Hanover, 1888‑89; P. Bayne, 2 vole., London, 1887;
C. Mifller, Munich, 1892; G. Freitag, Leipsic, 1901;
M. Rsde, 3 vole., Ttibingen, 1901; G. Buchwald, Leipsic,
1902; T. M. Lindsay, Luther and the German Reforma
tion, New York, 1903; A. Hausrath, 2 vole., Berlin, 1905;
J. Dose, Diieaeldorf, 1908; J. L. Nuelson, Cincinnati,
1908; and P. Bess, Urtaere relip£daeu Erzieher, vol. ii.,
On various phases of Luther's activity consult: W. Baste, Dr. Martin Lathers Glauberealelare, Halls, 1845; E. Jones, Die Kanzelberedeamkeit Lathers, Berlin, 1852; C. H. Weisee, Die Chriatolopie Lathers, Leipsic, 1852; T. $srnaek, Lathers Theolopie, 2 vole., Erlangen, 18821888; C. E. Luthardt, Die Ethik Lathers, Leipsic, 1875; H, C. MBnekeberg, Lathers Lehre van der Kirche, Hamburg, 1878; H. Haring, Din Myatik Lathers. Leipsic, 1879; 8. Lommatzeeh, Lathers Lehre, Berlin, 1879; Danneil, Lathers GeiaUiche Lieder, Frankfort, 1883; F. W. F. Kattenbuaeh, Lathers Stallunp zu don 6kumeniacheu Splrabolen, Giessen, 1883; T. Kolde, Luther auf dam Reichstag ru
I. State Churches in Europe.
Name and History (§ 1).
Creed and Theology (¢ 2).
Relation to the Reformed Church (¢ 3).
Ritual and Worship (¢ 4).
Government (¢ 5).
II. Separate Lutherans. 1. in Prussia.
Scheibel at Breslau (11).
Movement Elsewhere Before 1840 (¢ 2).
Accession of Frederick William TV. (¢ 3).
Schism of 1880 (¢ 4). 2. Elsewhere. .
Churches in Ream (§ 1). Churches in Hanover and Baden (¢ 2)• Churches in Saxony (f 3). III. Lutherans in America.
1. Early Settlements. Dutch Lutherans (¢ 1). Swedish Lutherans (¢ 2). German Lutherans (¢ 3).
2. Organization Under MOhlenberg. Preliminary Labors (¢ 1). Character of the Organisation (¢ 2).
3. Period of Deterioration, 1787‑1820. Effects of Rationalism (¢ 1). Change in Language (¢ 2).
promulgation of Luther's ninety‑five theses in 1517
to the publication of the " Book of Concord " in
1580. (2) The period of polemical orthodoxy, in
which the doctrinal system of the church was
Worms, Halls, 1883; A. W. Dieckhoff, Lathers Lehre in ihrar ereteu Gestalt. Rostock, 1887; G. 8chleuener, Luther ale Dic>tter, Wittenberg, 1892; E. 'Wagner, Luther ale Pddopep, Langensalza, 1892; E. $chkfer, Luther ale Kirchenhiatorsker, GOtetsloh, 1897; P. Frotacher, Luther and die Bauern, Leipsic, 1899; J. KSStlin, Lathers Theolopde, 2 vole., Stuttgart, 1901. For his share in Philip of Hesse's bigamous marriage, see W. W. Rockwell, Die Doppelehc den landprafen Philipp von Hessen, Marburg, 1903, end literature under Patttr OF HESSE. In English the best book on Luther's hymns is The Hymns of Martin Luther set to their Original Melodies, with an English Version, ed. L. W. Bacon and N. H. Allen, New York, 1883 (contains Luther's four prefaces to his hymn‑books and versions of all the hymns; of. Julian, Hymnology, pp. 703‑704 and references there to other pages where the hymns are annotated). On Luther as s translator of the Bible see BIBLE VERSIONS, B, VII., $ 3. For further discussions consult the works on the church history of the period, especially Schaff, Christian Church, vol. vi (where a good list of sources is given), end, in general, the literature under Rt.rotteceTION. A valuable review of recent Luther‑literature is in Theolopiache Rundechau, Oct. and Dec., 1908.
