Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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of 1880. recognize church government as an

organic part of the Church. The Gen­eral Synod of 1860 did not fully decide the question, but referred it to a committee for further investi­gation. Diedrich, the schismatic Old‑Lutheran pastor at Jabel, with his congregatibn soon re­nounced the supervision of the ecclesiastical board. A conference in Berlin in Oct., 1861, tried in vain to remove the difficulties in the doctrine of church government. A number of preachers aided with Diedrich and accused the ecclesiastical board of false doctrine. The rupture became irremediable when, on July 21, 1864, these preachers under the leadership of Diedrich organized a special body, the Immanuel Synod (see below). In a " Public declaration concerning the disputed doctrines of the Church, the church government and the church orders," issued in 1864, the ecclesiastical board stated that the external institutional aide of the Church could not be separated from its essence and conception, although the church government with regard to its special formation is baged upon human right. In recent times the Lutheran Church, subject to the ecclesiastical board in Breslau, has recovered from the shock of the schism caused by the separation of the Immanuel Synod. In 1883 there was established a theological seminary. The Church possesses also its own institution for dea­conesaea, a pension fund for old pastors, for the widows of pastors, and 140 churches. It numbers about 51,600 members in sixty‑four parishes with seventy‑five ministers. The Evangelical Lutheran Immanuel Synod was formed in 1864 at Magdo­burg, by Ehlers, Diedrich, and other preachers in consequence of the disputes on church government that had arisen within the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Prussia. Its leading idea is that the pastors as the sole incumbents of the spiritual office are bound to care for the church orders, and that the laity can freely take part in synods, with no restriction in number; the synod has properly no power of discipline over the ministers. The gen­eral concession of the State did not apply to the congregations of the Immanuel Synod, because they no longer were under the board of dissenting Lutherans recognized by the special concession of 1847. Consequently they had no corporate rights, and the official seta of their pastors had no valid­ity before the State, but the civil law of 1874 re­moved the latter disability. The synod numbers about 5,300 persons, with thirteen ministers.

2. Elsewhere: The Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Hessian lands originated in the opposition of the strictly Lutheran clergy to the new united church constitution introduced into the grand duchy of Hesse‑Darmstadt Jan: 6,

1874. It is true, the Union had been 1. Churches practically introduced into several

in Hesse. parts of the country since 1822, but

the pastors of a stricter confessional tendency had united since 1851 for the defense of their old rights. A synodical institution pub‑


fished in 1870 tried to unite all congregations with­out regard to confession. Seven protesting Lu­theran ministers were deposed from office (June 25, 1875). Consequently they separated from the State Church and formed five congregations. In 1877 they formed a synod. In 1878 their number was augmented by confederation with a part of the dissenters in Lower Hesse, the so‑called "Hom­berg Konvent." In 1880 both church bodies united with the Lutheran Free Church in Hanover, and by a complete union of the congregations of Hease­Darmatadt with those of the Homberg Konvent into one church body there came into being the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Hessian lands which comprises now about 1,800 members with ten parishes and ten ministers. An ordinance for the organization of a common con­sietory for the Lutheran, Reformed, and Union Churches in the district of Cassel on June 13, 1868, called forth the protest of many clergymen. When it was actually established in 1873, forty‑two Reformed preachers of Lower Hesse under the leadership of Vihnar and Hoffmann as well as one Lutheran preacher is Upper Hesse refused to be sub­ject to the new consistory, and adhered to the old Hessian church order. The consistory applied the severest measures, fines, suspension, and deposition, against the dissenting pastors. A few only being supported by their congregations, they were forced to emigrate. Those remaining in Hesse were for­bidden to officiate until a decree of the higher tribunal in 1876 declared the deposed preachers laymen as regards the State, and thus protected their official acts against the decrees of punish­ment of the penal code. The Nonconformist Church of Lower Hesse comprises now about 2,400 members.

