to order; and authorized MeAll to open as many halls se he would. In 1888 the work attained its largest number of halls, 130; forty‑two being in Paris and its environs, and the others in thirtythree departments, Algeria, Tunis, and Corsica. In 1908 there were but fifty‑eight halls, a number of those formerly worked by the mission having been taken over by Protestant churches, and others closed in the interest of better methods. The work is thus far more extensive than in the days of more mission halls, in part owing to boat work and itineracy, in part to larger and more varied use of the belle.
Sunday‑schools were introduced into the mission
in Jan., 1873, and immediately afterward McAli took advantage of the Thursday half‑holiday to open
supplementary schools for religious instruction, an example followed by the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches. The first adult Bible class in France was established in a McAll hall. The Christian Endeavor movement was introduced into France by C. E. Greig, then in charge of work among the young in the mission halls, and, after McAll's retirement, the director of the mission. The Christian Endeavor Society is of inestimable value in regions where there are no Protestant churches with which the converts may unite.
Although the one purpose of the mission is evangelization, many agencies contribute to this end. The halls are centers of temperance and dispensary work, mothers' meetings, fraternal societies, lending libraries, Bible and tract distribution, and an extensive domestic visitation. The first industrial school in France was established in a McAll hall in 1874. The first social settlement in France was founded in 1899 in connection with the work of the mission in Roubaix, and several others have since been opened elsewhere.
In 1878, 1889, and 1900 the McAll Mission, in cooperation with the British and Foreign Bible Society, and the French and the London Tract Societies, carried on evangelistic work in conneotics with the expositions of these years, with continuous religious meetings and an extensive sale and distribution of religious literature.
In 1882, desiring to put the work upon a permanent basis, McAll formed s Board (Comity de direction) of French, English, and American residents of 'Paris. At that time the name of the work was changed from Mission attx ouvriera de Paris, which it had hitherto borne, to its present name, Mission Popttlaire grxingaique de France. The board, however, wishing to associate the founder's name with the work, voted to add the sub‑title " The McAll Mission." The president of the board was a prominent business man of Paris, Louis Saalter.
In 1885‑88, the London Seaman's Mission lined one of its boats to McAll for work in the coast cities, several permanent stations being the outcome. One of these boats, going up the seine to Paris, aroused an immense interest there. Subsequently two chapel boats, Le Ban Measager and La Bon‑ Notcvelle, were built for service in the inland waterways of France, and have carried the gospel to many sequestered villages, in some of which permanent work has been established. In
a germ. uenei. m ` vole. appeared at Sulabaoh, 1899;
fifty Homilice were edited by J. G. Pritius, Leipeig 1598;
ana H. J. Floes issued Epistola•, homiliarum loci, pracca,
Cologne, 1850, and Zwei Fragments den healipsn Makarius,
Bonn 1888. Consult: J. Stoffele, Die mystiache Theologie
Makariua den AepyPtera and die Alteeten Ansgtte chttatlicher
:Kyatik, Bonn, 1908; B. Lindner, 3ymbolos historios the
olopicw mystscas• de Macario Leipaie, 1848; T. FSreter,
in Jahrbfdchsr J>Zr deutsche ?7uolopie, 1873, pp. 439‑501;
R. LBbe, in Kirchlichaa Jahrbuch far .Sacks: AZtanburp,
1900, pp. 37‑38
2. The Repula monaatioa ascribed to Mscariue, a homily, and three apothegms are in A Gsllsndi Bibliofheoa veterum patncm, vol. vii., 14 vole., Venice, 1785‑81. Consult: Floes, ut sup.; O. ZSekler, Aekeas and MthKAtum, pp. 228‑227, 247, 335, 375 Frankfort, 1897; O. Bardenhewer, Patrolopie, pp. 232‑233, Freiburg, 1901.
MoAll Mission THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 10$
numerous cases they have been the means of re
calling to their ancestral faith the scattered de
In 1905 the Board of Direction gave to Greig a col
league, S. de Greasier Latour, a young man of noble
Huguenot extraction, and created the office of
Foreign Corresponding Secretary for America, to
which they called Henri Merle d'Aubignd, son of the
historian of the Reformation, and for years a worker
in the mission. LOUI6E SEYMOUR HOUGHTON.