4. The General Synod. Organization and Purpose (¢ 1). Dissentient Movements (¢ 2).
5. Confessional Lutherans in the West. The Synod of Missouri (¢ 1).
The Buffalo Synod (¢ 2).
The Iowa Synod (¢ 3).
The Joint Synod of Ohio (¢ 4).
The Synodical Conference (¢ 5).
8. The Scandinavian Lutherans. The Swedes. Augustans, Synod ($ 1). The Norwegians (¢ 2). Other Scandinavians G 3).
7. The Lutherans in the South.
8. The General Council.
scholastically defined and analyzed in opposition to Romanism, Calvinism, and the milder and more liberal Melanchthonian type of Lutheranism (as represented by Calixtus), 1580‑1689. (3) The period of Pietism (Spener, d. 1705; and Franeke, d. 1727), or a revival of practical piety in conflict with dead orthodoxy, from 1689 (when Francke began his Collegia philobfblica in Halls) to the middle of the eighteenth century. The Pietistic movement is analogous to the Methodist revival in the Church of England, but kept within the limits of the Lutheran state churches and did not result in secession. (4) The period of rationalism, which gradually invaded the universities, pulpits, and highest judicatories, and effected a complete revolution in theology and church life to such an extent that the few Moravian communities were for some time almost the only places of refuge for genuine piety in Germany. (5) The period of revival of Evangelical theology and religion at the‑third centennial celebration of the Reformation, and the publication of Claus Harm's ninety‑five theses against the rationalistic apostasy (1817). In the same year Prussia took the lead in the union movement which brought the Lutheran and Reformed confessions under one system of government, but called forth the " Old Lutheran " reaction and secession (see UNION, ECCLESIASTICAL). Since then there has been a constant conflict between Evangelical and rationalistic tendencies in the Lutheran and the United Evangelical Churches of Germany.
Lutherans THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 80
The Lutheran Church acknowledges the three ecumenical creeds (the Apostles', the Nicene, and the Athanasian), which it holds in common with other orthodox churches, and, besides, six specific confessions which separate it from other churches.
These are: (1) The Augsburg Confess. Creed lion (see AO(iBBUR(3 CONFEBBION AND
and ITS Aroroox), drawn up by Melanch
Theology. thon and presented to the Augsburg
Diet in 1530, afterward altered by the author in the tenth article, on the Lord's Supper, 1540. This is the fundamental and most widely accepted confession of this church; some branches accept no other as binding. (2) The Apology of the Augsburg Confession, also by Melanchthon (1530). (3) and (4) Two catechisms of Luther (1529), a Larger and a Smaller (see CATECHISMS; LUTHER'S TWO CATECHISMS); the latter, for children and catechumens, is, next to Luther's German Version of the Bible (see BIBLE VER9ION9, B, VIL, § 3), his most useful and best‑known work. (5) The Schmalkald Articles (q.v.) by Luther (1529; strongly antipapal). (6) The Formula of Concord (q.v.), prepared by six Lutheran divines for the settlement of the Melanchthonian or synergistic controversy (see SYNERGISM), the CryptoCalvinistic controversy (see PHILIPPIBT$), and other doctrinal disputes which agitated the Lutheran Church after the death of Luther and Melanchthon. These nine symbolical books, including the three ecumenical creeds, were officially published by order of Elector Augustus of Saxony, in Latin and German, under the title Concordia (Leipsic and Dresden, 1580; best editions, outside the editio princeps, by J. G. Walch, Jena, 1750, and J. F. Miiller, 6th ed., 1886; best 'Eng. transl. by H. E. Jacobs, The Book of Concord, Philadelphia, 1893).