The Evangelical Lutheran Free Church in Han­over had its origin in the ecclesiastical struggles due to the annexation of the kingdom of Hanover and the danger of the Prussian Union. 2. Churches In spite of the promise of King Will­ies Hanover ram to maintain the existing order, the and Baden. Union made great progress. Open hostilities broke out on the occasion of the change in the wording of the marriage con­tract in connection with the introduction of the civil status law. in 1876. A number of clergymen under the leadership of Harms in Hermannsburg refused to use the new wording, seeing in it a de­nial of what he conceived to be the Christian nature of marriage. In 1878 they separated from the State Church and founded the Evangelical Lutheran Free Church in Hanover. It is governed on the basis of the Luneburg church order by a board composed of clergy and laity. There are at present eight parishes with about 3,050 members and ten ministers. The Hermannsburg Free Church originated from a split in the Evangelical Lutheran Free Church in Han­over. It numbers about 2,800 members and two ministers. In the grand duchy of Baden the con­fessional union of the Lutheran and Reformed Churches was executed in 1821 without opposition. Only the awakening faith in Germany and the Lutheran movement instigated by LShe in Bavaria created in Baden also a desire for a clear and un‑


ambiguous confession of the Lutheran Church. Karl

Eichhorn, a preacher in Nuesloch, started a Luther­

an movement which led to the formation of small

Lutheran congregations which soon petitioned for

recognition, but were flatly refused. Eichhorn was

repeatedly thrown into prison and finally banished

into a remote place, but the Lutheran movement

increased from year to year, and at last, in 1856,

toleration was granted to its adherents. The con­

gregations in Baden number about 1,330 members.

The Evangelical Lutheran Free Church in Sax

ony and other states has an entirely different char­

acter from that of the other Lutheran free church

in Germany. While the others were called forth

more or leas by the opposition against

8.Ohnrchesthe Union, this Fry Church was

is Saxony. formed in the midst of Lutheran ter­

ritories, partly even of such as had

separated already from the State Church on so­

count of the Union. It stands in connection with

the Missouri Synod in America (see below, IL, 5,

§ 1), and declares all other Lutheran state and free

churches unfaithful to the confession. The occa­

sion for the formation of the Free Church in Sax­

ony was the change into a mere vow of the oath

of religion binding upon Lutherans. Many pro­

tested against this change, seeing in It a concession

to infidelity. On the recommendation of Walther,

I~ the leading spirit of the Missouri Synod, an asso­

ciation of strict Lutherans called Ruland from

America to Saxony, who in the most violent man­

ner criticized the defects of the Saxon State Church

and made separation from it as well as from all

other State Churches a duty of conscience. On

Nov. 6, 1876, all dissenting congregations in Saa­

ony united to form the Evangelical Lutheran Free­

Church in Saxony and other states. The addition

" and other states " shows that this Fry Church

intends to gather around its banner the strict Lu­

therans from all Lutheran churches in Germany.

At the end of 1901 it numbered about 2,230 mem­

bers and seven pastors in Saxony, and 1,350 mem­

bers with eight pastors outside of Saxony. Be­

sides these free churches in Germany there are also

congregations that arose frequently only from local

conflicts with the State Church. The common aim

of all free churches to found the church on Holy

Scripture and the Lutheran confession alone can

easily be justified; for this was the aim of the

Reformation and is in harmony with the early

Christian Church. The form of royal supremacy

over the Protestant Church seems to be irrecon­

cilable with the modern State, but it is also feared

that the Lutheran ChtirCh; UIlIPg It Were a State

Church, might lose its hold upon the people, but

the development of the Lutheran Church in

North America shows that this is not necessarily

the case. (G. FaoeOes.)

III. Lutherans in America:‑1. Early Settle­ments ; According to the testimony of the Jesuit Isaac Jogues in the year 1643 Lutherans were living in Manhattan (New Amsterdam‑New York) along with Calvinists, Puritans and Ans­baptista. The recognized religion of the colony of New Netherlands was the strict Calvinism of the Synod of Dort, and the Lutherans were treated


harshly, 'especially by Peter Stuyveeant, the general director. Their children had to be brought to Calvin‑

ietic preachers for baptism, and they 1. Dutch were forced to accept the doctrines of Lutherans. the Synod of Dort. The Lutherans were

