Loehe himself advised his friends to associate themselves with the Saxon Lutherans. Several conferences were held at St. Louie and Fort Wayne, and the parties united in the formation of the synod of Missouri in which the emissaries of Loehe outnumbered the " Saxons." Soon, however, serious differences arose between Loehe and the leaders of the Missouri Synod, particularly on the doctrines concerning the Church and the ministry. To avoid e threatening rupture Wyneken and Walther were sent to Germany to confer personally with Loehe, but no agreement was reached. Consequently the adherents of Loehe, G. M. Grossmann and J. Deindoerfer, to avoid friction with the Missouri Synod, went further west, to carry on the American Mission work of Loehe beyond the Mississippi. To‑ i gether with S. Fritschel and M. Schueller they founded the synod of Iowa at Dubuque, Ia., Aug. 24, 1854. This synod means to represent a strictly confessional yet ecumenical Lutheranism. Accepting the symbolical books without reservation it distinguishes between what is confessed in the symbols as a direct doctrine of faith, and what those standards contain in their exegetical, historical, and explanatory material. From the very beginning there was a conflict between the synods of Missouri and Iowa. No agreement was reached in the conference at Milwaukee, 1867. The points of difference are essentially the following: (1) Concerning the office of the ministry, Missouri holds that the spiritual priesthood of believers involves the ministry of the Word, while the congregation, possessing the priesthood and all ecclesiastical authority, transfers to the individual the authority of exercising the rights of the spiritual priesthood publicly, in behalf of the congregation. Iowa draws the distinction between the spiritual priesthood and the office of the Word as a special vocation, and holds that the Missouri doctrine on this particular point was not fixed in the confessions of the Church, and therefore, even if correct, should not divide the Church. (2) Concerning the authority of the confessions both agree that all dootrines of faith in the confessions are binding. But Iowa limits those doctrines to such articles as are taught ex professo, without accepting their theological exposition as binding in every case. (3) Concerning " open questions " Iowa teaches that there are points on which different opinions may be held without disturbing church fellowship, such as the doctrines concerning Antichrist and the conversion of Israel. Missouri at first maintained that nothing that was taught in the Scriptures could be considered an open question in this sense. But later on, when difficulties arose in the Missouri Synod itself concerning the subject of usury, it was publicly declared that there was, indeed, a difference between articles of faith and other Scripture doctrines which moat not necessarily be considered as such. (4) Concerning Antichrist and all eschatological doctrines Missouri insists that all prophecies of things preceding the last day are actually fulfilled, including the prophecy concerning Antichrist, whose fulfilment is found in the pope. Iowa, while admitting the antichristian character of popery, holds that it should not be condemned as
unlutheran to expect some future culmination of the prophecy concerning Antichrist in a person that is yet to appear. (5) Concerning chiliaam (see MILLENNIUM, MILLENAR.IANIaM) both agree t0 80cept the seventeenth article of the Augaburg Confession and reject any doctrine of the millennium which would rob the spiritual kingdom of Christ of its character as a kingdom of grace and of the cross. But the doctrine of a first resurrection, though not taught by the Iowa Synod as such, is not considered a fundamental error, as Missouri considers it. From the beginning there have been pleasant and kindly relations between the Iowa Synod and the General Council, though the former never entered into organic connection with the latter. At moat of the conventions of the General Council the Iowa Synod was represented by delegates. It took an active part in the preparation of the General Council's church‑book and uses it in all its congregations. The Iowa Synoli numbers 487 ministers, 927 congregations, 99,895 communicants, scattered over nineteen States and British Columbia. It has a theological seminary in Dubuque, Ia., with 4 teachers and 45 students.
In the year 1805 for the first time traveling preachers of the Pennsylvania Ministerium reached the State of Ohio, where they founded a conference in connection with the mother synod. The or‑
ganization of the synod dates from the
4. The year 1818 and its present name, Joint Joint9ynod Synod of Ohio, from the year 1833.
of Ohio. Though a number of ministers, like
Dr. Sihler and the missionaries sent by Loehe, lead left the synod because they were not satisfied with its confessional position, the synod developed more and more in a decidedly Lutheran direction and in 1847 adopted all the symbolical books as the basis of its confession. Conferences held between Missouri and Ohio led to a gradual approach between the two bodies, and in the year 1872 the Joint Synod of Ohio united with the Missouri Synod and other western bodies in the formation of the synodical conference. But the controversy on predestination led to the withdrawal of the synod of Ohio in 1881. There followed an approach between Ohio and Iowa which culminated in a mutual recognition. The synod at present numbers 556 ministers. 733 congregations, 110; 877 communicants. There are two theological seminaries, in Columbus and St. Paul, with 9 teachers and 101 students.