Two tendencies have always been in evidence in the Lutheran Church in its relation to the Reformed or Calvinistic Churches‑one rigid and exclusive, which is represented by the Formula. of Concord, the Lutheran scholastics of the seventeenth cen‑
tury, and the " New Lutheran " school 3. Relation in Germany; the other moderate and to the conciliatory, represented by the alReformed tered Augsburg Confession of 1540, by
the death of Luther, Calixtus, John Arndt, Spener, Francke, Mosheim, the Swabian Lutherans, and those moderate Lutheran divines who sympathize with the Union and regard the differences between the two confessions as unessential and insufficient to justify separation and exclusion from communion at the Lord's table. The Lutheran Church is, next to the Church of England, the most conservative of the Protestant denominations, and retains many usages and ceremonies of the Middle Ages which the more radical zeal of Zwingli, Calvin, and Knox threw overboard as unscriptural corruptions. The strict Lutheran creed differs from the Reformed or Calvinistic in four points (as detailed in the semi‑symbolical Saxon Visitation Articles of 1592), viz.: (1) Baptismal regeneration, and the ordinary necessity of baptism for salvation. (2) The real presence of Christ's
body and blood " in, with, and under " the bread and wine during the sacramental fruition, usually called by English writers Consubstantiation (q.v.), in distinction from the Roman Catholic Transubstantiation (q.v.); but the term is not used in the Lutheran symbols and is rejected by the Lutheran divines, as well as the term " Impanation " (q.v.). Body and blood are not mixed with nor locally included in, but sacramentally and mysteriously united with, the elements. (3) The Communicatio Iddoneatuyn (q.v.) in the doctrine of Christ's person, whereby the attributes of the divine nature are attributed to his human nature, so that Ubiquity (q.v.), or conditional omnipresence, is ascribed to the body of Christ, enabling it to be really and truly, though not locally and carnally, present wherever the communion is celebrated. (4) The universal vocation of all men to salvation, with the possibility of a total and final fall from grace; yet the Formula of Concord teaches at the same time (with Luther, De servo orbitrio) the total depravity and slavery of the human will, and an unconditional predestination of the elect to everlasting life. It is therefore a great mistake to identify the Lutheran system with the later Arminian theory. Melanchthon'a synergism may be said to have anticipated Arminianism, but it was condemned by the Formula of Concord.
The foundation of the ritual of the Lutheran Church was laid in Luther's work Von ordenung gottea dienat ynn der genuytte (Wittenberg, 1523), and his Latin and German missals (1523, 1528). It was his intention to retain all that was good in
the service of the Roman Catholic q. Ritual Church, while discarding all unevanand gelical doctrines and practises. Thus,
Worship. in his Latin and German litanies,
which were in use in 1529 at Wittenberg, he made certain corrections and additions. The Lutheran Church uses a liturgy. The first complete form, or Agenda, was that of the Duchy of Prussia, 1525 (see AGENDA for a history of Lutheran liturgy). There is no authoritative form for the whole Church. A movement was set on foot in 1817 by Frederick William III. of Prussia to introduce a uniform Agenda; but it created intense excitement and caused the Old‑Lutheran secession (see below, IL). The various states of Germany have their own forms, which differ, however, only in minor particulars. Luther introduped the use of the vernacular into the public services, restored preaching to its proper place, acid insisted upon the participation of the congregation in the services, declaring " common prayer exceedingly useful and healthful." He rejected auricular confession as practised and required in the Roman Catholic Church, but advocated private and voluntary confession. This practise has been mostly given up. The rite of exorcism, which the Reformed Churches abandoned, was retained and recommended by Luther and Melanchthon. Hesshusius, in 1583, was the first to propose its omission, and it has since fallen into disuse in the Lutheran Church. The popular use of hymns was introduced by Luther, who was himself an enthusiastic singer, and by his own hymns became the
81 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Lutherans
father of German hymnody (tee HYMNOLOGY, VI., §1; LUTHER, § 28). Congregational singing continues to form one of the principal features in the public services. The great festivals of the Church, such as Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, the Days of the Twelve Apostles, are observed with religious services, and the Reformation is commemorated on Oct. 31. Pictures are admitted into the churches.