fined and imprisoned even for . hold­ing informal services for the reading of the Word of God. They applied to the directors of the Dutch West India Company in Holland for better treat­ment and to the Lutheran oonaiatory in Amster­dam for a faithful Lutheran pastor. The Rev. John Ernest Goetwater arrived on June 8, 1857, in America., but through the influence of the Calvin­istic preachers Megalopolenais and Drisius was forbidden to exercise his ministry and forced to re­turn to Europe. When New Amsterdam was cap­tured by the British in 1664 the Lutherans secured freedom in matters of worship and discipline. In the year 1889 Jacob Fabriciua had been sent over from Holland, but his ministry in New York was a disappointment. He was succeeded by Bernhard Anton Arensius (1671‑91) who also served the Lu­therans at Albany. As no additional preachers could be obtained from Amsterdam, the New York Lutherans (1701) applied to the Lutheran Swedes on the Delaware, who sent Andreas Rudman (July, 1702). He recommended as his successor Justus Falekner (born 1872 in Saxony) who was ordained for the Lutheran ministry by Rudman, Bjoerk, and Sandal in the Swedish Church at Philadelphia in Nov., 1703‑‑a German, ordained by Swedes to serve a Dutch congregation in Americal His par­ish included the territory from New York to Al­bany on both aides of the Hudson and on Long Island. After his death, 1723, the Lutheran Con­nietory of Amsterdam at the request of the New York congregation sent as his successor in 1725 Wilhelm Chriatoph Berkenmeyee (born 1688 in Liineburg, died 1751) a man of great energy and the strictest adherence to the Lutheran Confessions. Under, his pastorate and that of his successor Michael Knoll the transition was made in the Lutheran congregations in New York from the Dutch to the German and English languages.

Through William Usselina of Antwerp the Swe­dish King Gustavus Adolphus had been sufficiently interested in the New World to grant a charter to the " South Company " in Stockholm (June 14, 1628) which, in addition to its work of colonization,

was, from the very beginning, to un­

Jd. 8wed1 h dertake the propagation of the Gospel

Lutherans. on this Western Continent. After the

death of the king his great chancellor Osenatierna continued to work for the realization of the plan. Peter Minuit, general director of New Netherlands, joined in the Swedish enterprise and sailed two Swedish vessels into the Delaware river (1838) where Fort Christina was built and an extensive territory was purchased from the Iroquois Indiana. Reorua Torkillua was the first Lutheran pastor in New Sweden (died 1643). He was euo­needed by John Campanius, who had arrived with Governor Johan Priatz. He consecrated the first Lutheran church in the new world, on the island of Tinicum, near Philadelphia. He also translated Luther's Smaller Catechism into the language of

the Indiana. He returned to Sweden in May, 1848, where he died in 1883. When the Dutch took pos­session of New Swedes, the adherents of the Auga­burg Confession obtained the guaranty of their re­ligious liberties (1655). This was also secured to them when the British occupied New Sweden (1674). During the last quarter ~of the seventeenth century the Swedish Lutherans on the Delaware were much neglected, until King Charles IX. sent them such pastors as Rudman, Erik Bjoerk, and Jonas Auren. These were followed by other godly men, such as Karl Magnus Wrangel, whose name occurs again in the history of the German Lutherans, and Israel Acrelius, author of the History of New Suxdxn. (English by Dr. W. M. Reynolds, Phila­delphia, 1874). All these pastors sent over from Sweden were salaried by the king and, as a rule, returned to their native church after a few years of American service. The last among them, Nils Collie, arrived in America in 1771. Under him the union with the Swedish mother church was form­ally dissolved. He took Episcopal ministers for his assistants and thus opened the way for the use by these Swedish Lutheran Churches of the Eng­lish language and their transition into the com­munion of the Protestant Episcopal Church. He died in 1831.

William Penn had visited Germany in 1671 and 1677 with a view to obtaining rattlers for his young American colony, Pennsylvania. It was not the interest of trade and commerce, as in the case of the Dutch, nor the colonial policy of far‑seeing statesmen, as in the case of the Swedes, that brought the German immigration to America,