Brstroarurxx: H. Boner, The White Fieidt of prance; or
the Story of Mr. M'All's Mission, New York, 1879; idem,
Life and Work of Rev. Q. Theophilw Dodds . in Con‑
nection with the MaA R Mission, ib. 1884; Cry front the
Land of Calvin and Voltaire; Records of the hfcAR Mia
eion, ib. 1887; Mrs. L. 8. Houghton, Cruise of as" Mys‑
tery " in MeAl1 Mission Work, ib. 1891. McALL, ROBERT WHITASER: English Congregationalist, and the founder of the McAll Mission (q.v.); b. at Macclesfield (17 m. s, of Manchester), Cheshire, Dec. 17, 1821; d. in Paris May 11, 1893. He was the son of a Congregational minister, but at first proposed to take up the profession of architecture. Almost at the outset of a promising career, however, he felt himself drawn to the ministry, as his father had wished; and after completing his studies at the Free College of Theology at Whalley Range, near Manchester (1844‑48), he was called to the pastorate of the Congregational church at Sunderland. Subsequently he held charges at Leicester, Birmingham, Manchester, and Hadleigh, his sermons everywhere being marked by their simplicity, force, and elegance. While at Leicester, he became distinguished as a street preacher, and in all his pastorates he did extensive work in the villages, where he was eminently suocesaful in enlisting the services of young men. In Aug., 1871, while on a ten days' visit to France with his wife, he heard, at Paris, the words of ‑a working man which determined his future career. Convinced that there was an opportunity for evangelistic work in France among those who had abandoned religious faith, McAll, having consulted prominent French Protestant pastors, and having secured the consent and cooperation of his church at Hadleigh, returned to Paris, where, with the permission of the Government, he began evangelistic work in the communistic quarter of Belleville (Jan. 17, 1872). The work was at first carried on by the private means of McAll and his wife; but within a year interest was aroused in the undertaking, and contributions came in generously. In 1882, wishing to put the mission on a permanent foundation, McAll formed a board of directors, who in turn made him honorary director for life. This office he cosigned in 1892 and returned to England to raise the funds which were urgently needed to carry on the work. Early in the following spring, becoming seriously ill, he went once more to Paris, where he died, and was buried with military honors. His wife, who died at Paris May 6, 1906, gave her last years to the mission with a devotion equal to that of her husband. McAll was the author of ninety‑seven published works, chiefly tracts, many of which were written in French; and he also wrote or translated fifty hymns for the Cantiquea populairea, the hymnal used in the McAll missions and by many other French Protestants. Louls>a SEYMOUR HOUGHTON.
BrariloanlPBy: R. W. McA71, Founder of the MBAR Mie
Wide, London, 1898; and literature under MCALL Mreexox.
MACARIIIS, ma‑cA'ri‑us: A name of frequent occurrence in the history of the early Church (cf. the DCB, s.v., and Stadler and Heim, Heiliyenlezacon, iv. 2‑10, where more than forty of the name are mentioned). The most noteworthy are:
1. Macarius The Egyptian, called also The Elder or The Great: Head of the monks of the Scetic
108 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Xosn xiasioa
desert; b. in Upper Egypt about 300; d. in the Soetic desert, 391. He was won to the religious life at an early age by St. Anthony and when thirty years old became a monk. Ten years later he was ordained priest, and for the remainder of his life presided over the monastic community in the Scetic desert, except for a brief period during which he was banished, with other adherents of the Nicene Creed, to an island in the Nile by the Emperor Valens. The day appointed for his feast in the Eastern Church is Jan. 19, while the Western Church celebrates it four days earlier. Certain monasteries of the Libyan desert still bear the name of Macarius, and the neighborhood is called the Desert of Macsrius and seems to be identical with the ancient Scetic district. The ruins of numerous monasteries in this region almost confirm the local tradition that the cloisters of Macarius were equal in number to the days of the year. Although Gennadius recognizes as the only work of Macarius a letter addressed to the younger monks, there seems to be no reason to deny the genuineness of the fifty homilies ascribed to him. The Apophthegmata edited with the homilies may also be genuine, but the seven so‑called Optcacula ascetics edited under his name by P. Possinus (Paris, 1883) are merely later compilations from the homilies, made by Simeon the Logothete, who is probably identical with Simeon Metsphrastes (d. 950). Macarius likewise seems to have been the author of several minor writings, including an Epistold ad filios Doi, and a number of other letters and prayers. The teachings of Macarius are characterized by a mystical and spiritual mode of thought which has endeared him to Christian mystics of all ages, although, on the other hand, in his anthropology and soteriology he frequently approximates the standpoint of St. Augustine. Certain passages of his homilies assert the entire depravity of man, while others postulate free will, even after the fall of Adam, and presuppose a tendency toward virtue, or, in semi‑Pelagian fashion, ascribe to man the power to attain a degree of readiness to receive salvation.