The Synodical Conference, at present the strongest in the Lutheran Church in America, was founded in the year 1872 on the basis of the Concordia of 1580. It embraced the following synods: Missouri, Ohio, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois, .Michigan, and the Norwegian Synod, and numbers at present
3,444 ministers, 3,101 congregations,
8. The and 643,599 communicants. The synod Synodical of Wisconsin was founded by Rev. J. Conference. Miih(hAuaer, formerly in Rochester,
N. Y., and afterward in Milwaukee (1848‑68). This synod at first belonged to the General Council, but left it in 1872 to join the synodical conference. It numbers 242 pastors, 350 congregations, 100,000 communicants, with a theo‑
91 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Lutherans
logical seminary at Wauwatosa, near Milwaukee (3 professors, 32 students). The synod of Minnesota was the fruit of the missionary labors of Father C. F. Heyer (1793‑1873), born at Hebnstiidt, Germany, for many years an active missionary among the Telugus in India, died as chaplain of the theological seminary in Philadelphia. The synod was founded in 1860 at West St. Paul. It numbers 86 pastors, 123 congregations, 35 685 communicants. In 1867 it joined the General Council but left it in 1871 and afterward connected itself with the synodical conference. The synod of Michigan was the outcome of the missionary labors of the Rev. F. Schmid, Ann Arbor, Mich. It was founded in 1860, joined the General Council in 1867, and afterward went over to the synodical conference, in which it is now represented by 14 pastors, 22 congregations, 4,225 communicants. These three synods, of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan united in the synod of the Northwest, in 1892, with their common seminary in Milwaukee. But the original Michigan Synod, dissatisfied with this step, left the synodical conference in 1896, and is, since that time, without connection with a general body. It numbers 37 pastors, 54 congregations, 7,933 communicants. Another, more serious rupture took place in the synodical conference in consequence of the predestinarian controversy. Since 1868 there has appeared, a tendency of the Missouri leaders to condemn as Pelagian and synergistic the so‑caned Intuitu,fidei. doctrine of the old Lutheran dogmaticiana, and to teach an absolute, unconditional, particular decree of God, by which a certain limited number of men were elected to salvation. Professor Asperheim, in the seminary of the Norwegian Synod, raised a voice of warning and was forced to resign his professorship and to leave his synod. Professor F. A. Schmidt, formerly one of the champions of Missouri, protested. against the teaching of Walther, the great leader of the Missouri Synod. The Professors of the Ohio synod sided with him. A colloquy, lasting five days, held in Milwaukee, had no favorable result, and in 1881 the Ohio Synod left the synodical conference. The Norwegian Synod to which Dr. F. A. Schmidt belonged was divided into two parties, and, in order to avoid a rupture in its own midst in 1884, it also left the synodical conference. ,
8. The Scandinavian Lutherans: About the middle of the.nineteenth century a new tide of Swedish immigration set in. Rev. Lars P. Esbjoern organized the first Lutheran congregations at Andover, Galesburg, Moline (Ill.), and New Sweden (Iowa). In 1851 he joined the synod of northern Illinois, belonging to the General Synod. Faithful pastors were called over from the
L. Clauasen, A. C. Preus, H. A. Preua, U. V. Koren,
J. A. Ottesen, and P. L. Larsen, in sympathy with
the Missouri Synod, in whose theological seminary
at St. Louis they were represented by professors of
their own (Larsen, Preus, F. A. Schmidt). After
ward the synod established its own seminary in
Madison, Wis. The Predestinarian controversy,
as above stated, led to the withdrawal of this Nor
wegian Synod from the synodical conference, and
finally to a separation in the synod itself (1887).
It numbers at present 350 pastors, 1,050 congrega
tions, 87,000 communicants with a theological sem
inary at St. Paul, Minn., and a college at Decorah,
Ia. (3) The initiative toward the founding of the
United Norwegian Lutheran Church in North
America was taken by the anti‑Missourian party
in the Norwegian Synod, who sought to unite the
Hauge Synod, the Norwegian AugUStana Synod,
and the Norwegian‑Danish Conference. The Hauge
Synod did not join in this movement, but the others
united in 1890 at Minneapolis. The united synod
numbers 480 pastors, 1,335 congregations, 154,055
communicants, with a theological seminary at St.
Paul, Minn., and colleges at Canton, S. D., Moor
head, Minn., and Northfield, Minn., and two or
phans' homes two deaconess motherhouses, and
seven hospitals. (4) The Norwegian Lutheran
Free Church was founded in 1893 by G. Sverdrup
and Sven Oftedahl, formerly members of the Nor
wegian‑Danish Conference, sad reports 148 pas‑
Lutherans THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 92
tore, 340 congregations, 42,738 communicants, with a theological seminary at Minneapolis, Minn., and a college, an orphans' home, and a deaconess mother‑house.
