Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house



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parts. Luxemburg, 1888‑87; F.

Bonnardot, Let Archiroea de 1'itat do Luxemburg, ib. 1890; T. H. Pesamore, In Further Ardenne, Loon, 1908.

LUZ: The name of two cities. (1) The early Canaanitic name for Bethel (Gen. aaviii. 19, agav. 8; Josh. xviii. 13; but cf. Josh. zvi. 2). (2) A city founded, according to Judges i. 28, in " the land of the Hittites " by the survivors of the ancient city when it was taken by the Hebrews. The 1o­ration is unknown.


LYCAOIYIA, lic"a‑8'nf‑a: A region of Asia Minor mentioned in the Bible only in Acts aiv. in con­nection with the journeys of Paul. Normally bounded north by Galatia, east by Cappadocia, south by Cilicia, and west by Phrygia, its boun­daries fluctuated greatly during the Roman period, its territories being in part included within those of the neighboring provinces. See Acts Mtrtolt IN THz APOSTOLIC TIME, VII.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: w. M. Ramsay. Historical Geography of Asia Miner, passim, London. 1890; idem, The Church in the Roman Empire. pp. 4$ eqq. et peesim, New York, 1893: idem, St. Paid the Traveller and the Roman Citisrn, pp. 110‑111, ib. 1898.

LYCIA. See ASIA MINOR, VIII.


LYDDA, LOD: A city of Ephraim, situated in the plain of Sharon, 10 m. se. of Joppa on the road to Jerusalem, identified with the Arab village of Ludd. It is mentioned in the Old Testament as Lod in I Churn. viii. 12; Ezra ii. 33; Neh. vii. 37, xi. 35, and as Lydda in I Maw. xi. 34. In the New Testament it appears only Acts ix. 32‑38 as






9?


RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA


visited by Peter, who healed there the paralytic Eneas. After the fall of Jerusalem it was famous as a seat of rabbinic learning, Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Akiba being reckoned among its scholars. In the second century its name was changed to Dioapolis, though the older name persisted. In the third century it became the seat of a bishop, but the bishopric seems to have lapsed in the math century. Legend makes it the birthplace of St. George, whose head is said to have been buried there, and a church, built on the spot, was des­troyed by the Mohammedans, rebuilt by the Cru­saders, and again destroyed by Saladin in 1191.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. A. Smith, Historical Geography of as Holy Land, pp. 180 eqq.. London, 1897; Robinson, Re­searches, ii. 244‑248; $ehOrer, aeeehichte, i. 184‑186, ii. 181‑188 et passim. Eng. transl., L, i. 190, 191, 245‑248, IL, i. 157‑159 et passim.

LYDIUS, lid'i‑as: The name of a Dutch family which produced several Reformed theologians in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

1. Martin Lydius : Professor of theology at Franeker; b. at Lubeck (to which his parents had fled from Deventer, seeking refuge from the Span­iards) in 1539 or 1540; d. at Franeker June 27, 1601. About 1560 he entered the University of Tiibingen, but in 1565 migrated to Heidelberg, where he became a teacher in the Collegium Sapi­entiae in 1566 or 1567. On the death of the Elec­tor Frederick III. (1576), Lydius, after a brief resi­dence in Frankfort, became a pastor in Antwerp, whence he was called in 1579 to Amsterdam. In 1585 he accepted a call to the newly founded Uni­versity of Franeker and became its first rector in 1586. He sought to avoid religious controversy, yet his part in the struggle between the infralap­sariana and the supralapsariana led him to contrib­ute toward the rise of Arminianiam, for when, in 1589, an infralapsarian treatise was submitted to him for his opinion, he referred it to the young Amsterdam Preacher Jacobus Arminius (q.v.). The result for Arminius was a complete reversal of his views on predestination. When, however, Armin­ius was accused of Pelagianism in 1592, Lydius sought to mediate in the controversy. Besides letters to Beza, Ursinua, Arminius, Lipsius, Joseph Scaliger, J. G. Vosaiua, and others, also several ora­tions and poems, he wrote Apologia pro Erasmo (edited by his son and included in the Leyden edition of Erasmus, x. 1759‑80), but no theological works,