2. Macarius The Younger, or Macarius of Alexandria: A somewhat younger contemporary of the preceding, was a monk in the Nitric desert, where he died c. 406. He was an extreme ascetic, and numerous miracles were ascribed to him. He presided over the 5,000 Nitric monks with the same success as had the elder Macarius in the Scetic desert. According to oriental tradition, he died on Jan. 2, but he is also commemorated on the same days as Macarius the Egyptian, with whom he is often confused. In addition to a monastic rule and three brief apothegms, a homily " On the End of the Souls of the Righteous and of Sinners " is ascribed to him, although excellent Vienna manuscripts assign the latter to a monk named Alexander. Palladius and Sozomen also mention a Macariua the Younger of Lower Egypt, who lived in a cell for more than twenty three years to atone for a murder which he had committed.
3. Macarius Magnes: Probably to be identified with the bishop of Magnesia who, at the Synod of the Oak in 403, brought charges against Heraclides, bishop of Ephesus, the friend of Chrysostom
(see CxxysosToas, § 4). He seems to have been the author of an apology against a Neo‑Platonic philosopher of the early part of the fourth century, contained in a manuscript of the fifteenth century discovered at Athens in 1867 and edited by C. Blondel (Paris, 1876). This work agrees in its dogmatics with Gregory of Nyasa, and is valuable on account of the numerous excerpts from the writings of the opponent of Macarius. These fragments are apparently drawn from the lost "Words against the Christians" of Porphyry or from the "Truth‑Loving Words" of Hierocles. Like Macarius the Younger, this Macarius is frequently confused with Macarlua the Egyptian.
4. Macarius of Jerusalem: A bishop who took
part in the Council of Nic:ea and also received
a long letter from Constantine the Great with
reference to the building of the Church of the
Redeemer at Jerusalem. Of his life no details
are known. (O. ZlSc>it>sat.)
Bxarxoaxurxx: 1. The Opera ate is MPL, 3codv. 408‑822; a Germ. travel. in 2 vole. appeared at $ulabsch, 1839; fifty Homilies were edited by J. G. Pritiue, Leipeic, 1598: and H. J. Floss issued EPietolw, homiliarum loci, prccee, Cologne, 1859, and Zvxi Fragments dee hsuLigea Makmsue, Bonn, 1888. Consult: J. $toffela, Die mystische Theo7opie Makariue des Aepypters and die tUteeten Anstuu cAristtacher Myatik, Bonn, 1908; B. Lindner, 3ymbolm hiatoria! theoloyicon mystics': de Macario, Leipaia, 1848; T. Forster, in Jahrbidcher f4r deutsche Tluolopie, 1873. pp. 439‑591; R. Lobe, in Kirchliclus Jahrbuch J4r .Sacht. Alkaburp, 1900. PP. 37‑38.
2. The i2egula mottaetica ascribed to Macariue, a homily, and three apothegxne ass in A. Gsllsndi, Bibliof7teca veterum patream, vol. vii, 14 vole., Venice, 1785‑81 Consult: Floss, ut sup.; O. Zbekler, Askaea and MOnehtum, pp. 228‑227, 247, 335, 375, Frankfort, 1897; O. Batdenhewer, Patrolopie, pp. 232‑233, Freiburg, 1901.