(1) The Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America, formerly the Church Mission Society, was founded in 1872, and numbers 61 pastors, 117 congregations, 11,737 communicants, with a theological seminary at Des Moines, 1&. (2) The United Danish Evangelical Lutheran
8. Other Church in America was founded in 6oandina‑ 1896 in Minneapolis, and has 106 pae‑
7. Lutherans is the South: Lutheran Congrogationa were first organized in the South at Woodstock, Winchester, and New Market, Va., Salisbury and Concord, N. C., Orangeburg, Lexington, Newberry, and Charleston, S. C., and in the Salzburg colonies of Georgia. At the time of the Civil War the Southern General Synod seceded from the General Synod, consisting of the synods of Virginia, Southwestern Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The Apostolic and Nicene Creeds, together with the Augsburg Confession, as setting forth the fundamental doctrines of the Word of God, constituted the confessional basis, with the distinct understanding that there should be liberty of private judgment with reference to some articles of the Auguatana. With the gradual development of a stricter confessional position this reservation disappeared. In 1886 a new general body was formed, called The United Synod in the South, accepting essentially the same doctrinal and confessional position as the General Council. It includes the following synods: North Carolina (organized 1803), Tennessee (1820), South Carolina (1824), Virginia (1829), Southwest Virginia (1842), Mississippi (1855), Georgia (1860), and the Holston Synod in Tennessee (1861). The United Synod numbers 235 pastors, 458 congregations, 47,514 communicants. It has s theological seminary at Mount Pleasant, Charleston, S. C., and colleges at Hic'.cory, N. C., and Newberry, S. C.
8. The General Council: The history of the origin of this body has been told in 4 above. Its first convention was held in Fort Wayne, Ind., Nov., 1867. Its doctrinal basis is stated in the fonder mental articles of faith and Church polity as follows: " We accept and acknowledge the doctrines of the unaltered Augsburg Confession in its original sense se throughout in conformity with the pure truth of
which God's Word is the only rule. The other Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, inasmuch as they set forth none other than its system of doctrine and articles of faith, are of necessity pure and Scriptural and are, with the unaltered Augsburg Confession, in the perfect harmony of one and the same Scriptural faith." At the first convention of the General Council the Joint Synod of Ohio, which had not adopted the constitution and was not ready to enter into organic union with the General Council, laid before that body four questions on its relation to chiliaem, altar and pulpit fellowship, and secret societies. Similar questions, except that on chiliasm, were also presented by the Iowa Synod. The discussion of these four points and the successive declarations on the same, at Pittsburg (1868), Lancaster, O. (1870), Akron, O. (1871), and Galesburg (1875), showed a steady growth in the fuller appreciation of the confessional principle underlying those points and a determination to carry the principle into practical execution. This position has been reached in spite of the hasty withdrawal of the very synods which from the beginning appeared as the champions of the confessional principle, viz., Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois, and Michigan. Much care was bestowed by the General Council on the production of sound books of worship for the use of its members in the family, the school, and the church. In this field it has been most successful. The German and English official literature published by authority of the General Council may justly be called a model of its kind. It is based upon the most careful and comprehensive studies in liturgies and hymnology, and in its preparation the best and most reliable sources have been used. It is pure in doctrine and complete in the material which it contains. More than any other Lutheran general body of this country the General Council represents the peculiar mixture, in the American Lutheran Church, of German, Scandinavian, and English‑speaking elements, and that critical period of transition from the church of the immigrant to that of the native English‑speaking American population. Its great task is to transfer into the sphere of the English tongue a genuine Lutheranism, sound in doctrine, government, and form of worship.
The Lutherans in the South initiated the important movement toward the Common Service for all English‑speaking Lutherans in the United States. The General Council, in 1878, declared itself ready to cooperate in this matter on condition that the pure Lutheran Agenda of the sixteenth century should be recognized as the norm and standard for this work. This rule having been adopted by the United Synod of the South and the General Synod, the work on the Common Service was actually begun in 1884 and the orders for the main service, matins, and vespers were finished in 1888 and adopted by the three general bodies and the English Synod of Missouri. The English version of the Augsburg Confession was revised on the basis of Taverner's translation of 1536, and a new trance lation of Luther's Small Catechism was prepared for all English‑speaking Lutherans.
by it. ADOLPH SPAETB.