2. Balthasar Lydius: Elder son of Martin Lyd­ius; b. at Umatadt (a suburb of Darmstadt) in 1576 or 1577; d. at Dort Jan. 20, 1629. Edu­cated at Leyden, he was chosen assistant pastor at Dort in 1602, and became full pastor in 1604, re­taining this positidn until his death. Though irenic in temperament like his father, he became a bitter opponent of the Remonatranta, especially at the Synod of Dort, which he both opened (Nov. 13, 1618) and closed (May 29, 1619), and of whose pro­tocol he was one of the editors. He made a repu­tation by his Waldensia, id est ognstwm vcclesice (2 vole., Rotterdam and Dort, 1616‑17), which, however, though still of value, is both in‑ i complete and incorrect, and is little more than a collection of documents on the Taborites and Bo­VIL‑7


Lutz

Lydius


hemian Brethren. He also wrote, among other works, Dry historiache Tradaetgerea (Amsterdam, 1610), on the Church from the apostles to the Ref­ormation, on the various names of the Waldenses, and on the faith of the Waldenses. As an arche­ologist he wrote Super loco Mosis de cruentato aportaarum linteo et aliis virginitatis aignia and De Lyncuro lapide (nos. 5 and 16 of J. Beverwyck's Epistolicee qumationes cum doctorum responaia, Rot­terdam, 1644), and assisted in the preparation of Mellinus' Groot‑Martelaarsboek (Dort, 1619).

3, Johannes Lydius: Younger son of Martin Lydius; b. at Frankfort in 1577; d. at Cnldewater (12 m. s.w. of Utrecht) in 1643, where he had been pastor since 1602, after a year's pastorate at Aar­la,nderveen. Like his brother, he was an oppo­nent of Arminianiam, but his literary activity was restricted to editing G. du Pr6au's Narratio con.. ciliorum omnium ecclesim Chrestianee (Leyden, 1610); R. Barnes' and J. Balsa' Vitce Pontifictcm (1610); and the works of Nicholas de Cl6manges (2 vole., 1613) and J. Wessel (1617).

4. Jacob Lydius: Third son of Baltha,sar Lyd­ius; b. at Dort about 1610; d. there in 1679. Ed­ucated at Leyden, he was pastor at Bleskensgraaf from 1633 to 1637, after which he was pastor at Dort until his death, except in 1643‑45, when he was chaplain of the English embassy of the States General. This period resulted in his Hiatorie der beroerten van Enyelandt, aangaende de veelderley secten, die aldaer in de Kercke Jesu Christi zijn ont­staen (Dort, 1647). His exegetical learning was evinced by his Flom‑ aparsio ad hiatoriam pa, sionia Jesu Christi (Dort, 1672), and his patristic studies by his Agonistica sacra, sine ayntagma vacum et phrasium agonisticarum qua in sancta Scriptura, imprimis vero in epiatolis sancti Pauli apostoli, oc­currunt (Rotterdam, 1657). High praise was given his Cmyla dominica litteratorum (Dort, 1669). S. van Til edited his posthumous Syntagma sacrum de re malitari, nee non. de iureiurando (1698). As a poet he wrote Vrolieke wren des doodle oJte der tvijaen vermaek (Dort, 1640), while his Belgicum gloriosum (1668; Dutch transl. by himself, 1668) was an os­tensible ground for the declaration of war against Holland by Charles II. in 1672. His greatest fame, however, was gained by his anonymous Den Room­schen Uylen^apiegel (Amsterdam, 1671), a savage but witty satire on the Roman Catholic Chunk, In the ensuing controversy between him and the Jesuit Cornelis Hazart of Antwerp, he wrote, be­sides other polemics, Anttverpschen uyl in doodanoot (1671); Het overlijdxn van, den Antyerp8chen uyl (1671); Ladst olyasel van den A.ntwerpseherl uyl in doodtareoot; and the posthumous Laetsten duywls. dreck, oJte ongehoorde grouwelen van paepsche leeraera sneer eeutve (port, 1687), all works of importance for a knowledge of the relations between the Re­formed and the, Roman Catholics in Holland in the seventeenth century. (S. D. Very Vieps.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. L. Vriemoet, At3enaru,n Frieiaonrum libri. PP 20‑2H Leeuwarden. 1758: G. D. J. 8chotel,

