Claudius it was an imperial charge

and was united with Aehaia; but after 44 B.C. it

belonged again to the Senate. In the third and

fourth centuries it was again divided into four

provinces. Ptolema'us (iii. 13) thus describes its

extent: " On the east the river Nestus formed the

boundary toward Thracia, so that Philippi politic­

ally belonged to Macedonia. [This agrees with

Acts xvi. 9, where the ` man of Macedonia' ap­

peared to Paul asking him to come over into Mace­

donia, who went by way of Samothrace directly to

Neapolis‑Philippi, passing around Thrace.] On

the north, Macedonia bordered on Dahnatia‑Illyri­

cum; in the west, on the Adriatic Sea. The south­

ern boundary is uncertain." As in other provinces,

there was also a provincial council for Macedonia

which probably met in Thessalonica, which was

called the " first [city] of Macedonia." The prin­

cipal cities were connected by the Via Egnatia, a

fine military road, which Paul used from Neapolia

to Thessalonica,. From Neapolis, opposite to the

island of Thasos, the road led to Philippi, a city

founded by Philip of Macedonia. Octavianua

planted a Roman colony there (cf. Acts xvi. 12)

which was considerably enlarged after the battle

at Actium. The population was almost entirely

Roman, as the many Latin inscriptions prove.

The masters of the prophesying slaves (Acts xvi.

16‑21) were Romans. The officers also were Ro­

mans (praetors, not politarchs). The number of

Jews in Philippi seems to have been not very large,

for Paul intended to stay there only a few days,

and a congregation seems not to have existed at

all. Acts xvi. 13 says nothing of a synagogue (as

in xvii. 1), it mentions only a praying‑place for

women outside of the gate by the river. The next

two stations on the Via Egnatia, at which Paul

only touched, were Amphipolis and Apollonia.


111 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Xocrie

Maoedonius




Then comes Theasalonica, formerly called Thermae. According to Philip it was a free city, the capital of the province. In the time of Strabo it was very populous. It had its politarchs (Acts xvii. 6), though their number is uncertain, also a council (demos, Acts xvii. 5). The politarchs had police jurisdiction and were responsible to the provincial authorities for order and quiet in the city (xvii. 6 aqq). That Paul selected this important commer­cial city as a missionary field is in accord with his custom; in the Acts a further motive was the fact that a synagogue of the Jews was there. This " would mean that the Jews of the entire district, including those of Amphipolis and Apollonia, cen­tered their worship at Thessalonica" (Zahn). Thus is explained also why the apostle passed by Amphipolis and Apollonia. The influence of the Jews in Theasa­lonica must have been very great; it was felt even at Berea, the first city to go over to the Romans after the battle of Pydna. This last was one of the moat populous cities of Macedonia. (J. WEISS.)

BIBLiOaRAPHY: J. Marquardt, Rsmiache StaaWvenualtunp, i. 318‑321, Leipeie, 1881; W. M. Leaks, Travels in North­ern Green, vol. iii., London, 1835; T. A. Desdevizea‑du­Dezert, G€opmphie ancienne de to Mac€doine, Paris, 1863; L. Heuzey, Mission arrh6olnpique de Mac6dodne, Paris, 1878; B. Nieae, Geschichte der griechiachen and makedoni­schen Staaten aeit der Schlacht bei Chaeronea, 3
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