The Lutheran Church, while largely augmenting its strength for many years by immigration, has not been indifferent to the demands of missionary effort in the United .States. As usual, this effort began in sporadic forms. As early as 1838 Rev. Ezra Keller, sent out by the Ministerium of Pennsylvania, had explored the territory now comprised in West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois, laying foundations for the present churches of that region. In 1837, Rev. Carl Friedrich Heyer reported to the General Synod that he had explored the entire Mississippi Valley and found places for, at least, fifty missionary pastors. But it was not until 1845 that the Home Missionary Society of the General Synod was organised. In the early fifties missionary aid was given to the
The Genera] Council, according to the latest statistics, embraces the following synods: The Minieterium of Pennsylvania (organised 1748), with 388 ministers. 554 congregations, 145,215 aommuniasnta; the Miniaterium of New York (1773), 150 ministers, 149 congregations, 86.000 communicants; Pittsburg Synod (184b), 138 ministers, 190 congregations, 31,392 communicants; English District, Synod of Ohio (1857), 49 ministers. 82 congregations. 14,245 communicants; Auguetana Synod, Swedish (1880), 574 minietere, 1,052 congregations, 154,390 Communicants; Canada Synod (1881), 38 ministers, 78 congregations, 12,098 communicants: Chicago Synod (1871), 40 ministers, 58 congregations, 5,981 communicants; English Synod of the North West (1891), 29 ministers. 34 congregatidne, 5,060 aommunicante; Manitoba Synod (1897), 18 ministers, 51 ooagtegatione, 4,000 communicants; Pacific Synod (1901), 13 ministers, 20 congregations, 1,313 communicants; New York and New England Synod (1902), 52 ministers, 56 congregations, 15,192 communicants; Nova Scotia Synod (1903), 8 ministers, 25 congregations, 2,545 communicants. Total: 1,497 ministers, 2,347 congregations, 458,429 communicants, with three theological seminaries, at Philadelphia, Rock Island, and Chicago, numbering lb professors and 183 students; 7 colleges with 127 teachers and 2,107 students; 8 academies with 49 teachers and 902 students; 3 deaconess institutions, 12 orphans' homes, 8 asylums for the aged and infirm, 5 seamen's missions.
In addition to the synods that have thus far been treated, the following independent synods are to be mentioned: The Texas Synod, consisting of those members of the original Texas Synod who refused to unite with the Iowa Synod in 1895, numbering 15 ministers, 23 congregations, 2,200 communicants. Immanuel Synod, German, organized 1886, numbering 17 pastors, 11 congregations, 3,250 communicants.
The grand total of the Lutheran Church in North America shows: 8,052 !ninistera, 13,142 congregar lions, 2,012,536 communicants, with 24 theological seminaries, 96 professors, and 1,137 students; 39 colleges with 433 teachers and 7,535 students, 49 orphans' homes, 24 homes and asylums for the aged, 28 hospitals, 9 deaconess motherhoueea. Of these there are in Canada 92,550 Lutherans (in Ontario 48,100, in Manitoba 16,550, in the Northwest Territories 12,100), where since 1891 they have increased 44.5 per cent.
The number of Lutherans in Central and South America is estimated at about half a million, in the Danish West Indies they are in connection with the State Church of Denmark, in South America they are partly supported by the Lutherische Gotteskasten in Germany, and partly under the supervision of the Prussian State Church and assisted
93 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Lnthm
Indians in Michigan, and to a number of missionary
points in Wisconsin and Canada. The New York
Minieterium sent strong help to the establishment
of the Mother Churches in Buffalo, Rochester, Utica,
Syracuse, Lyons, and others in that State. The
Ohio Synod was all missionary territory, and twenty
at the present time is receiving and expending for
home missions from three‑quarters of a million to a
million dollars a year. J. B. CrsRS.
BIHLIOGHAPH:: Some of the principal literature is named in the text; that sited under the articles in this work to which emu‑reference is made in the text is, much of it, pertinent, e.g., under AGENDA; AUGSBURG CONFERMN AND 118 APOLOGT: FOH1(DLA op WNOORD; LDTHEH; MELANCIiTHON; and PHnrrrrsTe; for bibliographies d. J. G. Morris, BiDliofhaca Lutherans, Philadelphia, 1878; H. E. Jacobs, in American Church History aeries, iv. pp. ix.‑xvi., New York, 1893. For statistics cf: Xirchdiches Jahrbuck (published at GOtereloh), the Lutheran Church Annual, and Lutheran Year Book (annual). On the doctrines, besides the work of Jacob on the Book of Concord, cf.‑. Schaff, Creeds, i. 220‑253, ii. I‑189; C. P. Hraut6, The Conservative Reformation and its Theology, Philadelphia, 1871; A. L. Richter, Die evanpeliechen Xirchenordnunpen den IB. Jahrhunderts, Leiyeie, 1871; idem, Lshrlrudv den . . . Xirehenrechfa, ib. 1874; $. A. HGhnan (ed.), Lectures on the Augsburg Confession, Philadelphia. 1888; H. Schmid, The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, 1889: The Distinctive Doctrines and Usage of the General Bodies of as Evangelical Lutheran Church in as United States, Philadelphia, 1893; $. Fritschel, Die UnferaeheidunpslaMen der Synaden van Iowa and Missouri, Waverly, 1893; The Lutheran Church, her Communion and her Service, Philadelphia, 1908 (two sermons given as authoritative expositions of the doctrinal standpoint); L. Criatisoi, Luther d Is lutheraniame, Paris. 1908.