ICerkelijk Dordrechl, i. 257_284 391‑423 Ut,e~t, 1841;

s. Giaeiue, aodyeleerd Nederland, ii. 4i4‑421. a .•ole.,

e Hertogenboseh.1851‑58; H. C. Rogge. in Kalender „earl

Protutaaten in Nederland, j1857 pp. 228 eqq.: C. BepP. Hd

aadyelepdondaryis ixNdaland i.126‑135, Leydea, 1873.




LYNCH, THOMAS TOSS: English Independent;

b. at Dunmow (32 m. n.e. of London), Ewes, July

5, 1818; d. in London May 9, 1871. He was edu­

cated at Islington, London, and attended High­

bury College for a short time. He was pastor of

the Independent Church at Highgate (1847‑49);

of a church in Mortimer Streets which afterward

moved to Grafton Street (1849‑52); and of one in

Gower Street, afterward Mornington Church (1860­

1871). Lynch had little success as a preacher, but

as a hymn‑writer he obtained great celebrity. His

hymns, however, have been considered to betray

too ardent a love of nature to be entirely suited to

use in Christian worship. The beat‑known is " Gra­

cious Spirit, dwell with me." He first came into

prominence through the publication of The Rivu­



let: a Corttn'btttion to Sacred Song (London, 1855),

which gave rise at the time to a fierce controversy

because of the charge that it was pantheistic in

tone. His chief opponents were James Grant and

Dr. John Campbell; his chief supporters, Newman

Hall and Thomas Binney. Lynch was his own beat

defender, writing under the nom de plume of "Silent

Long." Among his other writings are Memorials



of Theophilus Trinal (largely autobiographical,

1850); Essays on some of the forma of Literature

(1853); Lectures in Aid of Self‑Improvement Improvement (1854);

The Mornington Lecture (1870); and Sermons for

my Curates (1871).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: His Memoirs, ed. W. White, appeared Lon­don, 1874, and a small Critical and Descriptive Notice of

. T. T. Lynch was published London, 1874. Con­sult: 6. W. Duffield, English Hymns, p.191, New York, 1886; Julian, Hymnology, pp. 70b‑708; DNB, zasv. 338‑339.
LYIYE, JOSEPH LEYCESTER (called Father Ignatius): Anglican monk: b. in London Nov. 23, 1837; d. at Camberley (31 m. s.w. of London) Oct. 16, 1908. He was educated at Trinity College, Glenalmond, and was ordered deacon in 1860. He was then curate of St. Peter's, Plymouth, in 1880‑62, and in 18623 was St. George's missioner under Father Lowder. In 1863 he entered upon the mo­nastic life, and resided successively in the monas­teries at Claydon (Suffolk), Norwich, and Laleham (Chertsey), for seven years. In 1870 he purchased an estate near Abergavenny, Monmouthshire, where he established Llanthony Abbey, of which he was chosen superior. In this abbey he introduced the Benedictine rule and the Scrum Missal. Refusing to leave off the monastic habit even while being ordained to the priesthood, he remained a deacon until 1898, when he accepted advancement from the schismatic Bishop Villatte. Later recognizing the error of his action, which was commonly considered a desertion of Anglican orders, he did not attempt to exercise the priestly office, but remained in simple lay communion with the Church of England. He was particularly successful as a miesioner, and in 1890‑91 visited the United States and Canada in this capacity. In later years, however, he declined to preach in churches on account of his firm opposi­tion to rationalism and higher criticism, he him­self being a vigorous champion of orthodoxy. In addition to many sermons and pamphlets in de­fense of his position, in which he was frequently assailed, he wrote All for Jesus (London, 1867);


THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG


Lynch

yte


The Holy Isle: a Legend of Bardaey Abbey (1870); Leonard Morns, or, The Benedictine Novice (1870); Brother Placidus, and why he became a Monk: A Tale for the young Men of the Times (Brighton, 1870); Our Glorious Reformation (London, 1884); and Mission Sermons and Orations (1887).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Father Michael, O. 9. B., Father Ignatius do America, London, 1893; Baroness de Bertouch, Life of Father Ignatius, O. S. B., Monk of Llantlwny, ib. 1904.


LYON, DAVID GORDON: Baptist; b. at Ben­ton, Ala., May 24, 1852. He was educated at Howard College, Marion, Ala. (A.B., 1875), South­ern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, By. (1876‑79), and the University of Leipaic (Ph.D., 1882). Since 1882 he has been Hollis professor of divinity in Harvard University, and has also been curator of the Harvard Semitic Museum since its foundation in 1890. In 1906‑07 he was director of the American School for Oriental Study and Research in Palestine. In theology he is a pro­gressive conservative. Besides a number of briefer contributions, he has written Die Keilachrif ttezte Sargon'a, Konigs von Asayrien (722‑706 v. Chr.), reach den Originalert neu heratcagegeben, itberaetzt and erklart (Leipsic, 1883) and An Assyrian Manual for the Use of Beginners in the Study of the‑Assyrian Language (Chicago, 1886).
LYON, MARY: American educator; b. at Buckland, Maw., Feb. 28, 1797; d. at South Had­ley, Mass., Mar. 5, 1849. She was educated at several academies, notably at Ashfield and Byfield, and later at Amherst College. She taught at the Adams Female Seminary at Londonderry, N. H. (1824‑28), and at Miss Grant's school in Ipswich (1828‑34). In 1834 she left teaching to raise funds for building a female academy, which was finally opined at South Hadley on Nov. 8, 1837. Of this school, called the Mount Holyoke Seminary (now College), she was principal until her death. Under her care the school was, as it still is, a nursery of missionaries and it still keeps its reputation for piety and efficiency.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Hitchcock, Power of Christian Benevo­lanes Illustrated in the Life and Labors of Mary Lyon, Northampton, 1851, new ed., New York, 1855; F. Fieke, Recollections of Mary Lyon, Boston, 1888; Mary Lyon, in Old South Leafiela, no. 145, ib. 1904.


LYONS, ARCHBISHOPRIC OF: An ancient metropolitan see in France. The town, which be­came a Roman colony in 43 B.c., acquired consid­erable importance under the Empire; in it Atlgus­tue spent three years; here Claudius was born; and when the town was rebuilt after a conflagration, Nero gave it precedence over all the other Roman towns of Gaul. Christianity was probably intro­duced within the first century. As at Marseilles, the earliest Christians were of Greek origin. The first bishop is supposed to have been Pothinus or Photinus, sent by Polycarp from Smyrna between 140 and 150. With many of his flock, he suffered martyrdom in 177, and was succeeded by Irenaeus (q.v.). A long line of devoted bishops followed. Lupus (d. c. 542) is usually reckoned as the first archbishop, with four auffragan sees, Autun, Lan­gres, Macon, and Chfllons‑to which in the middle



RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA




of the eighteenth century were added the newly founded sees of Dijon and Saint‑Claude. After the Revolution Chblona and Macon were suppressed, and Grenoble was taken from the province of Vienna, which metropolitan see was then united with Lyons. After the surrounding territory be­came part of the Frankish kingdom in 532, the temporal sovereignty of Lyons was exercised by the archbishops, and this continued practically the case while it was nominally a part of the Empire, from 1032 to 1312. Philip the Fair erected a county of Lyons, but left it attached to the archi­episcopal see; the secular jurisdiction was not as­sumed by the king until 1583.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The occupants of the see are given in order in Gams, Series e7riacoporum, pp. bf19‑572, supplement, p: 38. Consult: J. Perrier, Hist, des archeveaues de Lyon, Lone‑le‑saunier, 1887; Cartulaire des fiefs do Z'6pliaa de Lyon, i173‑161, Lyons, 1893; J. B. Martin, OMtuaira de l'bpLiae primatiale de Lyon, ib. 1902; idem, Concika et bul­laire du dioe2ae de Lyon, des oripirua h . . . 1312, ib. 190b; Martyrolope de la saints 9DZiae de Lyon, Paris, 1902.