The doctrinal development of the Lutheran Church was matured much earlier than its organization and polity. Luther was not an organizer. The necessity of organization, however, was deeply felt; and in 1529 a visitation of the churches of
Saxony was prosecuted, and auperinS. Govern‑ tendenta were appointed for the overment. sight of the congregations and schools.
The Order of Discipline of the Church in Saxony became the model for other books of discipline. The priesthood of all believers is a fundamental doctrine, and the parity of the clergy is recognized. In Sweden, when the whole country passed over to the Lutheran communion, the Roman Catholic bishops and archbishops retained their titles. The validity of the Swedish orders, from the standpoint of the Church of England, is s matter of dispute. The Danish Church likewise retsina the title " bishop," but no claim is made to apostolic succession. The first bishops under the new Danish regime were called superintendents (1538), and were consecrated by Bugenhagen. In Germany, church government is executed by conaistories (composed of ministers and laymen) and superintendents. These officers are appointed by the government, examine candidates for the ministry, appoint and remove pastors, fix salaries, and perform other duties. In Germany, as in Denmark and Sweden, the Lutheran Church is under the governmental patronage of the various states; the support of the congregations and the construction of church edifices are provided for out of the national revenues. The supreme consistory of Prussia since 1852 has been composed in part of Lutheran and in part of Reformed
members. PHILIP SCHAFFt.
[For further information regarding the Lutheran Church in Germany the reader is referred to the biographies .of the German Reformers, to the articles on the separate states of the German Empire (Anhalt, Baden, Bavaria, Brunswick, Alsace Lorraine, Hesse, Mecklenburg‑Schwerin, Mecklenburg‑Strelitz, Oldenburg, Prussia, Saxe‑Altenburg, Saxe‑Coburg‑Gotha, Saxe‑Meiningen, Saxe‑WeimarEisenach, Saxony, and WVrttemberg); see also DENMARK; GERMANY; NORWAY; and SWEDEN. SUCH articles &8 AQENDA; AUGSBURG CONFESSION AND/ITS APOLOGY; CHURCH GOVERNMENT; FORMULA OF CONCORD; PHILIPPIBTB; PROTESTANTISM; Bad UNION, ECCLESIASTICAL will be found abounding in information in regard to origins, development, doctrine, polity, and the like.)
1L Separate Lutherans.‑1. In prnasia : The Lutheran free churches in Germany do not recognize the position of the secular ruler as supreme head of the Church, and have organized independent congregations without the aid of the State. Originating primarily in hostility to the introdueVIL‑‑6
tion of the Union (q.v.) between the Lutheran and Reformed Churches, they do not, however, reject the State Church altogether.
The oldest and largest free church in Germany is the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Prussia, also known as Old Lutherans. It origina^
1. eoheibel ted from the opposition to the Union, at Breslan. which was introduced into Prussia is 181? and gradually carried through by 1830 (see L, § 1, above). Johann Gottfried Scheibel,.sesistant preacher at St. Elisabeth's in Breslau, was the leader of the opposition. He attacked the Union in his writings, from the pulpit, and at synods, and pleaded in vain to be permitted to explain to the king his scruples of conscience in a personal interview. Refusing to sign a statement of the Breslau clergy which recommended the amalgamation of the Lutherans and Reformed into one church, Scheibel was suspended from office for fourteen days. Several hundred members of Scheibel's congregation appeared before Scheibel, declaring that they would remain faithful to the Church of their fathers. The new congregation regarded itself se the continuation of the Lutheran Church hitherto legally soknowledged in'Prussi$, and asked the king to grant them a constitution. The authorities, however, saw in the new congregation only revolutionaries and dissenters, and their petitions long remained unanswered. Since Scheibel was strictly forbidden to officiate, the members of his congregation received the sacraments from Berger in Hermannsdorf, two miles from Breslau, who still used the old Lutheran agenda. When this too was forbidden, the heads of the families themselves baptized their children, and the Lord's Supper was distributed by lay elders, because of a total lack of Lutheran clergymen. In a ministerial order, dated June 13, 1831, Scheibel was required to use the new agenda, and the formation of a special Lutheran church was refused.