For the history of Lutherans consult: Nachrichten van
den verain>oten dautechan ev: lufbaiuhen Gmraeindsn in Nord
Amerika, abeondsrtirh in Penruylroanien. MU einer Vor
rede van D. Johann Ludewiq Sc1W ss, 2 vole., Halle, 1760
1787, republication with notes begun by W. J. Mann, B.
M. $chmucker, and W. Germans, Allentown, Ps., 1888,
Eng. trans]. begun by C. W. Schaeffer, Part L, Reading,
Pa.. 1882 (left incomplete): E. L. Haseliue, History o,/'
as American Lutheran Church, 1886‑184.5, Zsneaville,
Ohio, 1848; P. A. Stroebel, History of Me Sa(z6wpera,
Baltimore, 188b: Clay, Annals of as Swedes on as Dela
ware, Philadelphia, 1858; D. H. Focht. The Churches Be
hoeen the Mountains, Baltimore, 1882; C. W. Schaeffer,
Early History of the Lutheran Church in America, Phila
delphia, 1888; W. B. Sprague, Annals of the American
Pulpit, vol. ix., New York, 1889; G. D. Bernhelm, His.
gory of Me German Settlements sect of as Lutheran Church
in North and South Carolina, Philadelphia, 1872; $ehir
mer, Historical Sketches of as Evangelical Lutheran synod
q/ South Carolina Charleston 1875; J. G. Morris, Fifty
Yore in as Lutheran Ministry, Baltimore, 1878; W. Sih
ler, LebenslauJ, $t. Louie, 1880 (autobiography); W. J.
Philadelphia, 1881: So6ierenbeok Lebsrubeuhr van lutkeriaehen Predipern in Ameriko, Selinsgrove, Ps., 1881‑83; Amerikaniselve Beleuehtunp,. Philadelphia 1882; C. Hoodetetter, GakhirAte der Missouri Synods. Dresden, 1886: A. Spaeth, The General Council, Philadelphia, 18Bb; idem. Chas. Porterfield XrautA, Memoir, V.I. i.. New York,
Luther's Two Catechisms THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 94
1898; idem, Dr. W. J. Mann, Bin deufaeh‑amer%kaniacher
Theolope, Reading, 1903; B. M. 8chmucker, The Organ
ization of the Congregation in the Early Lutheran Churches
in America. Philadelphia, 1887; Andersen, Den evanp.
lutherake Kirke's Hiatorie, New York, 1888; J. Nicmn.
Geachichte des Miniateriuma von New York, Reading, 1888;
F. C. Guenther, F. W. Walther, Lebenebild, 6t. Louie,
1890; 8. Henkel, Hiat, of the Evangelical Lutheran Ten
nessee Synod, New Market, 1890; D. L. Roth, Acadis and
the Acadiana, Philadelphia, 1890; H. E. Jacobs, The Lu
theran Movement in England and its Literary Monuments,
Philadelphia, 1890; idem, in American Church History
Series, vol. iv., New York, 1893, Germ. travel. with im
portant additions by G. Fritachel, Giiteraloh, 1898; E. J.
Wolf, The Lutherans in America, New York, 1889, the
same in German with important additions by J. Nicum,
New York, 1891; A. L. Graebner, Geachichte der lutheri
achen Kirche in America, 8t. Louie, 1892 (reaching to the
of Church History, New York, 1892; J. N. Lenker. Lu
therans in All Lands, Milwaukee, 1894; J. F. 6achee, The
German Pietiata of Provincial Pennsylvania, 188k‑1708,
Philadelphia, 1895; A. Spaeth, H. E. Jacoba; and G. F.
t3pieker, Documentary History of the Minieterium of Penn
sylvania, Containing the Proceedings of the Convention
17/,8‑18E1, New York, 1895‑1899; J. Deindorfer, Geschichte
der evangeliach‑luUvsriachen Synods Iowa, Chicago, 1897;