LYONS, COUNCILS OF. For the council of 1245, see INNOCENT IV.; for that of 1274, see GREGORY X.


LYRA, li"ra', RICOLAUS DE (IYICOLAUS LY­RAMUS) : French exegete; b. at Lyre (a small village in the diocese of Evreux) c. 1270; d. at Paris Oct. 23, 1340. In 1292 he entered the Fran­ciscan order at Verneuil, and later went to Paris, where he spent the remainder of his life as a teacher at the Sorbonne. Them are the only certain de­tails of his life, and are given on his epitaph in the Minorite monastery at Paris. Other sources, how­ever, add that in 1325 he was appointed provin­cial of his order for Burgundy according to the pro­visions of the will of Jeanne, queen of Philip the Tall. The statement that he taught in Oxford is baseless, as is the tradition that he was of Jewish descent. He doubtless acquired his knowledge of Hebrew in Paris, where oriental studies in the in­terest of polemics against Judaism and Moham­medaniam were not unknown. Immediately after entering the monastery he began his commentary on the Bible; in 1322 he was working on Genesis, and in 1326 on Isaiah. The work reached a tem­porary conclusion in 1330, but was not published until after his death, when it received additions from other hands, particularly the prefaces to the individual books and the general introduction De lilmis carwrticis et ‑on canonicis. His Postilla; in­clude fifty books of running commentary on the entire Bible, including the Apocrypha, which, how­ever, are treated as non‑canonical. Then follow thirty‑five books of moralia, and the whole 1s preceded by three prologues. The first of these is a conventional eulogy of the Scriptures and a recommendation of their study. The second is de­voted to method and is based on the theory of the double meaning of the text, one literal and the other mystical. The third prologue develops the mystical meaning in three categories and the whole is summed up in the passage:

•' The fact dwells in literal meaning. allegorical is thy belief:

tell. The moral defuuth thins lotions, thins end anagogo doth


The characteristic feature of Nicolsus is his so­

briety as an exegete and his ability to restrict him­

self to the literal sense of the Bible, avoiding the

peril of allegorical interpretation as well as mystic

and dogmatic excursus. It is.noteworthy in this

connection that the Jewish exegete whom he al­

most transcribed was Rashi, who had introduced

an anti‑allegorizing epoch into Jewish hermeneu­

tics. Of Greek Nicolaus shows little knowledge,

but he had a source for Aramaic and Arabic in the

Pttgio f dei of Raymond Martin. In addition to

the Church Fathers, he made much use of Thomas

Aquinas. His Poatilla; enjoyed extraordinary pop­

ularity in the Middle Ages, and were repeatedly

edited, generally with the adverse criticisms of

Paul of Burgos and the rejoinders of Mattheeus

D6ring, a German Minorite. Luther in his inter­

pretation of Genesis consulted Nicolaus in almost

every sentence and owed to him his rabbinical

knowledge, while Melanchthon, Urbanus Rhegius,

and other Reformers were also acquainted with his

work. From this feet originated the well‑known

doggerel of Peter of Pflug, Si Lyre neon Zyrasset,

Ltctherus port saltaaset, or, according to another ver­

sion, Si Lyra non lyrasaet, memo doetorum in Bi6­

liam saltasaet, "If Lyra had not played the lyre,

Luther (or, those learned in the Bible) would not

have danced." The remaining works of Lyra are of

little interest. He proved his right to be considered a

scholastic by his commentaries on Peter Lombard

and the Qtcoand wrote three books against

the Jews. His alleged authorship of the treatises De



idoneo rninistrante. and Corttemplatio de vita et gestis

aartcti FrarEC7;sci is doubtful. (R. SCHMID.)