8. German but foremost the desire of unlimited Lutherans. freedom of worship, and the insecur­ity of life and property under the con­stant raids of their French neighbors from which particularly the Palatinate had to suffer. The first German colony, under the leadership of Frank Paatorius, arrived in 1883 and founded German­town, now a part of Philadelphia. These first im­migrants, however, consisted mostly of eeparatiatic elements. There was one isolated German Luther­an congregation in New Hanover, some thirty‑five miles from Philadelphia, whose origin can be traced as far back as 1703. With the beginning of the eighteenth century the German immigration as­sumed larger dimensions. Lutherans and Reformed crossed the ocean in considerable numbers, and there are now more regularity and vitality in the newly established Lutheran congregations. A number of Lutheran immigrants under Pastor Joshua Kocher­thal (d. 1719) from Landau (Palatinate) arrived in 1709 in New York and settled on the Hudson above West Point. There they founded the town of New­burg, for which they had received a grant of 2,200 acres of land, 500 of which were to be devoted to church purposes. During the summer of 1709 Kocherthal returned to England to obtain addi­tional favors. and privileges for his colonists. Of the thousands of German emigrants from the Palat­inate, Alsace, and W iirttemberg, that had been kept by the British government on "Black Heath," about 3,000 were brought to America in 1710, where they settled on both shores of the Hudson river at the


foot of the Catskill Mountains. In 1712 hundreds of them wandered northward to the Schoharie, where they were kindly received by the Indiana. Eleven years afterward a considerable number of these colonists turned southward along the Susquehanna river to found new homes in Pennsylvania. Kocher­thal'n successors in the service of the German con­gregations in the State of New York were Justus Falckner, Wilhelm Chrietoph Berkenmeyer, and Michael Knoll, who at the same time ministered to the Dutch Lutherans. Isolated groups of German Lutherans with modest beginnings of congregational organization are found in the eighteenth century along the whole Atlantic coast as far as Georgia, in New Jersey, Virginia, North and South Carolina. Moat prominent among them was the colony of Lutheran Salzburgera in Georgia, near Savannah. A number of the Salzburg Lutherans who were ex­pelled by Archbishop Firmian, in 1731, had been recommended to the English court and were offered moat favorable terms by the British government. They embarked at Rotterdam in the fall of 1733, with two pastors, John Martin Boltzius and Israel Christian Gronau. Governor Oglethorpe gave them a hearty welcome and they established the colony of Ebenezer, about twenty‑five miles inland from Savannah. Wesley and Whitefield took a kindly interest in those immigrants and gave them material support. In eastern Pennsylvania up to the mid­dle of the eighteenth century some 30,000 German Lutherans had settled, for whose spiritual wants there was, at first, no adequate provision. Much disorder and offense was caused by unworthy sub­jects who assumed the office of the ministry with­out proper call and qualification. In order to secure faithful ministers three congregations, New Hanover, New Providence (Trappe), and Philadelphia united in an application to Friedrich Michael Ziegenhagen, court preacher at St. James' Chapel, London, and Gotthilf August Franeke in Halls. Negotiations were carried on in an extended correspondence, from 1734 to 1739. In the year 1741 Count Ludwig Zin­zendorf arrived and, under the name of Herr von Thuernatein, offered his services to the Lutherans in Pennsylvania as " Evangelical‑Lutheran inspector and pastor." He secured a call from a number of German Lutherans in Philadelphia, to whom he preached his famous " Pennsylvania discourses." John Christopher Pyrhieus, whom he had appointed as a substitute in his place, was violently expelled by the Lutherans in 1742. In the fall of the same year there appeared Valentin Kraft, formerly pas­tors in Zweibruecken, Palatinate, a man of question­able character, whore activity among the German Lutherans helped to increase the general confusion.

B.Orgsniastion reader Xuhlenberg: Henry Melchior MUhlenberg (q.v.) was encouraged by Dr. Franeke in Halls to accept the call to Pennsylvania, Sept. 6,1741. In April, 1742, he arrived in London where the formal vocation from the three Pennsyl­vania congregations was handed to him by Fred­erick Michael Ziegenhagen. Living London on June il he arrived in Charleston, S. C., Sept. 23, 1742, as he had been commissioned to visit the Salz­burg colonies in Georgia. He reached Philadelphia Nov. 25, and at once proceeded to New Hanover

and New Providence. In Philadelphia he preached his first sermon Dec. 5, and three weeks afterward

was formally recognized as the right­s. Pre‑ ful Pastor of the Lutheran congrega‑

liminary tics. Heat once curbed the preten­Labors. aloes of Valentin Kraft and also