H. E. Jacobs and J. A. W. Haas, The Lutheran Cyclopedia.
New York, 1899; Proceedings of the First Free Lutheran
Diet, 1878, Proceedings of the Second Free Lutheran Diet,
1879, General Conference of Lutherans, ed. H. E. Jacobs,
Philadelphia, 1899; F. Nippold, Handbuch der neueaten
Kirchengeachichte, b vole., Berlin, 1901; G. H. Gerberding,
The Lutheran Pastor, Chicago, 1903; T, w3cchmauk, A His
tory of the Lutheran Church in Pennsylvania, IB38‑180,
vol. i.. Philadelphia. 1903. LUTHER'S TWO CATECHISMS: Even while a Roman Catholic priest, Luther had repeatedly treated in his sermons the main divisions of the catechism. Some of the sermons which he preached on the Commandments and the Lord's Prayer in 1516 and 1517 have been preserved. More important, however, as a preparation was his work in the confessional, where he learned to know the detrimental influence of the formal lists of sins which were considered useful, and to appreciate in contrast the unparalleled excellence of the ten commandments, of which, as well as of the Apostles' Creed and the Lord's Prayer, he early began to write short expositions: in 1518 Kurze Auslegteng der zehn Gebote Gottes, ihrer Erfullung and Uebertretung, in 1519 Kurze Ureterweisung wie man beiclaten soil, and in the same year several expositions of the Lord's Prayer and one on the Apostles' Creed; then in 1520 he combined these treatises under the title Kurze Form der zehn Gebote, des Glaubens, ties Vaterunaera. Here is found the first combined treatment of these three articles, and therefore the most important work of preparation for the catechisms. In 1522 Luther edited the Betbitehlein. All these writings were intended primarily to be used in preparation for confession, but he had the instruction of youth also in his mind.
When, after Luther's return from the Wartburg, Evangelical principles were introduced at Wittenberg, especial attention was paid to the religious instruction of children. In the spring of 1521 Johann Agricola was appointed catechist at the principal church, and gave regular instruction in religion to the children. The custom of preaching
"regular sermons on the catechism began about this time. After the abolition of compulsory confes‑
sion Luther announced in 1523 that every person intending to partake of the Lord's Supper should give notice to the pastor and submit to an examination. To facilitate the preparation for such an examination, he arranged short questions on the Lord's Supper; but soon he conceived the idea of writing a small book that should serve for the instruction of youth, form the basis for sermons on the catechism, and make possible a more comprehensive preparation for the Lord's Supper. The Kirtderfragen of the Bohemian Brethren, with which Luther became acquainted at least as early as 1523, may have suggested the idea of such a manual. Nicolaus Hausmann, preacher at Zwickau, to whom Luther announced his intention, confirmed him in it. In a letter to Hausmann (1525) Luther states that Jonas and Agricola had been commissioned to prepare a catechism; but their work does not seem to have progressed rapidly, and when Agricola removed to Eisleben, Luther himself took charge of the matter. Before it was finished, there appeared in 1525 a book in Low German entitled Eyn Bokeachen vor de leyen trade kinder, which in the same year was translated into High German. It is not known to what extent Luther was concerned in the publication of this book, but there is no doubt that it originated under his influence, since it appeared at a time when he had already conceived the idea of adding the two sacraments to the original three articles discussed in his Kurze Form of 1520. In 1526 Luther seems to have already sanctioned its official use in the Church. As the Biic)tr
i‑lein fur Laien forms the basis for the text of the catechisms, so do Luther's catechetical sermons of 1528 for their interpretation in his more comprehensive work, called the larger catechism; for the larger catechism is nothing but an interpretation of the smaller ones on the basis of sermons which he preached in 1528 at Brunswick in the absence of Bugenhagen, and was necessitated chiefly by the ignorance of preachers revealed to him at the visitations of 1528 and 1529.