3. C. Blondel, Macarii Magnetic qua tuperseant, Paris, 1878; L. $ehalkhausser, Zu den 3clariJten du Moaarius .Von Magnesia, in TU, 1907: L. Duchesne, De Macario Magnets, Paris, 1877; W. Moller, in TLZ, 1877, no. 19; T. Zahn, in ZK(J, iii. 450‑459; C. J. Naumann, 3criPtorum Gr‑orum . . . quo auperauat, faeo. iii., Lefpeio, 1880; O. Bardenhewer, ut sup., pp. 331332.
MACARTHUR, JAMES: Church of England, bishop of Southampton; b. at Dawaholme, Dumbartonshire, June 6, 1848. He was educated at the University of Glasgow (M.A., 1868), and after being called to the Scottish Bar in 1871 and to the Inner Temple in 1874, entered Cuddesdon Theological College, where he studied in 1877‑78, being ordered deacon in 1878 and ordained priest in the following year. He was successively curate of St. Mary's, Redcliff, Bristol, in 187880, rector of Lamplugh, Cumberland, in 1880,87, and vicar of St. Mary's, Tothill Fields, Westminster, in 1887‑92 and of All Saints', South Acton, Middlesex, in 18921893. He was also rural dean of Ealing in 18941898, sad in the latter year was consecrated bishop of Bombay, a diocese which he retained until 1903. He was acting metropolitan of India in 1902, and in the following year was translated to his present see of Southampton (suffragan to the bishop of Winchester). In addition to charges, addresses, and sermons, he has written Christianity and ht. dian Nationality (London, 1903).
MACARTHUR, ROBERT STUART: Baptist; b. at Dalesville, P. Q., July 31, 1841. He was educated at the University of Rochester (A.B., 1867)
17e had no friends to help him lead an honest life, .
and relapsed into his old ways. In 1872 he found Christian friends who assisted him, and in October of that year he.opened at 318 Water Street a " Helping Hand for Men," where he did a great amount of good and saved many a man from evil courses. 1n 1878 the old building was replaced by a better one, and the mission was incorporated as the MoAuley Water Street Mission. In 1882 he began another mission on Thirty‑second Street, near Sixth Avenue, where he labored until his death. Himself an ex‑convict, he knew the hardships and temptations of such men and therefore could aid and save them far better than many a man who had not had his experience.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: R.. M. OHord, Jerry McAuley, his Life and Work, New York, 1885; H. Campbell, The Problem of the Poor; Record of quiet Work in unquiet Places, ib. 1882; Jerry McAuley, an Apostle to the Lost, 5th ed., ib., 1908 (by a number of writers).
McBEE, SILAS: Protestant Episcopal layman; b. at Lincolnton, N. C., Nov. 14, 1853. He was educated at the University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn., from which he was graduated in 1878. Since 1898 he has been editor of The Churchman (New York). He is a member of the board of managers of the Prayer Book Society in America, and in theology describes himself as " a Catholic (iii its real and not sectarian sense) Churchman."
MACBRIDE, JOHN DAVID: English Orientalist; b. at Plympton (5 m. n.n.e. of Plymouth), Devonshire, June 28, 1778; d. at Oxford Jan. 24, 1868. He studied at Exeter College, Oxford (B.A., 1?99; M.A., 1802), where he received a fellowship in 1800. In 1813 he was appointed principal of Magdalen Hall and lord almoner's reader in Arabic. These positions he held till his death. Though he was a layman, he frequently lectured on theology. His principal work was The Mohammedan Religion Explained (London, 1857). He also published Leotares Explanatory of the Diatessaron (2 vole., Oxford, 1835); Diatessaron, or the History of our Lord Jesus Christ compiled from the Four Gospels (1837); Lectures on the Articles of the United Church of England and Ireland (1853); The Syrian Church in India (1858); and Lectures on the Acts of the Apostlea and on the Epistles (1858).