succeeded in maintaining in a dignified manner his position against Count Zinzendorf, who attempted to call him to account in the presence of the officers of the Lutheran Church of Philadel­phia. The magistrate of the city ordered Zinzen­dorf to give up the records and communion vessels of the Lutherans, and the count left the city and the country Jan. 1, 1743. Now Miihlenberg's work of church‑organization began under many difficul­ties. The three congregations from whom he had a direct call were thirty‑five miles apart, and to nerve them regularly with the means of grace in­volved many hardships and dangers. An soon as the influence of his work of organization became known, his services in removing difficulties and re­storing order were asked by other congregations, each as Tulpehocken, Germantown, Lancaster, and York. In the spring of 1743 the cornerstone of St. Michael's Church in Philadelphia, and that of the Augustus Church (Trappe) were laid. The latter church is still standing and clone to its walls Miih­lenberg is buried. Until the time of the revolu­tionary war the directors of the Franeke institu­tions at Halls, together with Dr. Ziegenhagen in London, had full control of the congregations or­ganized by Miihlenberg and his colaborera who were tent after him from Halls. Regular reports were rent over to Halls and were published under the title " Halls Reports of the United German Evan­gelical Lutheran Congregations in North America, particularly Pennsylvania " (1744‑87, new ed., with valuable historical annotations and additions, ed. Drs. W. J. Mann, B. M. Schmucker, and W. Germane, Allentown, Pa., 1888). The most im­portant step taken by Miihlenberg for the perma­nent organization of the Lutheran Church on this continent was the founding of the Synod of Penn­sylvania, Aug. 28, 1748. There were present on this occasion the Swedish Provost Sandin and Pas­tors Hartwig of New York, Miihlenberg, Brunn­holtz, Handschuh, and Kurz, who was ordained at this first meeting.

The character of this first synodical organization was, .however, in the beginning rather loose and in­formal. No regular constitution was adopted, not even a formal election of a presiding officer. As a

matter of course the position of leadet­8. Charac‑ ship was accorded to Miihlenberg. ter of the The Collegium pastorum received the

Criranisa‑ reports and requests of the lay delegates tics. and acted on them. The latter had

no vote, which was accorded to them only in the year 1792. The relation between the ministers and the lay element was one of patriarchal or apostolic simplicity. The unselfish devotion and faithfulness, the pastoral wisdom and experience of the leading men above all, of Milhlenberg him­self, secured the full confidence of the congrega­tions, without any fear of hierarchical presumptions or aggressions on the part of the ministers. The

doctrinal and confessional position of those fathers was unequivocally that of the historical standards of the Lutheran Church. The liturgy, adopted at the first meeting of the synod, which was made ob­ligatory for all pastors and congregations, was based on the Saxon and North German orders with which Muhlenberg had been familiar in Germany, each as those of Luneburg 1564, Calenberg 1569, Saxony 1712, and Brandenburg‑Magdeburg 1739. From 1748 to 1786 this first Pennsylvania agenda existed only in manuscript form. From 1754 to 1760 no regu­lar meetings were held and the young synod seemed to be threatened with extinction. But in 1760, particularly through the influence of the Swedish Provost Karl Magnus Wrangel, the intimate friend of Miihlenberg, the body was revived and from that time on there is no break in its regular meetings. The constitution of the Evangelical Lutheran Miniaterium of North America gradually took shape and was entered in the minute book in the year 1781. In those years Miihlenberg also pre­pared the first constitution for the mother congre­gation in Philadelphia (St. Michael's) which was formally adopted in 1762 and became the model for most of the Lutheran congregations in the East, giving the administration of congregational affairs into the hands of the church council, con­sisting of pastors, elders, and deacons. In 1766 Miihlenberg encouraged the Philadelphia congre­gation to undertake the erection of a new church, Zion's, which was completed in 1769, and, with its 2,500 sittings, was considered the largest and moat beautiful sanctuary in North America. In this building Congress held its memorial service for George Washington. Before the death of Miih­lenberg the second Lutheran Synod in America, the Ministerium of New York, was founded by his son, Frederick August Conrad Miihlenberg, pastor of the German Lutheran Christ Church in New York City (1773). Miihlenberg'a son‑in‑law, the scholarly John Christopher Kunze (q.v.), took a leading position in this body, over which he pre­sided from 1785 till his death in 1807.
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