While Luther was working in 1529 on his larger catechism, the idea of issuing a smaller catechism, as an epitome of the larger, occurred to him, and he published it before the latter in two series in the form of tables, according to a wide‑‑spread custom of the time. The fnbuke have not been preserved, but their contents are pretty well known. The first table was in circulation as early as Jan. 20, 1529, and was a real children's catechism, including the Ten Commandments, the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and some other prayers. The second table, which appeared in the middle of March, treated of the sacraments of baptism and of the Lord's Supper, and was intended chiefly for adults. This distinction between the catechism proper. and the doctrine of the sacraments was clearly expressed by Luther in his catechetical sermons of 1528, then in the larger catechism, and again in 1530. Only by degrees did it disappear and the sacraments come to be considered an inseparable part of the catechism. The tabuke were first put into book form in a Low German translation. (Hamburg, 1529). The larger catechism appeared in the same month of Apr., 1529, and retained in the main its original form in the numer‑
ous later editions, of which a second followed in the same year and a third in 1530. Like the tabula, the larger catechism was translated into Low German (1b29) and in the same year twice into Latin. By May 18, 1529, Luther's own smaller catechism was published in book form, and soon went into a second edition. No copies of the original Wittenberg printings of either edition are extant, but there are three reprints, evidently independent, two made at Erfurt and one at Marburg. According to these the title of the first editions in book form was Der kleine Catechiamua far die gemeine Pfarherr and Prediger. Mart. Luther. Besides the material of the tabula they contained a preface, morning and evening prayers, and devotional exercises for the family, and a marriage service. The third edition was out by June 13, 1529, under the title Enchiridion. Dar kleine Catechiamus far die gemeine Pfarherr and Prediger, gemehret and gebeaaert. Of the editions which appeared prior to Luther's death, those of 1531, 1535, 1536, 1537, 1539, and 1542 are known. Two Latin translations (with some alterations) appeared in 1529, both at Wittenberg. One of these, Simplicissima et breviesima catechismi expoaitio, appeared as an appendix to the Enchiridion piarram Precationum, the Latin translation of the Betbilchlei7d. Its author is not known. The other translation, Parvus Catechismua pro pueris in schola, was made by J. Sauermann and was incorporated into the " Book of Concord." A third Latin translation originated with Justus Jonag and is contained in his Latin translation of the Nuremberg KirederPredigten of 1539. A Greek translation by Johann Mylius was printed at Basel in 1558 at the instigation of Michael Neander, who republished it in 1564 together with Sauermann's translation. In 1572 J. Clajua composed his German‑Latin‑Greek‑Hebrew polyglot. For the translations into modern languages and the position of Luther's smaller catechism in the history of catechisms, see CATECHIaMa.
The excellent points of the smaller catechism have been stated as follows: (1) The smaller catechism does not attempt to give a complete system of doctrine‑it is not a manual of dogmatics for children; (2) it avoids carefully the scholastic language of the theologians; (3) it avoids all polemics; (4) it does away with the traditional division of the Apostles' Creed into twelve articles, and makes it an exposition of the God of revelation as showing himself in his works and blessing the Christian life. It was soon forgotten that the larger catechism was the authoritative exposition of the smaller. In 1750 Johann Georg Watch pointed out in the introduction to his edition of the symbolical books that the catxchism must be explained by Luther himself. This principle has been observed in the modern works of A. Nebe,
Dar kleine KateeTtismus attsgelegt dua Lathers Wer
tingen, 1889); idem., Die katechetiache Behandlung
des kleinerc Katechiamua Lathers in Unterredungen
(Berlin, 1899). (FEFtnnvexn Cpggg.)
Bmrloaal,PBy: Besides the lives of Luther by g8etlin,
Kolde, anal others, consult: J. C. W. AugaeEi, yerauch
Lather's Two Cateehiruonr Lutz, Samuel
einer Ifaatoriaeh‑kritiachen Eitaieitunp in die beyden Hauph KaEeehiemen der soangeliachen H£rcha, Elberfeld, 1824; (3. VeesenmeYer. Nachvon einigen eaangeliachen mtec>btischan SchriJten, Ulm. 1830; K. F. T. Schneider, D. Martin Lathers kleiner Kateehiamus, Berlin, 1853; T. Harnack, Dar kleine Katechiamus . . Lathers in seiner Urpsatalt, Stuttgart, 1856; C. M6nekeberg Die crate Auspabe roan Lathers kleinem Raterhismue, Hamburg, 1888; E. CBpfert. Whrterbuch sum kleisus Ratechismns . . . Lathers, Leipsie, 1889; A. Ebeling, Guthara kleinsr ICatechismus, Hanover, 1890; F. Fricke, Lathers k7aisur Ratoclsiemue in seiner Eiraoirkung auJ die kaEeuSetiache Literatur des Reformationajahrhundarts, Gottingen, 1898; F. Cohre, Die euanpeliaehen Xateehiemua‑yarauche roar Lathers EnrJsiridion, Berlin, 1900; H. E. Jacobs, Martin Luther, pp. 274 eqq., New York, 1898; Luther's Small Catechism Developed and Explained, . . . Published 6g the General Synod . . . , Philadelphia (curt). LUTZ, lute, JOIiARN. LUDWIG SAMUEL: Swiss theologian; b. at Bern Oct. 2, 1785; d. there Sept. 21, 1844. He was educated at Bern, Tiibingen, and GSttingen, and in 1812 was appointed professor at the gymnasium and rector of the Litterarachule of his native city. The lack of harmony between his views and those of the citizens of Bern, as well as his share in certain movements for social and political reform which rendered the municipal authorities auspicious of him, led him to leave the school for the pulpit in 1824. He served as pastor first in Wynau and later in Bern, where in 1833 he was appointed professor of Old‑and New‑Testament exegesis. In addition to his academic duties, he was for many years a member of the department of education and of the Evangelical Church committee, and also dean of the theological faculty and the chapter of Bern, and president of the synod and of the Protestant charitable association. In his lifetime he published little except a few occasional and academic addresses, but after his death his pupil, R. Riietachi, edited a volume of his lectures under the title Btblische DogmtttiTc (Pforzheim, 1847) and A. Lutz published a second entitled Bxblisehe Hermeneutik (1849). (E. GtYn>;;Rt.)