Meanwhile Baron von gottwitz had pleaded for the Lutherans before the king in Berlin. The king tried to remove their scruples against the agenda by the concession of the Lutheran formula of distribution, but he refused the formation of a dissenting church on the ground that with it the purity of the Lutheran Church within the Union was openly denied. In 1832, after being deposed from his offices in the church and the university, Scheibel left Breslau and settled in Dresden that he might advance the cause of the Lutheran Church by writing, unhindered by Prussian censorship. The former members of his congregation held meet, ings conducted by laymen, or turned to the few pastors in Silesia who had not yet adopted the new agenda.
In the neighborhood of ZUllichau, Juliusburg, and Strehlen the Separate Lutheran movement began, without special interference by the
tore 1840. dates, and thirty‑nine laymen united in a synod at Breslau and solemnly protested against the violation of the rights granted to the Lutheran Church in Prussia. A petition sent
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
by them to the authorities in Berlin was flatly refused, and the cabinet orders of Mar. 9 and 10, 1834, in which the State had prepared for the struggle, were now executed. The first was directed against " conventicles," and the second against the " unauthorized administration of spiritual official acts "; while the third referred to the obligation of all Evangelical parents to send their children to Evangelical schools. The church services of the Lutherans were suppressed, the official seta of their clergy were declared invalid, and no child was permitted to leave school before he had been confirmed by a clergyman of the Evangelical State Church. These and other oppressive measures only spread the movement. In 1835 another synod was formed at Breslau, but all clergymen participating in it were imprisoned. Some congregations even found themselves compelled to emigrate; a part of them went to Australia under the leadership of their pastors Navel and Fritzsche and formed the nucleus of the Lutheran Church of Australia; others followed Grabau to North America where they entered the Buffalo Synod (see below, IIL, 5, § 2). The king was deeply grieved at the outcome of his measures, yet he could not make up his mind to annul them and grant the Lutheran congregations their right of existence.
It was only after Frederick William IV. had ascended the throne in 1840 that conditions became more favorable for the Old Lutherans. One of the new ruler's first measures was to release the imprisoned Lutheran ministers, and at the request of the government, after some preliminary negotiations, the Lutherans presented a memorial on the
conditions under which the Evangel8, AO,,, ical Lutheran Church was to be so‑
sioa of knowledged as legal by the Prussian Frederick State. Before an answer had arrived,
William however, the first public Old‑Lutheran
General Synod met on Sept. 15, 1841. It established a comprehensive church order which is still in force in all essentials. The governmeht of all churches was entrusted to a board of clergy and laity. A General Synod, meeting every four years, was to form the supreme court of appeal, to which the ecclesiastical board was also responsible. In 1841 the first attempt was made at a synodical constitution of the Lutheran Church upon German soil, and thin organization found a certain measure of recognition by the State in the so‑called general concession of July 23, 1845. The dissenting congregations were freed from taxes payable to the State Church, and the official acts of their clergy were recognized by the State, but their places of worship were not recognized as churches. In a special concession of Aug. 7, 1847, the board in Breslau was also officially recognized, and twenty‑one congregations in the provinces of Silesia, Brandenburg, Pomerania, Prussia, Posen, and Saxony were granted corporate rights. At the meeting of the General Synod in 1860 the total number of 18,644 members in 1845 had increased to 55,017 in sixty‑two parochial districts, with sixty‑three ministers, thirty‑four Lutheran schools, and forty‑four teachers.