BIHLIOaRAPHY: For a bibliography of the early editions consult J. Le Long, Bibliotheca saga, ed. A. G. Meath, IL, iii. 359 eqq., and cf. J. F. T. Graesaa, TrEeora des liurea rarea et prbcaeux, 8 vole., Dresden, 18b9‑89. Consult: s. Davidson, sacr«t Hermeneutica, Edinburgh, 1843;

Siegfried, in Archiro Ji1r Erjorechunp des A. T., vol. i., 1887; idem in ZWT 1894 L. Diestel, Ouchichte du A. T. in

der chriatlichen Kirc7u, pp. 195 eqq., Jena, 1888: F. w. Farrar, Hilt. of Irterpretatioa, pp. 27¢278, New York,

1888; Masehkowalci, in ZATW, 1891.




LYSANIAS. See ABILENE.


LYTE, HENRY FRANCIS: British hymn‑writer; b. at Ednam (3 m. n.n.e. of Kelso), Roxburgh­ahire, Scotland, June 1, 1793; d. at Nice, France, Nov. 20, 1847. He was educated in Ireland, first at the royal school of Enniskillen, then at Trinity College, Dublin, where he was gradu­ated in 1814. He took orders in 1815, and, after holding curacies at Taghmon (near Wexford), Marzion (Cornwall), and Lymington (Hampshire)

entered upon the pepetj]al CUpQey ef Lower Bri."_


ham, Devonshire, in 1823. This appointment he

held till his death. Lyte's hyenas were published

and partly in Poems, chiefly Iteligiotsls (London, 1833),

partly in The Spirit of the Paalrny (1834).

Many of them are in common use. His " Abide

with me, fast falls the eventide " is generally re­

garded as one of the few fine hymns in the lan­

guage. Other well‑known hymns by Lyte are,

heavenly courts above," "Far from my

» tc


Y home ,

God of mercy, God of grace,'.

" Praise, my soul the 8 ing of heaven," and `° Jesus,



L~yttelton

oAll Xieaion THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 100


I my cross have taken." Lyte also published Tales in Verse (London, 1826), and an appreciative Memoir of Henry Vaughan, prefixed to Vaughan's Sacred Poems (London, 1847). His daughter edited his Remains (1850), which consists of poems, ser­mons, and letters. The poems in this volume were reprinted in Lyte's Miscellaneous Poems (1868).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Besides the Memoir in the Remains, con­sult: J. Miller, Singers and Songs of the Church, pp. 431­433, London, 1889; Julian, Hymnology, pp. 708‑707.


LYTTELTON, GEORGE, first .BAROft LYTTEL­TON: English author and statesman; b. at Hagley (6 m. n.e. of Kidderminster), Worcester­shire, Jan. 17, 1709; d. there Aug. 22, 1773. He studied at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, but took no degree. He entered parliament in 1735 as member for Okehampton, Devonshire, and con­tinued to represent this borough till 1756, when he was elevated to the peerage. He was lord com­missioner of the treasury 1744‑54, and chancellor of the exchequer 175rr56. Though he was a good debater, he became prominent in parliament chiefly because of his influential political connection. With Lord Cobham, his uncle, William Pitt, a relation by affinity, and the Grenvilles, his first cousins, Lyttelton formed the powerful political clique