B133LIOGRAPHY: F. Lute, Der Gotteepe7ehrk J. L. S. Lute, Bern, 1883 (by his son); the (ieddchtnisrede was bY Bag. geeen, ib. 1844; C. B. Hundeehegen, .•. Professor Dufs in Barn; sin theolopischee Charakterbild,ib. 1844: Burner Taechen6ueh, 1866, pp. 229‑240; E. Mifl
LUTZ (LUCIUS), SAMUEL: Swiss Pietist; b. at Bern Aug. 10, 1674; d. at Diesabach (neat Thun, 16 m. s.s.e. of Bern) May 28, 1750. He received a thorough classical training from his father, who was pastor at Biglen, but a strong tendency toward mysticism developed early in his life and led him to abandon his original studies. He studied at the University of Bern,. where he came under the influence of the strongly orthodox Rudolf Rudolf, although his personal religious trend was little in accord with the scholastic theology, of his time. Scarcely had the Swiss theologians attempted to reaffirm the orthodoxy of Dart a9 gOntfggted with its modifications by the Saumur school, before a system of Pietism closely allied with that of Germany, though marked by Anabaptist and other eeparatiatic tendencies, began to develop in Switzerland, especially in Bern. After a brief hesitation the government of Bern, which was not inclined to toleration, assumed a position of extreme
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
hostility toward the movement, and brought legal penalties to bear upon the Pietiata. Among ‑the adherents of Pietism Lutz was especially mentioned. He was a cloy friend of Samuel g8nig, who had been banished for his views four years previously, and it was but natural that he should be placed under surveillance and receive his ordination comparatively late. It was not until 1703 that he was appointed to the obscure pastorate of Yverdun, where he labored twenty‑three years, winning the affection and esteem of both the French and German inhabitants of the place. His Pietism nullified the official call to BSthen, Pfalz‑Zweibriicken, BVdingen, and Zerbet, and he likewise declined a professorship at Lausanne. In 1728, however, he 'I accepted a call to the pastorate of Ameoldingen I and twelve years later went in a similar capacity to ', Dieaebach, where he spent the remainder of his life.
Although not altogether free from a certain selfcomplacency, Lutz strove with patience, energy, and skill against the formalism prevailing in theological and religious life. His attitude at Yverdun at first excited considerable opposition in the canton of Vaud, especially on account of his admonitions to repentance and conversion, but the government paid scant attention to the complaints lodged against him and even tacitly ignored his reluctance to take the oath rigidly exacted from other pastors. On the other hand, Lutz himself grew more moderate in course of tune, nor was he a reformer of the visible Church, being devoted only to the epiritualitiee of the kingdom of God. In his desire to proclaim his doctrines as widely as possible, he preached in no less than 108 pulpits both in Switzerland and abroad, until it became necessary to direct him to restrict his activity to his own congregation. He attributed special importance to catechetical instruction, and had a daily hour for prayer in his church. He was likewise closely associated with circles of like sympathies in Zurich, Basel, Schaffhausen, St. Gall, and Grieone, in addition to conducting a correspondence with such men as Zinzendorf, DenhBfen, and Heinrich Ernst of Stollberg‑Wernigerode, who brought him into contact with Christian VI.
Lute also exercised a powerful influence by his
writings, which began to appear in quick succession
after 1721. Of these thirty‑Six are enumerated
without exhausting the lief. The most important
were republished in two collections, Wohlriedt
t:ttder Stresses von aeh3nen und gesundert Himmela
iilumtn (2 vole., Basel, 1738‑37) and Ein raelter
Stresses (1758). All his works are ascetic in tend
ency, partly treatises on the spiritual life, partly
detailed considerations of individual truths, and
partly sermons of almost interminable length. His
basal postulate was that each visible object bears
the stamp of a heavenly and spiritual essence, so
that ail things earthly must be interpreted by the
celestial. According to s credible tradition, the
Lutheranizing and mildly antinomistic sect of Heim
betg Brethren, who are now centered around Sasses
and Adelboden, were first inspired by the teachings
of Lute. (E. Gftzatt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. $. Hrgenbrbh, History of We Church in 6w 184 arid 18171 Cenlwier, Lecture 8, 2 vole., New York,
1889; E. Blaeeob, (iexlW 3vte der tehwsiaitd‑rsformiwten
%irchen, ii. 47 eqq.. Bern. 1899: W. Hadorn. (3tacdiehtt
do Pieknnw in den etAwtisitc7rrtfortAierfen Kirdua, pp.