MAAS, Inds, ANTHONY JOHN: American Jesuit; b. at Bainkhausen, a village of Westphalia, Germany, Aug. 23, 1858. He was educated at the gymnasium of Arnsberg from 1874 to 1877, when lie entered the Society of Jesus. He then left Ger­many for the United States, and after studying at Manresa, N. Y., from 1877 to 1880, studied phi­losophy at Woodstock College, Woodstock, Md., until 1883. He was then professor of classics at Frederick, Md., for a year, after which he returned to Woodstock and studied theology until 1888. Except for the year 1893‑94, spent in ~Manresa, Spain, he bas been connected with Woodstock College since 1885, where he has been professor of Hebrew since 1885, librarian since 1888, professor of Scripture since 1891, prefect of studies since 1897 and president since 1907. In addition to nu­merous minor contributions, he has written: Life of Jesus Christ according to the Gospel History (St. Louis, 1891); Day in the Temple (ib., 1892); Christ in Type and Prophecy (2 vole., New York, 1893‑96); and Commentary on the Gospel of St. Matthew (Bos­ton, 1898), and has prepared the fourth edition of Z. Zitelli Natali's Enchiridio7z ad sacrarum diaciPli­rtarum cultores occomodtttum (Baltimore, 1892).
MABILLON, and"bi"ly8n, JEAN: French Roman Catholic; b. at St. Pierremont in Champagne Nov. 23, 1632; d. in Paris Dec. 27, 1707. He entered the Congregation of St. Maur in 1853, and was pro­fessed in the following year. After some years spent in different houses of the order, he was at Saint‑Denis in 1663, and the neat year at the ab‑


known at first as the " Cobhamitea," then, after Lord Cobham's death, as the " Grenville Cousins." He was a liberal patron of literature and enjoyed the friendship of Pope, Thomson, Shenstone, Field­ing, and others. His principal works are, Obser­vations on .the Conversion and Apostleship of St. Paul (London, 1747; new ed., 1879), which Dr. Johnson characterized as " a treatise to which in­fidelity bas never bin able to fabricate a special answer "; Dialogues of the Dead (1760; 4th ed., enlarged, 1765; new ed., 1889); and The History of the Life of Henry 11. (4 vole., .1767; 3d ed., 6 vole., 1769‑73), a work of much careful research, which bas, however, been superseded. His verse, which is inferior to his prose, was chiefly included in Poems (Glasgow, 1773), and,in his Poetical Works (London, 1785). His nephew, G. E. Ayscough, col­lected his Works (London, 1774; 3d. ed., 3 vole., 1776), including both verse and prose. Sir Robert Phillimore edited his Memoirs and Correspondence (2 vole., 1845).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: An excellent list of authorities is given at the end of the sketch in DNB xxxiv. 389‑374, sad a Life is found in A. Chalmers, Works o,/ the English Poets, vol. ziv., London, 1810. Consult also: E. 8. Creaey, Memoirs of Celebrated Etoniane, ib. 1878; and the works on the history of the times. ,




hey of Saint‑Germain‑des‑Pros in Paris, the literary headquarters of the congregation, where he as­sisted D'Achery (see AcHERT, JEAN LUC D') in the compilation of the last six volumes of the Spicile­gium. In 1667 appeared two folio volumes of the works of St. Bernard,. edited from the oldest and best manuscripts, the beginning and the model of the editions of the Fathers which the congregation was to issue thenceforth in rapid succession. Mabil­lon's moat important life‑work, however, was the history of the Benedictine order, for which D'Achery had collected a mesa of materials. In 1668 appeared the first volume of the Acta eanctorum ordinia sancti Benedidi, relating to the sixth century. After thirty­four years of work, nine folio volumes bad appeared, bringing the work down to 1100, and the material for a tenth was in shape. On this foundation Ma­billon began to work at his most mature production, the Annales ordinia sandi Benedidi, (6 vole., Paris, 1703‑39), of which four volumes had been pub­lished before his death; the fifth was published by R. Maasuet (1713), and the sixth, to the year 1137, by E. Martkne (1739). He won perhaps even greater fame in another department of scholarship, owing to a controversy with the Jesuits, brought on by a dissertation of the Bollandist Papebroch in the second volume of the Acts sarectorum for April (1675). Papebroch set down most of the early documents conveying monastic privileges, and especially the Merovingian archives of Saint­Denie, as forgeries. The Benedictines, in whose possession most of these were, regarded this se an attack on themselves, and Mabillon answered it in






RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA


his De re diplomatica (1681), which is still a classic in this department, and as to Merovingian paleog­raphy has never been surpassed. In 1682 Colbert, to whom it was dedicated, sent Mabillon to Bur­gundy to make a study of the archives there which concerned the royal house; and he made further journeys of the ,sort, to Germany in 1683, to Italy in 168b‑86, publishing some of his results in the Velera analeda (4 vole., 1675,85) and in Mtcaesum Italicum (2 vole., Paris, 1687‑89). He took part in the controversy as to the authorship of the Imitatio Christi between the Benedictines and the Auguatinians (see KEMP1a, THOMAS a, IIL), in his Animadveraiones in vindicias KemPenaea (an answer to a book published by the Augustinian Teatelette) deciding for the mythical Italian Benedictine ab­bot John Gersen. Against the Trappist De Ranck (see TRerrlsTS), who had declared that scholar­ship was a hindrance to monastic perfection, Mar billon maintained, in his TrtaiM des etudes monas­tiques (1691) that learning was necessary to mo­nastic clergy and no violation of the rule of St. Benedict. Other important works of his are the De iiturgita Gallicarta (1685); the edifying little book La Mort eWtienne (1702), and the Disaerta­tio de prams euclutr<:atico, azyrrto et Jermentato (1674), the last of which is printed with other smaller trea­tises and a number of letters in the Ouvrages pos­thttmes de Mabillort et de Ruirtart (3 vole., Paris, 1724). Another portion of his extensive corre­spondence is contained in Valery's Correapondance inkdite de Malrillmt et de MmetJaucon aver 1'Italie (3 vole.; Paris, 1846); and a complete edition of his letters is in preparation. (G. LAQSMexrZt.)

BIHLIOaHAPHY: T. Ruinsrt, AbrEpE de la vie do . . . J. Matatlon, Paris, 1709; C. de Malan, Riot, de Mabillon et de la eonprEpation de 3t.‑Maur, ib. 1843; H. Jadart, Dons Joan itfabillon, Reims, 1879; E. de Brogue, Mabillon d la soedEtE de d'abbays de St.liermain‑das‑Prta, 2 vole., ib. 1888; 6. BLumer, J. Mabilton, Augsburg, 1892; Lichten­bereer, ESR, viii. b20‑b21.


WALL MISSION (Mission populaire 5vangelique): A French undenominational, evangelistic mission founded in Paris in 1872 by Robert Whitaker McAll (q.v.). The immediate impulse to this act was the remark of a French working man that the French common people, though opposed to an im­posed religion of forms and ceremonies, were ready to hear, if some one would teach them a religion of freedom and earnestness. The mission is ad­dressed, not to Roman Catholics, but to free‑think­ers, whether atheists or well disposed to religion, but it is conscientiously opposed to the Church of Rome. Some converts from Roman Catholicism have been made, but the majority of the converts are from the ever‑increasing clean in France which has broken with all religion.

The opening, Jan. 17, 1872, of a small shop as an evangelistic hall in Belleville, the communistic quarter of Paris; was the pioneer act of modern city missions in any country. French Protestant pastors and church officers welcomed it and freely lent their aid; the government, still guarding itself sedulously against the dangers inherent in meetings of working men, was quick to perceive that the Mission attx ouvriers, as it was at first called, tended




muu vv uauy uue genume‑

nessV of the fifty homilies ascribed to him. The ApoPhthegmata edited with the homilies may also be genuine, but the seven so‑called Opuscula dscetica edited under his name by P. Possinua (Paris, 1683) are merely later compilations from the homilies, made by Simeon the Logothete, who is probably identical with Simeon Metaphrastes (d. 950). Ma­carius likewise seems to have been the author, of several minor writings, including an EPistola ad filios Dei, and a number of other letters and prayers. The teachings of Macarius are characterized by a mystical and spiritual mode of thought which has endeared him to Christian mwt;,.„ r,f s» a,*oo




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